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Linux
Tux.svg
OS family Unix-like
Working state Current
Source model Free and open source software
Latest stable release Kernel
2.6.33.1
 (March 15, 2010; 3 day(s) ago (2010-03-15))[1] [+/−]
Latest unstable release Kernel
2.6.34-rc1
 (March 8, 2010; 10 day(s) ago (2010-03-08))[2] [+/−]
Supported platforms IA-32, MIPS, x86-64, SPARC, DEC Alpha, Itanium, PowerPC, ARM, m68k, PA-RISC, s390, SuperH, M32R and more
Kernel type Monolithic
Userland GNU and others
Default user interface Graphical (X Window System)
License Various including GNU General Public License, BSD License, Apache License, MIT License, and others[3]
Problems listening to this file? See media help.
.Linux (commonly pronounced /ˈlɪnəks/ LIN-əks in English,[4][5] also pronounced /ˈlɪnʊks/, LIN-ooks[6]) is a generic term referring to Unix-like computer operating systems based on the Linux kernel.^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Windows is referred to as the guest operating system.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linux operating system future is in cloud computing and devices .
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Their development is one of the most prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration; typically all the underlying source code can be used, freely modified, and redistributed, both commercially and non-commercially, by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License.^ You are free to recite the source code.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ You are free to read the source code.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ You are free to modify the source code.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware, ranging from embedded devices such as mobile phones, smartphones and wristwatches[7][8] to mainframes and supercomputers.^ Linux Certified sells normal laptops (that is, not the newer low end laptops such as the Asus EEE) with Linux pre-installed.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for Linux, you can buy a computer with it pre-installed, but usually not at major retailers.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Back in 2004 HP was planning to offer a business notebook computer, the Compaq nx5000, with SUSE Linux pre-installed.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9][10] .Linux is predominantly known for its use in servers; in 2007 Linux's overall share of the server market was estimated at 12.7%, while a 2008 estimate suggested that 60% of all web servers ran Linux.^ This server is a linux replacement for LA6CU's well-known MULTI.EXE server .
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ All of these machine run Linux 100% of the time and for every single one of these machines I had to pay for a Microsoft Windows license that was never used.

^ However, IBM feels that certain Linux hardware bundles (x86 servers and S/390 clusters) can help them steal market from Sun in particular.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.Most desktop computers run either Mac OS X or Microsoft Windows, with Linux having only 1–2% of the desktop market.^ Depending on the software used, the client computer may be running Linux or Windows or a Mac.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Windows or MAC you have both options, in Linux only option 1.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Firefox runs on Linux, Windows, Macs and more.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, desktop use of Linux has become increasingly popular in recent years, partly owing to the popular Ubuntu distribution[11] and the emergence of netbooks and smartbooks.^ So i prefer using Linux Ubuntu instead.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ If your a commonwealth bank customer and you use ubuntu or other linux OS you may find that the Netbank website is extremely slow to login to.

^ If/when a Linux distribution gets a foothold with a number of large OEMs it will have a chance to grow a market that becomes dependent on it’s software stack and that’s when the magic will happen.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

[12][13]
.Typically Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use.^ This server is a linux replacement for LA6CU's well-known MULTI.EXE server .
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ I took a Linux class where the server the students used was a 100 MHz Pentium.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This minority is still larger than the number of people using Linux on the desktop, though.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.Linux distributions include the Linux kernel and all of the supporting software required to run a complete system, such as utilities and libraries, the X Window System, the GNOME and KDE desktop environments, and the Apache HTTP Server.^ It includes a small configuration utility that runs on Linux.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ PSK31 for the KDE 3.x linux desktop.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Both Linux and Windows come in desktop and server editions.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Commonly-used applications with desktop Linux systems include the Mozilla Firefox web-browser and the OpenOffice.org office application suite.^ Also included is CrossOver Office from CodeWeavers to let you run some Windows applications under Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lynucs.org web site has examples of many substantially different Linux GUIs.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cross Over Office (about $55) by CodeWeavers enables Linux users to run Microsoft Office XP, but it is not possible to use Outlook XP or Access XP. Outlook 2000 and Access 2000 are supported under Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The name "Linux" comes from the Linux kernel, originally written in 1991 by Linus Torvalds.^ Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
  • Welcome to Linux Cd.org - Best prices for your favorite distro! 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.linuxcd.org [Source type: General]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux, Linus Torvalds (the nerd with the reputation to protect): .
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main supporting Userland in the form of system tools and libraries from the GNU Project (announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman) is the basis for the Free Software Foundation's preferred name GNU/Linux.^ I love Linux and the Free Software community.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Prompts you if you are going to overwrite something On any Mandriva GNU/Linux system the global aliases (for all users) are all in /etc/profile.d/alias.sh.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Text Related Tools The text related tools chapter is the largest in this guide, most of the time on a GNU/Linux machine you will spend time interacting with text.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

[14][15]

Contents

History

Richard Stallman, left, founder of the GNU project, and Linus Torvalds, right, author of the Linux kernel

Unix

.The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969 at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, and Joe Ossanna.^ All the core UNIX system tools were designed so that they could operate together.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The “ Unix tools philosophy” emerged during the creation of the UNIX operating system, after the breakthrough invention of the pipe '|' (refer to Chapter 6 for information on using the pipe).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

Unix derived its name as a joke and reference to an experimental OS that was slow and ineffective called MULTICS. .It was first released in 1971 and was initially entirely written in assembly language, a common practice at the time.^ Upon being presented with the desktop of a default, out-of-box install of Ubuntu for the first time my initial reactions were: 1.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Revision v0.1 27th March 2003 Revised by: GA This is the initial draft release (the first release to be converted from LyX to DocBook SGML).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

Later, in a key pioneering approach in 1973, Unix was re-written in the programming language C by Dennis Ritchie, (with exceptions to the kernel and I/O). .The availability of an operating system written in a high-level language allowed easier portability to different computer platforms and, with a legal glitch forcing AT&T to license the operating system's source code, Unix quickly grew and became widely adopted by academic institutions and businesses.^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ The way the license is written, if you use any open-source software, you have to make the rest of your software open source.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions) Allowing Users to mount partitions By default a UNIX system will allow normal users to unmount partitions.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

GNU

.The GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed entirely of free software.^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Your suggestion to restrict/standardize the entire community on a single product is essentially exactly what Free Software advocates are fighting against.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux Exposed The Unix Philosophy Explained Or an entire book which is considered the authoritative guide toward understanding the philosophy behind how the UNIX system was built.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Work began in 1984.[16] Later, in 1985, Stallman created the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) in 1989. By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system (such as libraries, compilers, text editors, a Unix shell, and a windowing system) were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers, daemons, and the kernel were stalled and incomplete.^ Windows is referred to as the guest operating system.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.

^ The GNU Public license, originally created at the Free Software Foundation, is stricter in its requirements than the BSD license, but nowhere near as restrictive as Ballmer suggests.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

[17] .Linus Torvalds has said that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time (1991), he would not have decided to write his own.^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ To list the shells available type: chsh --list-shells Simply type chsh then [Enter], then type the name of the shell you would like to use every time you login.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

[18]

MINIX

Andrew S. Tanenbaum, author of the MINIX operating system
.MINIX was an inexpensive minimal Unix-like operating system, designed for education in computer science, written by Andrew S. Tanenbaum.^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ OpenSolaris includes ZFS which seems like a drastic change in file system design.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of version 3, MINIX is free and redesigned also for “serious” use.^ I myself use a number of older programs because programmers redesign the UI and toolset from time to time, and sometimes specific tools are orphaned in older versions of software.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.In 1991 while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds began to work on a non-commercial replacement for MINIX,[19] which eventually became the Linux kernel.^ These five future masterpieces cover the hot Linux topics of 2010, from advancements in Linux kernel developments to working with Ubuntu and Eucalyptus in the cloud.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ And commercial tools could work for both Windows, Linux…you name it.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ I use Linux here at work - for a commercial company.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.Torvalds began the development of Linux on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were also used under Linux.^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Also included is CrossOver Office from CodeWeavers to let you run some Windows applications under Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The WINE project ( http://www.winehq.com ) is working on making it possible to run Windows applications under Linux.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

.Later Linux matured and it became possible for Linux to be developed under itself.^ The WINE project ( http://www.winehq.com ) is working on making it possible to run Windows applications under Linux.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Cross Over Office (about $55) by CodeWeavers enables Linux users to run Microsoft Office XP, but it is not possible to use Outlook XP or Access XP. Outlook 2000 and Access 2000 are supported under Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compiles under Linux using the Mono ( http://www.mono-project.com/ ) development tools.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

[20] .Also GNU applications replaced all MINIX ones because, with code from the GNU system freely available, it was advantageous if this could be used with the fledgling OS. Code licensed under the GNU GPL can be used in other projects, so long as they also are released under the same or a compatible license.^ This is the last freely available release.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s good because unlike a proprietary environment, Free Software folks scratch whatever itch bothers them - there’s no restrictions on what you can and cannot code.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.In order to make the Linux kernel compatible with the components from the GNU Project, Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license (which prohibited commercial redistribution) to the GNU GPL.[21] Developers worked to integrate GNU components with Linux to make a fully functional and free operating system.^ You can buy a Linux book and get the operating system included with the book for free.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Linux does not maintain any sort of binary compatibility between versions; this means that commercial software distributed “binary only” has a high chance of breaking on a kernel or glibc upgrade; while this can be a problem on other platforms, it’s much worse on Linux.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

[17]

Commercial and popular uptake

.Today Linux distributions are used in numerous domains, from embedded systems to supercomputers,[22][23] and have secured a place in server installations with the popular LAMP application stack.^ Its main purpose is to provide a complete Linux desktop with many popular applications and tools, yet remain small and simple to operate.
  • DistroWatch.com: Put the fun back into computing. Use Linux, BSD. 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC distrowatch.com [Source type: General]

^ A library to use TrueType fonts in SDL applications (linux version) Long description .
  • FreeBSD Ports: Linux 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.freebsd.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If/when a Linux distribution gets a foothold with a number of large OEMs it will have a chance to grow a market that becomes dependent on it’s software stack and that’s when the magic will happen.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

[24] .Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been expanding.^ Cost: Hide Show top Cost For desktop or home use, Linux is very cheap or free, Windows is expensive.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That said, current Linux distributions have an application somewhat akin to Windows update that can be used to install software.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linux: Tell that to IBM, Burlington Mills, The Home Depot and others who are using it as a stable, supported solution for corporate infrastructure!!
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

[25][26][27][28][29][30][31] They have also gained popularity with various local and national governments. .The federal government of Brazil is well known for its support for Linux.^ In my experience the single biggest issue of Linux is that it is not well supported by device manufacturers.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ HP will support desktops with Mandrake Linux and the governments of assorted countries are interested in open source software.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an environment with many Linux users, shared network printers a tech support staff, this should not be an issue as you can limit yourself to well supported printers.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32][33] .News of the Russian military creating their own Linux distribution has also surfaced, and has come to fruition as the G.H.ost Project.^ LinPac is an attempt to create a packet radio terminal for Linux that allows wide configurability and easy addition of new functions and special functions needed by the user.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ All the flavors of Windows come from Microsoft, the various distributions of Linux come from different companies (i.e.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On yet another front, Ximian (owned by Novell) is developing Project Mono, which will allow Microsoft .Net applications to run on Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .The Indian state of Kerala has gone so far as to make it mandatory for all state high schools to run Linux on their computers.^ The WINE project ( http://www.winehq.com ) is working on making it possible to run Windows applications under Linux.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ The same article reported that Merrill Lynch runs a cluster of 50 Linux computers.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these machine run Linux 100% of the time and for every single one of these machines I had to pay for a Microsoft Windows license that was never used.

[35][36] .China uses Linux exclusively as the operating system for its Loongson processor family to achieve technology independence.^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ This document is an attempt to provide a summary of useful command-line tools available to a GNU/Linux based operating system, the tools listed are designed to benefit the majority of users and have being chosen at the authors discretion.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Security The security chapter is designed to give the user a very basic level of understanding of security within the GNU/Linux operating system.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

[37] .In Spain some regions have developed their own Linux distributions, which are widely used in education and official institutions, like gnuLinEx in Extremadura and Guadalinex in Andalusia.^ Some distributions neglect to install these by default and you will need to locate them for the exact version you are using, or replace the X version that came with your distro.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ You can purchase assorted distributions of Linux in a box with a CD and manuals and technical support for around $40 to $80 (some distributions may be less, others may be more).
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I can understand that at the beginning in not easy for a new user to get used to some stuff in Linux.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.France and Germany have also taken steps towards the adoption of Linux.^ Then the point was made that the major players weren’t about to implement ANY of the proposed steps toward making Desktop Linux successful.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

[38]
.Linux distributions have also become popular with the newly founded netbook market, with many devices such as the ASUS Eee PC and Acer Aspire One shipping with customized Linux distributions installed.^ My personal opinion is that, for linux to be popular, it has to address mainly the GUI. I know many linux users will not agree with me, I had read many posts.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux Certified sells normal laptops (that is, not the newer low end laptops such as the Asus EEE) with Linux pre-installed.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If/when a Linux distribution gets a foothold with a number of large OEMs it will have a chance to grow a market that becomes dependent on it’s software stack and that’s when the magic will happen.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Current development

Torvalds continues to direct the development of the kernel. .Stallman heads the Free Software Foundation, which in turn supports the GNU components.^ It allows corporations to turn it into "Proprietary Software", which in effect means that the from that point on, the software is no longer "freely available to all".
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Too many people have given in to Stallman’s hard line thinking about free versus closed software.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

Finally, individuals and corporations develop third-party non-GNU components. .These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries.^ These programs allow the amateur PACSATs to be used by a Linux user with the kernel AX.25 code.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Also note that this may be worked around in the latest stable kernels.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

.Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions.^ The software that installs everything in Linux is called a package manager.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will package software for all major Linux distributions for you!
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ I love Linux and the Free Software community.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

Design

.A Linux-based system is a modular Unix-like operating system.^ In contrast, Linux users often run as regular non-root users which not only means better security it also means that, if they get a virus, the operating system greatly restricts what the virus can do.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linux, like all Unix variants, provides multiple scripting languages, referred to as shell scripts.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linux Exposed The Unix Philosophy Explained Or an entire book which is considered the authoritative guide toward understanding the philosophy behind how the UNIX system was built.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

It derives much of its basic design from principles established in Unix during the 1970s and 1980s. .Such a system uses a monolithic kernel, the Linux kernel, which handles process control, networking, and peripheral and file system access.^ Then use the file system checker, fsck .
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ These programs allow the amateur PACSATs to be used by a Linux user with the kernel AX.25 code.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ HAMMAP data files, repacked for use with digiinfo/Linux, send updates/changes etc.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

Device drivers are integrated directly with the kernel.
.Separate projects that interface with the kernel provide much of the system's higher-level functionality.^ The level of security you establish depends on how you use the system -- and on how much is at risk if someone gains unauthorized access to it.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.The GNU userland is an important part of most Linux-based systems, providing the most common implementation of the C library, a popular shell, and many of the common Unix tools which carry out many basic operating system tasks.^ So I am not part of the true “customer” base of Linux.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ It is a summary which can be used to learn about and how to use many of the tools available to a GNU/Linux based operating system.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating systems are tools.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.The graphical user interface (or GUI) used by most Linux systems is built on top of an implementation of the X Window System.^ Multiple Users Linux is a multi-user system, Windows is not.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On Linux/Unix the scripts are the main interface to the system and any GUI is built on top of the scripts.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Linux and Windows provide a GUI and a command line interface.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

User interface

.Users can control a Linux-based system through a command line interface (or CLI), a graphical user interface (or GUI), or through controls attached to the associated hardware (this is common for embedded systems).^ Both Linux and Windows provide a GUI and a command line interface.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In both the KDE and Gnome GUIs for Linux, you shut the system down by first logging out (equivalent to logging off in Windows).
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, Linux users often run as regular non-root users which not only means better security it also means that, if they get a virus, the operating system greatly restricts what the virus can do.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For desktop systems, the default mode is usually graphical user interface, where the CLI is available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console.^ The tools listed that require a GUI, usually the X windowing system, are those listed in the Graphics Tools section.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions) Allowing Users to mount partitions By default a UNIX system will allow normal users to unmount partitions.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ And commands like tee are less readily available for Windows users.

.On desktop machines, KDE, GNOME, and Xfce are the most popular user interfaces,[39] though a variety of additional user interfaces exist.^ Firefox is the most popular browser on the Linux platform, but it’s a GTK app and doesn’t integrate as nicely into KDE (which uses Qt).

^ Most comparisons of the KDE and GNOME desktops focus on usability and productivity apps.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ While it may seem that your average desktop user is spoilt by “Aero” and “Aqua” glossy interfaces, compare the usability of said platforms to Ubuntu and other distros.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.Most popular user interfaces run on top of the X Window System (often simply called "X"), which provides network transparency, enabling a graphical application running on one machine to be displayed and controlled from another.^ Also included is CrossOver Office from CodeWeavers to let you run some Windows applications under Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the tools listed use the X windowing system to work and simply run from the command line (so they can be scripted/automated if necessary).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ An atypical run from one of the authors system on flyby-asbestos.sh at 1024x768 full detail looks like this: .
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.Other GUIs include X window managers such as FVWM, Enlightenment, and Window Maker.^ Daemons usually perform critical system tasks such as control swap-space, memory management and various other tasks.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ There are also boxed items that introduce other programs/tools, such as phpFormGenerator , Eclipse , free JavaScript editors for Windows, and JavaScript compression/obfuscator utilities.

.The window manager provides a means to control the placement and appearance of individual application windows, and interacts with the X Window System.^ Controlling the system The controlling the system chapter details commands that you may wish to use to interact with devices on your system and then details how to control processes and services/daemons.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Years back, I used an earlier version of the Citrix software, then known as WinFrame, to provide Windows NT applications to client computers running Windows 95 and 98.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wine does not, and will not, provide 100% compatibility; it will never run all Windows applications perfectly.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is a more minimalist goal than KDE, GNOME et al., which are termed desktop environments.^ Gnome and KDE are light years behind in terms of looks and functionalities, but they will probably copy some of the ideas soon, like they always have.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ The solution for open source has always been more complex, but it is not any less successful than closed source and the added value to users will inevitably make it the long-term winner.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Most comparisons of the KDE and GNOME desktops focus on usability and productivity apps.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.A Linux system typically provides a CLI through a shell, which is the traditional way of interacting with a Unix system.^ New York as saying that "the cost of running Linux is typically a tenth of the cost of Unix and Microsoft alternatives."
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linux, like all Unix variants, provides multiple scripting languages, referred to as shell scripts.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linux Exposed The Unix Philosophy Explained Or an entire book which is considered the authoritative guide toward understanding the philosophy behind how the UNIX system was built.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.A Linux distribution specialized for servers may use the CLI as its only interface.^ Linux: Only if you distribute a derivative.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ If your a commonwealth bank customer and you use ubuntu or other linux OS you may find that the Netbank website is extremely slow to login to.

^ You can purchase assorted distributions of Linux in a box with a CD and manuals and technical support for around $40 to $80 (some distributions may be less, others may be more).
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A headless system that runs without even a monitor can be controlled by the command line via a remote-control protocol such as SSH or telnet.^ All the tools listed use the X windowing system to work and simply run from the command line (so they can be scripted/automated if necessary).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Its a command-line based window manager, clearly this isn't that useful if you do have virtual terminals, but its amazingly useful when you log into machines remotely, using ssh and similar, see Section 13.3 .
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Command syntax: mcopy a:/file_or_files /destination/directory mmount Mount an ms-dos disk, without using the normal UNIX system mount.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Most low-level Linux components, including the GNU userland, use the CLI exclusively.^ Its also very powerful, so be careful what you do with it Command syntax: dd if=/dev/xxx of=/dev/xxx bs=xxxx count=x Warning The command dd is used to work on a very low level.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Text Related Tools The text related tools chapter is the largest in this guide, most of the time on a GNU/Linux machine you will spend time interacting with text.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Xandros 4.0 can read and write NTFS partitions using the included NTFS for Linux from Paragon Software.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks, and provides very simple inter-process communication.^ Since trying to differentiate the leaks in Sweep from the leaks in GTK+ was proving to be a very difficult and frustrating task I decided to look at the behaviour of a simple GTK+ program under Valgrind.

.A graphical terminal emulator program is often used to access the CLI from a Linux desktop.^ These programs allow the amateur PACSATs to be used by a Linux user with the kernel AX.25 code.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Cross Over Office (about $55) by CodeWeavers enables Linux users to run Microsoft Office XP, but it is not possible to use Outlook XP or Access XP. Outlook 2000 and Access 2000 are supported under Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LinPsk is a Psk31 program for Linux using the Qt library.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

Development

.
A summarized history of Unix-like operating systems showing Linux's origins.
^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux Exposed The Unix Philosophy Explained Or an entire book which is considered the authoritative guide toward understanding the philosophy behind how the UNIX system was built.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

Note that despite similar architectural designs and concepts being shared as part of the POSIX standard, Linux does not share any non-free source code with the original Unix or MINIX.
.The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open source software.^ Saying "free and open source software" is a mouthful.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ You can buy a Linux book and get the operating system included with the book for free.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is not true with an open source operating system such as Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Linux is not the only such operating system, although it is by far the most widely used.^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ This is not true with an open source operating system such as Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[40] .Some free and open source software licenses are based on the principle of copyleft, a kind of reciprocity: any work derived from a copyleft piece of software must also be copyleft itself.^ The GPL license (which the GNU folks will repeat over and over is NOT OPEN SOURCE), is a license to use a piece of software.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Saying "free and open source software" is a mouthful.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ That's the way that the license works Open source is not available to commercial companies.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.The most common free software license, the GNU GPL, is a form of copyleft, and is used for the Linux kernel and many of the components from the GNU project.^ The GPL license (which the GNU folks will repeat over and over is NOT OPEN SOURCE), is a license to use a piece of software.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ I love Linux and the Free Software community.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Wine is free software and is included with many GNU/Linux distributions.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Linux based distributions are intended by developers for interoperability with other operating systems and established computing standards.^ Linux operating system future is in cloud computing and devices .
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ This can sometimes causes problems in editors or viewers which aren't familiar with the other operating systems end-of-line style.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

Linux systems adhere to POSIX,[41] SUS,[42] ISO, and ANSI standards where possible, although to date only one Linux distribution has been POSIX.1 certified, Linux-FT.[43]
.Free software projects, although developed in a collaborative fashion, are often produced independently of each other.^ While OSS development is often characterized by it’s volunteer efforts, very few of the large and successful projects are volunteer-only.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ I have no problem with project managers and CEOs dictating to employees how to develop their software.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the unusual aspects of open source is the fact that the software development philosophy spills over into the way that the project is run.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution, however, provides a basis for larger scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution.^ It will package software for all major Linux distributions for you!
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Loki did however provide support for Unreal Tournament on Linux, although only Windows CDs are available for purchase.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ A: The lgfaq team have converted both quests to Linux and obtained Cyberlore's and LGP's approval to make them publicly available.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

.A Linux distribution, commonly called a "distro", is a project that manages a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection.^ The software that installs everything in Linux is called a package manager.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will package software for all major Linux distributions for you!
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Now I am sure that I am going to get flamed for this, but there is really not differentiating the distros, expect package managers and included software.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.This allows the user to adapt the operating system to his/her specific needs.^ In contrast, Linux users often run as regular non-root users which not only means better security it also means that, if they get a virus, the operating system greatly restricts what the virus can do.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions) Allowing Users to mount partitions By default a UNIX system will allow normal users to unmount partitions.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Examples: ssh hostname Connect to a remote system with your current username, you will obviously need the password of the user on the other machine.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

Distributions are maintained by individuals, loose-knit teams, volunteer organizations, and commercial entities. .A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of the installed Linux kernel, general system security, and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole.^ It will package software for all major Linux distributions for you!
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ The software that installs everything in Linux is called a package manager.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assorted virtual machine software is available that lets Linux, Macs and Windows operate as either the host or guest operating system.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Distributions typically use a package manager such as Synaptic or YAST to install, remove and update all of a system's software from one central location.^ It will package software for all major Linux distributions for you!
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Ubuntu 9.04 threw me for a loop, since I was used to having to do this, then I finally noticed that I was able to install the compiz manager and configure the 3D effects right off.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ All the tools listed use the X windowing system to work and simply run from the command line (so they can be scripted/automated if necessary).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

Community

.A distribution is largely driven by its developer and user communities.^ It is only accessable to developers who are willing to release their code under the GPL license which excludes large portions of the community.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a volunteer basis, Debian being a well-known example.^ At least 85 distributions support NTFS-3G in some manner, among them: Ubuntu, Red Hat, Debian, Knoppix and Mandriva.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For those of you that can’t think of any examples: Firefox, PHP, Apache, and those are just the big well known names) .
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ When a new version of an Operating System is being developed, someone, at some point, has to say "enough is enough".
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others maintain a community version of their commercial distributions, as Red Hat does with Fedora.^ Linux does not maintain any sort of binary compatibility between versions; this means that commercial software distributed “binary only” has a high chance of breaking on a kernel or glibc upgrade; while this can be a problem on other platforms, it’s much worse on Linux.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ August 2004 Red Hat started selling a desktop oriented version of Linux for under $6 per user per year.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At least 85 distributions support NTFS-3G in some manner, among them: Ubuntu, Red Hat, Debian, Knoppix and Mandriva.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many cities and regions, local associations known as Linux Users Groups (LUGs) seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software.^ I love Linux and the Free Software community.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Wine is free software and is included with many GNU/Linux distributions.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations, training, technical support, and operating system installation to new users.^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ They differ in the add-on software provided, GUI, install process, price, documentation and technical support.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, Linux users often run as regular non-root users which not only means better security it also means that, if they get a virus, the operating system greatly restricts what the virus can do.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers.^ Loki did however provide support for Unreal Tournament on Linux, although only Windows CDs are available for purchase.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ My personal opinion is that, for linux to be popular, it has to address mainly the GUI. I know many linux users will not agree with me, I had read many posts.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Library providing XML and HTML support (Linux Fedora 8) Long description .
  • FreeBSD Ports: Linux 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.freebsd.org [Source type: Reference]

.Most distributions and free software / open source projects have IRC chatrooms or newsgroups.^ Saying "free and open source software" is a mouthful.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Should that be the goal of open source projects?
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ VirtualBox is free and open source.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Online forums are another means for support, with notable examples being LinuxQuestions.org and the Gentoo forums. .Linux distributions host mailing lists; commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or development for a given list.^ There are also sites such as Linux Security .
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Q: Is there a mailing list for the Linux Gamers' FAQ? .
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Although sometimes there are other sources of information such as the Linux Documentation Project or various online HOWTO's or similar guides.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

There are several technology websites with a Linux focus. .Print magazines on Linux often include cover disks including software or even complete Linux distributions.^ Wine is free software and is included with many GNU/Linux distributions.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Crossover Office is a commercial product, it is not included in the free distributions of Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normally Linux also runs from a hard disk, but there are quite a few versions of Linux that run completely from a CD without having to be installed to a hard disk.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44][45]
.Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge, several large corporations sell, support, and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software.^ I love Linux and the Free Software community.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Wine is free software and is included with many GNU/Linux distributions.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.An analysis of Linux showed 75 percent of the code from December 2008 to January 2010 was developed by programmers working for corporations, leaving about 18 percent to the traditional, open source community.^ I work with open-source everyday.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux is Open Source right?
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ LCA 2010 starts in just a few days (January 18) and I’m mighty jealous that I won’t be there.

[46] .Some of the major corporations that contribute include Dell, IBM, HP, Oracle, Sun Microsystems, Novell, Nokia.^ There has been a lot of debate recently, especially in the European Union by the European Commission, as to whether or not to give the stamp of approval to the pending acquisition of Sun Microsystems by Oracle.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.A number of corporations, notably Red Hat, have built their entire business around Linux distributions.^ If/when a Linux distribution gets a foothold with a number of large OEMs it will have a chance to grow a market that becomes dependent on it’s software stack and that’s when the magic will happen.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux Exposed The Unix Philosophy Explained Or an entire book which is considered the authoritative guide toward understanding the philosophy behind how the UNIX system was built.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ AOL, EBay, Red Hat, VA Linux, and others are among the growing powerhouses that have learned to harness and profit from the increasing popularity of open source.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.The free software licenses, on which the various software packages of a distribution built on the Linux kernel are based, explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization; the relationship between a Linux distribution as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as symbiotic.^ Linux distribution based on LoopLinux.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Wine is free software and is included with many GNU/Linux distributions.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Crossover Office is a commercial product, it is not included in the free distributions of Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support, especially for business users.^ (Sure, you can create a business that supports it, but the idea is that its a model for development.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their distribution, which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks.^ I myself use a number of older programs because programmers redesign the UI and toolset from time to time, and sometimes specific tools are orphaned in older versions of software.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus, a company such as Corel can distribute their own version of the popular GPL'd operating system Linux and simultaneously sell their Word Perfect Office Suite in the traditional proprietary manner.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ The GPL applies to and affects only software that is derived from other GPL'd software, allowing companies handle the distribution and licensing of their proprietary software in any way they see fit.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.Another business model is to give away the software in order to sell hardware.^ They may sell hardware on paper, but maintenance software and server software are a huge revenue stream for them.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Needless to say, Microsoft is not going to provide Linux virtual machines and they make a lot of money selling Windows so they're not going to give it away.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Programming on Linux

.Most Linux distributions support dozens of programming languages.^ You can purchase assorted distributions of Linux in a box with a CD and manuals and technical support for around $40 to $80 (some distributions may be less, others may be more).
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PB and PG for Linux are programs used to download from, and upload to, digital satellites (PACSATs) supporting the FTL0 protocol.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Linux can only run a handful of Windows programs, but out of the box these machines (except the XO) can do what most people need most of the time.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most common collection of utilities for building both Linux applications and operating system programs is found within the GNU toolchain, which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU build system.^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Prompts you if you are going to overwrite something On any Mandriva GNU/Linux system the global aliases (for all users) are all in /etc/profile.d/alias.sh.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In both the KDE and Gnome GUIs for Linux, you shut the system down by first logging out (equivalent to logging off in Windows).
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Amongst others, GCC provides compilers for Ada, C, C++, Java, and Fortran. .The Linux kernel itself is written to be compiled with GCC. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler, Sun Studio, and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler.^ If you compile your own kernel, you probably have it in /usr/src/linux , and will be ok, presuming that's the tree that compiled your running kernel.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ However, IBM feels that certain Linux hardware bundles (x86 servers and S/390 clusters) can help them steal market from Sun in particular.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ This is a maintenance update to the stable branch of SimplyMEPIS and it includes Linux kernel 2.6.27.43, KDE 3.5.10, OpenOffice.org 3.1.1, Mozilla Firefox 3.5....
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

BASIC is supported in such forms as Gambas, FreeBASIC, and XBasic.
.Most distributions also include support for PHP, Perl, Ruby, Python and other dynamic languages.^ You can purchase assorted distributions of Linux in a box with a CD and manuals and technical support for around $40 to $80 (some distributions may be less, others may be more).
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: Most of the time this kind of problem will pop up when the software on the CD is outdated to current developments in distributions and other software.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Ajax developers have created libraries to make the language look more like Ruby or Python or even Java.

.While not as common, Linux also supports C# via the Mono project, sponsored by Novell, and Scheme.^ The Novell-backed Moonlight project released the final Moonlight 2, an open source Linux/Unix clone of Microsoft's Silverlight framework that offers improved media streaming.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ On yet another front, Ximian (owned by Novell) is developing Project Mono, which will allow Microsoft .Net applications to run on Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidenced by the fact that Linux, via marketshare and common-sense-analysis by anyone with an IQ > 50, SUCKS as a desktop OS for the average consumer.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.A number of Java Virtual Machines and development kits run on Linux, including the original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot), and IBM's J2SE RE, as well as many open-source projects like Kaffe.^ Should that be the goal of open source projects?
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ VirtualBox is free and open source virtual machine software.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linux is Open Source right?
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.The two main frameworks for developing graphical applications are those of GNOME and KDE.^ The question (and I don’t have the answer) is how to create an environment where commercial developers and FOSS developers can compete on the Linux desktop the way they do on those other two desktops?
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux typically provides two GUIs, KDE and Gnome.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The way to do that is by creating stategic tools, standardized frameworks and Rapid Application Development environments for Linux.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.These projects are based on the GTK+ and Qt widget toolkits, respectively, which can also be used independently of the larger framework.^ Firefox is the most popular browser on the Linux platform, but it’s a GTK app and doesn’t integrate as nicely into KDE (which uses Qt).

^ GPSK31 is a PSK31 Terminal, using the GTK+ Version 2 Toolkit.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

Both support a wide variety of languages. .There are a number of Integrated development environments available including Anjuta, Code::Blocks, Eclipse, KDevelop, Lazarus, MonoDevelop, NetBeans, Qt Creator and Omnis Studio while the long-established editors Vim and Emacs remain popular.^ There is also to many developers with linux blindfolds on, please code for UNIX (POSIX) and not only linux.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ There us no active maintenance of this package, because development of lnet has stopped a long time ago.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Revolution is a rapid application development environment Long description .
  • FreeBSD Ports: Linux 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.freebsd.org [Source type: Reference]

[47]

Uses

.As well as those designed for general purpose use on desktops and servers, distributions may be specialized for different purposes including: computer architecture support, embedded systems, stability, security, localization to a specific region or language, targeting of specific user groups, support for real-time applications, or commitment to a given desktop environment.^ E echo, General Shell Tips , Finding information about the system , Scheduling Commands to run in the background edit, The command-line history , Users/Groups , Internet Specific Commands , Security , Scheduling Commands to run in the background editing, Users/Groups , Graphics tools (command line based) , Scheduling Commands to run in the background , Useful categories of characters (as defined by the POSIX standard) editor, Text Editors editors, The Unix Tools Philosophy , Text Related Tools , Text Editors , Text Conversion/Filter Tools effects, Graphics tools (command line based) efficient, Who would want to read this guide?
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ As computing matures, we know more in specific about what the user wants out of his/hers computer.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Note there are many different attributes that chattr can change, here are a few more which may be useful: A (no Access time) --- if a file or directory has this attribute set, whenever it is accessed, either for reading of for writing, it's last access time will not be updated.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Furthermore, some distributions deliberately include only free software.^ I did, though, think about making some notes on research ethics and Free Software research.

^ Some commands will only work if the software or function is installed.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Nonetheless, only a shabby miscrosoft-like absence of logic would allow the conclusion that there is nothing free about the GPL'ed software.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.Currently, over three hundred distributions are actively developed, with about a dozen distributions being most popular for general-purpose use.^ This is about how everyone's money is being used to develop code that not everyone can use.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ The Linux-Kongress is the best opportunity for Open Source developers to meet in Europe and exchange ideas about current and upcoming projects that play and will play an important role for Linux."
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The GPL does not prevent a closed-source company in general from using your code for their own purpose, or even changing it without sharing their changes from you.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

[48]
.Linux is a widely ported operating system kernel.^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Security The security chapter is designed to give the user a very basic level of understanding of security within the GNU/Linux operating system.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The Linux kernel runs on a highly diverse range of computer architectures: in the hand-held ARM-based iPAQ and the mainframe IBM System z9, System z10 in devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers.^ Linux operating system future is in cloud computing and devices .
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ If your looking for a program to assist in locking down your operating system you may want to check Bastille Linux that runs on RPM based distributions (Redhat/Mandriva/SuSE).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ When Google first announced its Linux-based Android mobile phone platform just over two years ago, many were sceptical.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[49] Specialized distributions exist for less mainstream architectures. .The ELKS kernel fork can run on Intel 8086 or Intel 80286 16-bit microprocessors, while the µClinux kernel fork may run on systems without a memory management unit.^ In the past I’ve used CentOS and RHEL kernels to run Debian systems and that has worked reasonably well.

^ So the state of my Debian systems running this is that the DomUs run the CentOS kernel and my backported utilities while the Dom0 just runs the backported utilities with the Lenny kernel.

^ Daemons usually perform critical system tasks such as control swap-space, memory management and various other tasks.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer-created operating system, such as Macintosh computers (with both PowerPC and Intel processors), PDAs, video game consoles, portable music players, and mobile phones.^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ After all, the reasoning went, the world of mobile phones is very different from that of computers.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Almost everything that I do on computers could be done at least as well with a CPU that doesn’t run an Intel-based instruction set, the only exception is virtualisation which doesn’t seem to be well supported on architectures other than AMD64 nowadays.

.There are several industry associations and hardware conferences devoted to maintaining and improving support for diverse hardware under Linux, such as FreedomHEC.^ There are also sites such as Linux Security .
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Although sometimes there are other sources of information such as the Linux Documentation Project or various online HOWTO's or similar guides.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I tried Linux more then 10 times and all the time I there was a problem with hardware and drivers.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

Desktop

.The popularity of Linux on standard desktops (and laptops) has been increasing over the years.^ It’s not reasonable to expect any of these problems to be resolved in the near future and, honestly, it’s not reasonable to expect linux’s desktop userbase to start growing at an increasing rate any time in the near future either.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Desktop Linux in its current form–Ubuntu 9.04 on a brand new HP laptop–has issues with simple stuff such as re‐drawing.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ If you want Linux, you’d probably want to buy an HP desktop/laptop, because as far as I know, HP comptuers will be able to run Linux properly.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

[50] .Currently most distributions include a graphical user environment.^ Where “solutions” = audio framework, package management and distribution, and anything else which makes Linux, in its current execution, unaccesible to the end-user.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ A: Most of the time this kind of problem will pop up when the software on the CD is outdated to current developments in distributions and other software.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ This includes color-coded radiation patterns, current/charge distribution and graphs of gain, impedance etc.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

.The two most popular such environments are GNOME and KDE, both of which are mature and support a wide variety of languages.^ In order to keep Sun-Times readers well-informed, perhaps an examination of the essentials of the two most popular open source licenses would be in order.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Firefox is the most popular browser on the Linux platform, but it’s a GTK app and doesn’t integrate as nicely into KDE (which uses Qt).

^ Most comparisons of the KDE and GNOME desktops focus on usability and productivity apps.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.The performance of Linux on the desktop has been a controversial topic; for example in 2007 Con Kolivas accused the Linux community of favoring performance on servers.^ I don't think that they will be sucessful, but they will through this strategy keep Linux off of the desktop (but not servers) for some time to come.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.He quit Linux kernel development because he was frustrated with this lack of focus on the desktop, and then gave a "tell all" interview on the topic.^ And the author isn’t talking about changing the FOSS nature of Linux because FOSS is broken or bad, he’s talking about Linux viability as a consumer desktop OS. Or lack thereof.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ They are not required to open source all of their products -- not even their version of Word Perfect that runs on Linux -- because these products are not derived from GPL'd software.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ These five future masterpieces cover the hot Linux topics of 2010, from advancements in Linux kernel developments to working with Ubuntu and Eucalyptus in the cloud.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[51] Since then a significant effort has been expended improving the desktop experience. .Projects such as upstart aim for a faster boot time.^ You may like to try alternatives such as the DBAN project that create self-booting floppy disks that can completely erase a machines hard disk.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

[52] .In the field of gaming, the Linux desktop still lags behind Windows.^ Q: Can I emulate regular Windows games using Linux?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Will any of my boxed Linux games work in Windows?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ If you want more games for Linux, buy Windows games that only have binaries available from an online Linux retailer.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

[53] .However, there are several companies that do port their own or other companies' games to Linux.^ Q: Okay, what developers have ported their own games?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Okay, what developers have ported their own games?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Other companies, known as porting houses exist solely to port games to Linux.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

.Many types of applications available for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X are also available for Linux.^ What is more, Inkscape is cross platform and is available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X platforms.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Loki did however provide support for Unreal Tournament on Linux, although only Windows CDs are available for purchase.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ The WINE project ( http://www.winehq.com ) is working on making it possible to run Windows applications under Linux.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

.Commonly, either a free software application will exist which does the functions of an application found on another operating systems, or that application will have a version that works on Linux (such as Skype).^ I love Linux and the Free Software community.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The advantage of symbolic links is that the target can be to something on another file-system, while hard-links can only exist on the same file-system.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Furthermore, the Wine project provides a Windows compatibility layer to run unmodified Windows applications on Linux.^ Loki did however provide support for Unreal Tournament on Linux, although only Windows CDs are available for purchase.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ The WINE project ( http://www.winehq.com ) is working on making it possible to run Windows applications under Linux.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ All of these machine run Linux 100% of the time and for every single one of these machines I had to pay for a Microsoft Windows license that was never used.

.CrossOver is a proprietary solution based on the open source Wine project that supports running Windows versions of Microsoft Office, Intuit applications such as Quicken and QuickBooks, Adobe Photoshop versions through CS2, and many popular games such as World of Warcraft and Team Fortress 2.^ Should that be the goal of open source projects?
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ You cited many proprietary vendors, but only 2 of the many Open Source vendors.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Ironically, because many FOSS projects want to eventually lure users away from proprietary OSes, they end up producing Windows and/or OS X versions of their products and this means that both OS X and Windows now have a better balance between open and closed source offerings.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.In other cases, where there is no Linux port of some software in areas such as desktop publishing[54] and professional audio,[55][56][57] there is equivalent software available on Linux.^ There are also sites such as Linux Security .
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ You also brought up the point that there is not enough practical software such as Photoshop, or good audio and video editors like Pro Tools or Adobe Premiere or even a reasonably good cheap tool for average users.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s good because unlike a proprietary environment, Free Software folks scratch whatever itch bothers them - there’s no restrictions on what you can and cannot code.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.Many popular applications are available for a wide variety of operating systems.^ This guide is not a complete listing (I doubt it's possible to document all available programs), this document lists many tools which are available to GNU/Linux systems and which are, or can be useful to the majority of users.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Only 2 of the students had any previous involvement with free software development, and many of the others had never used a free operating system before.

^ It is a summary which can be used to learn about and how to use many of the tools available to a GNU/Linux based operating system.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.For example Mozilla Firefox, and OpenOffice.org have downloadable versions for all major operating systems.^ All the core UNIX system tools were designed so that they could operate together.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This guide is not a complete listing (I doubt it's possible to document all available programs), this document lists many tools which are available to GNU/Linux systems and which are, or can be useful to the majority of users.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Most, if not all, top distributions of Linux ship a live CD that allows an end user to preview the operating system without installing it.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Furthermore, some applications were initially developed for Linux (such as Pidgin, and GIMP) and, due to their popularity, were ported to other operating systems (including Windows and Mac OS X).^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ This can sometimes causes problems in editors or viewers which aren't familiar with the other operating systems end-of-line style.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.A growing number of proprietary desktop applications are also supported on Linux,[58] see List of proprietary software for Linux.^ If/when a Linux distribution gets a foothold with a number of large OEMs it will have a chance to grow a market that becomes dependent on it’s software stack and that’s when the magic will happen.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ If there were a successful Linux Desktop, would there be more successful Free Software applications?
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ This minority is still larger than the number of people using Linux on the desktop, though.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

In the field of animation and visual effects, most high end software, such as AutoDesk Maya, Softimage XSI and Apple Shake, is available for Linux, Windows and/or Mac OS X.
.The collaborative nature of free software development allows distributed teams to localize Linux distributions for use in locales where localizing proprietary systems would not be cost-effective.^ I love Linux and the Free Software community.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux needs a standard and stable installing system, one allowing you to distribute your software in a CD or DVD (that you can buy if the software is proprietary) and not only trough repos.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s good because unlike a proprietary environment, Free Software folks scratch whatever itch bothers them - there’s no restrictions on what you can and cannot code.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.For example the Sinhalese language version of the Knoppix distribution was available significantly before Microsoft Windows XP was translated to Sinhalese.^ One good example of this can be found in Microsoft's own Windows NT and Windows 2000.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Note: I have the same software but in newer versions in my Windows XP PC. .
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ I hear Cyberlore made some downloadable quests for Majesty available for the Windows version of the game over at their website.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

.April 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In this case the Lanka Linux User Group played a major part in developing the localized system by combining the knowledge of university professors, linguists, and local developers.^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Prompts you if you are going to overwrite something On any Mandriva GNU/Linux system the global aliases (for all users) are all in /etc/profile.d/alias.sh.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The Linux-Kongress is the best opportunity for Open Source developers to meet in Europe and exchange ideas about current and upcoming projects that play and will play an important role for Linux."
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.To install new software in Windows, users either download a digital distribution and double-click to install it or use a traditional installation medium (such as CD-ROM).^ Some distributions neglect to install these by default and you will need to locate them for the exact version you are using, or replace the X version that came with your distro.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Describes how to create a bootable CD-ROM that you can use to flash your BIOS .
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ But there are also some new features in Amarok 2.2.2, such as the return of the highly anticipated "Custom Labels," which allows users to add a personal touch to their music collection.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Both of these methods usually provide a "Software Installation Wizard" to guide the user through the setup.^ Or buy a TuxGames game through the links provided in the LGFAQ. Any TuxGames links on these pages give 5% of any purchase price on the games to the lead editor, to fund his tuxgames gaming habit.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ The idea of having two computers in one is one of these cool technical ideas which just won’t provide a benefit for the users.

^ It is included with the nVidia drivers, and a user-guide is also provided ( ftp://download.nvidia.com/XFree86/Linux-x86/nvidia-settings-user-guide.txt .
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

.On most Linux distributions, there are utilities for browsing a list of thousands of applications installed with a single click.^ Is there any way to install the original Unreal on Linux, if I have Unreal Tournament installed?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ As we speak there is no linux distribution fully made for the ordinary user.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: Is there any way to install the original Unreal on Linux, if I have Unreal Tournament installed?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

.Some of these programs are the Synaptic Package Manager, PackageKit, and Yum Extender.^ If these tools are too primitive If these text tools are too simple for your purposes then you are probably looking at doing some programming or scripting.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ You will often see these programs used when you try to install programs without using a package management tool.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Graphical programs Sometimes its easier to manage files with a GUI, many of these programs do have good GUI equivalents, try searching the internet or sites like Sourceforge or Freshmeat.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.However, installing software not in the official repositories is not always as easy - especially for users new to Linux - and sometimes the only option is to compile from source.^ Loki did however provide support for Unreal Tournament on Linux, although only Windows CDs are available for purchase.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ I can understand that at the beginning in not easy for a new user to get used to some stuff in Linux.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Use the -u option to kill using a user name(s) and process name (for example to only kill a process of a certain user).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

Servers, mainframes and supercomputers

Servers designed for Linux
.Linux distributions have long been used as server operating systems, and have risen to prominence in that area; Netcraft reported in September 2006 that eight of the ten most reliable internet hosting companies ran Linux distributions on their web servers.^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ A PSEmu Pro GPU plugin using an OpenGL renderer (Linux version) Long description .
  • FreeBSD Ports: Linux 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.freebsd.org [Source type: Reference]

[59] .(As of June 2008, Linux distributions represented five of ten, FreeBSD three of ten, and Microsoft two of ten.^ Because UNIX systems and Microsoft use two different standards to represent the end-of-line in an ASCII text file.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Friday June 01 2001, @08:14AM ( #183544 ) Homepage Q: Do you view Linux and the open-source movement as a threat to Microsoft?
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

[60])
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Jaguar supercomputer, as of November 2009 the world's fastest supercomputer. .It uses the Cray Linux Environment as its operating system.^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Security The security chapter is designed to give the user a very basic level of understanding of security within the GNU/Linux operating system.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

[61][62]
.Linux distributions are the cornerstone of the LAMP server-software combination (Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python) which has achieved popularity among developers, and which is one of the more common platforms for website hosting.^ Apache Foundation - Xandros (think EeePC, Linspire) - MySQL AB - Android (you know, Google, that giant behemoth that overfloweth with money) - PHP/Perl/Ruby/Rails/etc.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux does not maintain any sort of binary compatibility between versions; this means that commercial software distributed “binary only” has a high chance of breaking on a kernel or glibc upgrade; while this can be a problem on other platforms, it’s much worse on Linux.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ What is more, Inkscape is cross platform and is available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X platforms.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.Linux distributions have become increasingly popular on mainframes in the last decade due to pricing, compared to other mainframe operating systems.^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ This can sometimes causes problems in editors or viewers which aren't familiar with the other operating systems end-of-line style.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ If/when a Linux distribution gets a foothold with a number of large OEMs it will have a chance to grow a market that becomes dependent on it’s software stack and that’s when the magic will happen.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.In December 2009, computer giant IBM reported that it would predominantly market and sell mainframe-based Enterprise Linux Server.^ Meanwhile, an Android version of HP's Windows-based & Slate& computer is on the way, say several reports....
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ However, IBM feels that certain Linux hardware bundles (x86 servers and S/390 clusters) can help them steal market from Sun in particular.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Whether you're considering an update to SUSE Linux Enterprise 11 or setting up cloud computing with Eucalyptus, there's something for everyone in our top 10 Linux tips of 2009.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[63]
.Linux distributions are also commonly used as operating systems for supercomputers: as of November 2009, out of the top 500 systems, 446 (89.2%) run a Linux distribution.^ The top 10 Linux tips of 2009 .
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ All the tools listed use the X windowing system to work and simply run from the command line (so they can be scripted/automated if necessary).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

[64]
Linux was also selected as the operating system for the world's most powerful supercomputer, IBM's Sequoia which will become operational in 2011.[65]

Embedded devices

An HTC Dream running Android
.Due to its low cost and ability to be easily modified, an embedded Linux is often used in embedded systems.^ Llearn how to accurately measure the amount of memory your Linux system uses.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Duplicating disks This simple technique shows you how you would duplicate floppy disks in a GNU/Linux system using dd.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This guide is not a complete listing (I doubt it's possible to document all available programs), this document lists many tools which are available to GNU/Linux systems and which are, or can be useful to the majority of users.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Linux has become a major competitor to Symbian OS which is used in the majority of smartphones—16.7% of smartphones sold worldwide during 2006 were using Linux[66]—and it is an alternative to the proprietary Windows CE and Palm OS operating systems on mobile devices.^ Linux operating system future is in cloud computing and devices .
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ What is more, Inkscape is cross platform and is available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X platforms.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Cell phones or PDAs running on Linux and built on open source platform became a trend from 2007, like Nokia N810, Openmoko's Neo1973, Motorola RAZR2 v8, Motorola ROKR E8, Motorola MING series, Motorola ZINE and Google Android.^ Linux is Open Source right?
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Increasingly, however, successful Web companies like Google and Facebook are giving back, helping to replenish the open-source ecosystem from which they derive so much value.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ As most people know, Microsoft uses a small portion of its revenue to fund attacks on Linux and Free/Open Source Software like the SCO debacle and the ramming of OOXML through the ISO standards process .

.The popular TiVo digital video recorder uses a customized version of Linux.^ A PSEmu Pro GPU plugin using an OpenGL renderer (Linux version) Long description .
  • FreeBSD Ports: Linux 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.freebsd.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If your a commonwealth bank customer and you use ubuntu or other linux OS you may find that the Netbank website is extremely slow to login to.

^ A PSEmu Pro GPU plugin using a software X11 renderer (Linux version) Long description .
  • FreeBSD Ports: Linux 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.freebsd.org [Source type: Reference]

[67] .Several network firewall and router standalone products, including several from Cisco/Linksys, use Linux internally, using its advanced firewall and routing capabilities.^ I’ve created a page for listing commercial products which use Linux for 2010.

^ (On another note, our company uses Linux, but releases closed-source binarys of our primary product.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ A: You may be using an ATi card, for whatever reason, ATi has not yet released drivers capable of much in Linux (speed-wise, or feature-wise).
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

The Korg OASYS, Roland RD-700GX and the Yamaha Motif XS music workstations also run Linux.[68] .Furthermore, Linux is used in the leading stage lighting control system, FlyingPig/HighEnd WholeHogIII Console.^ Controlling the system The controlling the system chapter details commands that you may wish to use to interact with devices on your system and then details how to control processes and services/daemons.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Llearn how to accurately measure the amount of memory your Linux system uses.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Duplicating disks This simple technique shows you how you would duplicate floppy disks in a GNU/Linux system using dd.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

[69]

Market share and uptake

Usage share of web client operating systems. Source: Median values from Usage share of operating systems.      Windows XP (53.60%)      Windows Vista (23.46%)      Windows 7 (9.49%)      Mac OS X (5.90%)      Linux (1.12%)      iPhone (0.68%)      Other (2.52%)
.Many quantitative studies of free / open source software focus on topics including market share and reliability, with numerous studies specifically examining Linux.^ Saying "free and open source software" is a mouthful.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ What Free Software lacks is a locked-in market.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux is Open Source right?
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

[70] The Linux market is growing rapidly, and the revenue of servers, desktops, and packaged software running Linux was expected to exceed $35.7 billion by 2008.[71]
.IDC's Q1 2007 report indicated that Linux held 12.7% of the overall server market at that time.^ However, IBM feels that certain Linux hardware bundles (x86 servers and S/390 clusters) can help them steal market from Sun in particular.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ I don't think that they will be sucessful, but they will through this strategy keep Linux off of the desktop (but not servers) for some time to come.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ LCA2010 is the second time linux.conf.au has been held in New Zealand, with the first being Dunedin in 2006.

[72] .This estimate was based on the number of Linux servers sold by various companies and did not include server hardware purchased separately and had Linux installed on it later.^ Loki did however provide support for Unreal Tournament on Linux, although only Windows CDs are available for purchase.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ However, IBM feels that certain Linux hardware bundles (x86 servers and S/390 clusters) can help them steal market from Sun in particular.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Most Linux vendors are server companies, many consumer software companies have resources than the entire Linux ecosystem.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.In September 2008 Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer admitted that 60% of web-servers run Linux versus 40% that run Windows Server.^ That’s where it has to remain because web servers predominantly don’t run on Windows.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ All of these machine run Linux 100% of the time and for every single one of these machines I had to pay for a Microsoft Windows license that was never used.

^ Best Buy has never been a favorite company among Linux fans, and that feeling was not improved by the Microsoft ExpertZone training scandal that erupted last September.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[73]
.Companies have, mostly based on web server statistics, estimated that the desktop market share of Linux range from less than 1% to 2.14%.^ The desktop market share is slowly moving.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux on the Desktop will happen when someone figures out how to lock in a market.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ However, IBM feels that certain Linux hardware bundles (x86 servers and S/390 clusters) can help them steal market from Sun in particular.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.In comparison, Microsoft operating systems hold more than 85%.^ So according to the web site anyone who wanted to buy more than 558 systems would have to order the tablets separately from the keyboards.

^ Some of the principles of Multics were carried over into their new operating system, but the beauty of Unix then (if not now) lay in its less-is-more philosophy."
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux is more than capable of being a great Desktop OS. It is the lack of a lock-in market that holds it back.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

[25][26][27][28][29][30][31][74][75]
.The frictional cost of switching operating systems, lack of support for certain hardware and application programs designed for Microsoft Windows, and work by Microsoft to actively prevent large-scale installations have been three factors that have inhibited adoption.^ All the tools listed use the X windowing system to work and simply run from the command line (so they can be scripted/automated if necessary).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The WINE project ( http://www.winehq.com ) is working on making it possible to run Windows applications under Linux.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ All the core UNIX system tools were designed so that they could operate together.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Proponents and analysts attribute the relative success of Linux to its security, reliability,[76] low cost, and freedom from vendor lock-in.^ Apple was in the same boat as Linux until they locked in a large market through their iPod success.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

[77]
.Also most recently Google has begun to fund Wine, which acts as a compatibility layer, allowing users to run some Windows programs under Linux.^ Linux programs that can be run under binary compatibility.
  • FreeBSD Ports: Linux 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.freebsd.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The WINE project ( http://www.winehq.com ) is working on making it possible to run Windows applications under Linux.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ But there are also some new features in Amarok 2.2.2, such as the return of the highly anticipated "Custom Labels," which allows users to add a personal touch to their music collection.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[78][79]
.The XO laptop project of One Laptop Per Child is creating a new and potentially much larger Linux community, planned to reach millions of schoolchildren and their families and communities in developing countries.^ One of the unusual aspects of open source is the fact that the software development philosophy spills over into the way that the project is run.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ While developers are not ‘average’ users, they are the most important users for a project that is starting up (even for proprietary ones) because they have expertise that is more valuable at that stage.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ If tax dollars are funding a project, then the results of that development should be available to everyone and not just people who use one particular license.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

[80] .Google, Red Hat, and eBay are major supporters of the project.^ If you need a reliable Debian/Fedora/FreeBSD/Red Hat web hosting solution with excellent support, we highly recommend NetSonic.net .
  • DistroWatch.com: Put the fun back into computing. Use Linux, BSD. 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC distrowatch.com [Source type: General]

^ LinuxSecurity.com: Updated krb5 packages that fix multiple security issues are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3, 4, and 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.7, 5.2, and 5.3 Extended Update Support.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ AOL, EBay, Red Hat, VA Linux, and others are among the growing powerhouses that have learned to harness and profit from the increasing popularity of open source.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

[81] .While the XO will also have a Windows option, it will be primarily deployed using Sugar, a desktop environment for Fedora Linux.^ Here is where a VPN product comes in, and the simplest to deploy on Windows is a Linux virtual appliance called OpenVPN. .
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ To quickly access applications and hidden configuration settings in Windows, the best option is to use the Run command, [ Windows Key ] + [ R ].
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ There were 54 entries using 5 different window managers / desktop environments.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.In the film industry, Linux has been the platform of choice for several years.^ When Google first announced its Linux-based Android mobile phone platform just over two years ago, many were sceptical.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.The first major film produced on Linux servers was Titanic in 1997. Since then major studios like Dreamworks Animation, Pixar and Industrial Light & Magic have moved to Linux.^ BW whois) is used to look up the contact information from the “whois” databases, the servers are only likely to hold major sites.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Q: Is there anything like GameSpy (server browsing) for Linux?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Is there anything like GameSpy (server browsing) for Linux?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

[82][83] .According to the Linux Movies Group, more than 95% of the servers and desktops at large animation and visual effects companies use Linux.^ He's implying that anybody using linux to run a print server or somesuch is going to be forced to give away every line of code they've ever written.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ You can use this for more than one file.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ So according to the web site anyone who wanted to buy more than 558 systems would have to order the tablets separately from the keyboards.

[84]

Copyright and naming

.The Linux kernel and most GNU software are licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL).^ It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ There is also a fascinating manifesto [wustl.edu] from one researcher explaining why he choose to release his software under GPL. Well worth reading.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Text Related Tools The text related tools chapter is the largest in this guide, most of the time on a GNU/Linux machine you will spend time interacting with text.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The GPL requires that anyone who distributes the Linux kernel must make the source code (and any modifications) available to the recipient under the same terms.^ Your code can be forked, incorporated, enhanced or whatever by anyone as long as they make the code available to anyone who needs it.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ So, er, that's why we need to fund closed source work that's not available to anyone?
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ No no, it's the users who don't really understand what Linux, the GPL, FSF, monoplies, profits, IP, etc.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.Other key components of a Linux system may use other licenses; many libraries use the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), a more permissive variant of the GPL, and the X Window System uses the MIT License.^ Wildcards Wildcards are useful in many ways for a GNU/Linux system and for various other uses.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Prompts you if you are going to overwrite something On any Mandriva GNU/Linux system the global aliases (for all users) are all in /etc/profile.d/alias.sh.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ All the tools listed use the X windowing system to work and simply run from the command line (so they can be scripted/automated if necessary).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Torvalds states that the Linux kernel will not move from version 2 of the GPL to version 3. He specifically dislikes some provisions in the new license which prohibit the use of the software in digital rights management,[85][86] and it would also be impractical to obtain permission from all the copyright holders, who number in the thousands.^ Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ However, there is NO provision in the GPL that states you must release ALL your software under the GPL. Non-derivative works may be released under any license the copyright owner please.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

[87]
.A 2001 study of Red Hat Linux 7.1 found that this distribution contained 30 million source lines of code.^ LinuxSecurity.com: Updated krb5 packages that fix multiple security issues are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3, 4, and 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.7, 5.2, and 5.3 Extended Update Support.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Nugget (7382) < nugget@distributed.net > on Friday June 01 2001, @08:16AM ( #183342 ) Homepage If you accept the incorrect usage of "open source" to mean "GPL'd code" then this statement makes perfect sense.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Mathematical tools num-utils homepage The “num-utils” homepage, Num Utils, contains a variety of command line programs that could be useful when performing maths on your GNU/Linux machine.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

[88] .Using the Constructive Cost Model, the study estimated that this distribution required about eight thousand man-years of development time.^ They are a useful resource of up-to-date information on a program and should be consulted when you require information about a particular tool.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Has the time come to use low level languages (with high level libraries) for web development?
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Some of the tutorials under the power commands section of the unix.about.com site were used in the construction of this guide.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.According to the study, if all this software had been developed by conventional proprietary means, it would have cost about $1.36 billion (2010 US dollars) to develop in the United States.^ It allows corporations to turn it into "Proprietary Software", which in effect means that the from that point on, the software is no longer "freely available to all".
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Then he whinges about his (totally false) lie that open source makes all other software open source due to Intellectual property issues.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ That can mean a multi-billion dollar corporation and it can also mean me in my bedroom trying to develop software as a sole proprietorship.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

[88]
.Most of the code (71%) was written in the C programming language, but many other languages were used, including C++, assembly language, Perl, Python, Fortran, and various shell scripting languages.^ This design allows it to be used in shell scripts.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ However its main use is in shell scripting.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ More concerning for me is the possibility that there are many other such crash bugs lurking in the new sqlite based code.

.Slightly over half of all lines of code were licensed under the GPL. The Linux kernel itself was 2.4 million lines of code, or 8% of the total.^ They are not required to open source all of their products -- not even their version of Word Perfect that runs on Linux -- because these products are not derived from GPL'd software.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ However, there is NO provision in the GPL that states you must release ALL your software under the GPL. Non-derivative works may be released under any license the copyright owner please.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Government code should be public domain, not placed under a restrictive license like the GPL. Re:He's got a point.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

[88]
.In a later study, the same analysis was performed for Debian GNU/Linux version 4.0 (etch, released 2007).^ Mass Rename/copy/link Tools There are a few different ways to perform mass renaming of files in GNU/Linux (yes, mass renaming is possible!
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The Linux version of which is even on the same CD-Rom as the Windows version, way to go!
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ She's been running Xandros 4 Linux -- based on Debian 3.1 "Sarge," two releases out of date.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[89] .This distribution contained close to 283 million source lines of code, and the study estimated that it would have cost $7.53 billion (2010 US dollars) to develop by conventional means.^ Closed source developers need to clue into the fact that they can't have it both ways.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Scheduled for July 19-23, at the Oregon Convention Center in Portland, OSCON 2010 is looking for sessions and tutorials covering everything from open source developments in smartphones to virtualization to open source in education.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Government-funded GPL code is inaccessable to the Apache Foundation, it's inaccessable to the OpenBSD developers, and it's inaccessable to any commercial developers who are working on closed-source products.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

.In the United States, the name Linux is a trademark registered to Linus Torvalds.^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[90] Initially, nobody registered it, but on 15 August 1994, William R. Della Croce, Jr. filed for the trademark Linux, and then demanded royalties from Linux distributors. In 1996, Torvalds and some affected organizations sued him to have the trademark assigned to Torvalds, and in 1997 the case was settled.[91] The licensing of the trademark has since been handled by the Linux Mark Institute. .Torvalds has stated that he trademarked the name only to prevent someone else from using it.^ Use the -u option to kill using a user name(s) and process name (for example to only kill a process of a certain user).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.LMI originally charged a nominal sublicensing fee for use of the Linux name as part of trademarks,[92] but later changed this in favor of offering a free, perpetual worldwide sublicense.^ Is used to change the uppercase letters in a file name to lowercase (or vice versa).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Use the -f option to change a users full name.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The secondary customer is the end-users that have no idea how to change the linux code, as you discussed in the early part of your presentation.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

[93]

GNU/Linux

.The Free Software Foundation views Linux distributions which use GNU software as GNU variants and they ask that such operating systems be referred to as GNU/Linux or a Linux-based GNU system.^ I love Linux and the Free Software community.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ As most people know, Microsoft uses a small portion of its revenue to fund attacks on Linux and Free/Open Source Software like the SCO debacle and the ramming of OOXML through the ISO standards process .

[94] .The media and common usage, however, refers to this family of operating systems simply as Linux, as do many large Linux distributions (e.g.^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The goal of this IBM Redbook is to provide a technical planning reference for IT organizations large or small that are now considering a migration to Linux-based personal computers.

^ However, you need to have access to the corresponding Linux distribution repository (for e.g.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Ubuntu[95] and SuSE Linux). .Some distributions use GNU/Linux (particularly notable is Debian GNU/Linux, on which Ubuntu is based), but the term's use outside of the enthusiast community is limited.^ So i prefer using Linux Ubuntu instead.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Some distributions neglect to install these by default and you will need to locate them for the exact version you are using, or replace the X version that came with your distro.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ If your a commonwealth bank customer and you use ubuntu or other linux OS you may find that the Netbank website is extremely slow to login to.

The naming issue remains controversial.

See also

General:
Further reading:

References

  1. ^ Greg KH (15 March 2010). "Linux 2.6.33.1". linux-kernel mailing list. http://lwn.net/Articles/378613/. Retrieved 16 March 2010. 
  2. ^ Linus Torvalds (8 March 2010). "Linux 2.6.34-rc1". linux-kernel mailing list. http://lkml.org/lkml/2010/3/8/280. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  3. ^ "Debian GNU/Linux Licenses – Ohloh". ohloh.net. https://www.ohloh.net/p/debian/analyses/latest. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  4. ^ Safalra (2007-04-14). "Pronunciation of ‘Linux’". Safalra’s Website. http://safalra.com/science/linguistics/linux-pronunciation/. Retrieved 2009-09-15. 
  5. ^ Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing (June 2006). "Linux". http://foldoc.org/linux. Retrieved 2009-09-15. 
  6. ^ Torvalds used /ˈlɪnʊks/ in English.
    (23 April 1992). "Re: How to pronounce "Linux"?". (Google Groups). Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
    Torvalds has made available an audio sample with his pronunciation in English (/ˈlɪnʊks/: "How to pronounce Linux?". http://www.paul.sladen.org/pronunciation/. Retrieved 2006-12-17. ) and in Swedish (/ˈlɪːnɤks/: "Linus pronouncing Linux in English and Swedish". http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/SillySounds/. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  7. ^ IBM (October 2001). "Linux Watch". http://www.trl.ibm.com/projects/ngm/wp10_e.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-29. 
  8. ^ Linux Devices (January 2010). "Trolltech rolls "complete" Linux smartphone stack". http://www.linuxfordevices.com/c/a/News/Trolltech-rolls-complete-Linux-smartphone-stack/. Retrieved 2009-09-29. 
  9. ^ Computerworld, Patrick Thibodeau. "IBM's newest mainframe is all Linux". http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9142007/IBM_s_newest_mainframe_is_all_Linux_. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  10. ^ Lyons, Daniel. "Linux rules supercomputers". http://www.forbes.com/home/enterprisetech/2005/03/15/cz_dl_0315linux.html. Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  11. ^ The Economist (December 2007). "Technology in 2008". http://www.economist.com/science/displaystory.cfm?story_id=10410912. Retrieved 2008-04-01 (publicly available Dec 2007 – May 2009, rendered members only in May 2009, quoted at National Capital FreeNet. 
  12. ^ The Economist (December 2008). "Small is beautiful". http://www.economist.com/science/tq/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12673233. Retrieved 2008-12-21. 
  13. ^ The Developer-network (January 2010). "Smartbook Playing Field Wide Open for Linux". http://ldn.linuxfoundation.org/blog-entry/smartbook-playing-field-wide-open-linux. Retrieved 2008-12-21. 
  14. ^ Weeks, Alex (2004). "1.1". Linux System Administrator's Guide (version 0.9 ed.). http://www.tldp.org/LDP/sag/html/sag.html#GNU-OR-NOT. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  15. ^ "The GNU Operating System". Gnu.org. http://www.gnu.org/. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  16. ^ "About the GNU Project – Initial Announcement". Gnu.org. 2008-06-23. http://www.gnu.org/gnu/initial-announcement.html. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  17. ^ a b "Overview of the GNU System". Gnu.org. http://www.gnu.org/gnu/gnu-history.html. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  18. ^ "Linus vs. Tanenbaum debate". http://people.fluidsignal.com/~luferbu/misc/Linus_vs_Tanenbaum.html. 
  19. ^ "What would you like to see most in minix?". comp.os.minix. (Web link). Retrieved on 2006-09-09.
  20. ^ "Chicken and egg: How was the first linux gcc binary created??". http://groups.google.com/group/comp.os.linux/msg/4ae6db18d3f49b0e. 
  21. ^ Torvalds, Linus (1992-01-05). "Release notes for Linux v0.12". Linux Kernel Archives. http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/Historic/old-versions/RELNOTES-0.12. Retrieved 2007-07-23. "The Linux copyright will change: I've had a couple of requests to make it compatible with the GNU copyleft, removing the “you may not distribute it for money” condition. I agree. I propose that the copyright be changed so that it confirms to GNU ─ pending approval of the persons who have helped write code. I assume this is going to be no problem for anybody: If you have grievances ("I wrote that code assuming the copyright would stay the same") mail me. Otherwise The GNU copyleft takes effect as of the first of February. If you do not know the gist of the GNU copyright ─ read it." 
  22. ^ Santhanam, Anand; Vishal Kulkarni (1 March 2002). "Linux system development on an embedded device". DeveloperWorks. IBM. http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/library/l-embdev.html. Retrieved 2007-07-26. 
  23. ^ Lyons, Daniel. "Linux rules supercomputers". http://www.forbes.com/home/enterprisetech/2005/03/15/cz_dl_0315linux.html. Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  24. ^ Schrecker, Michael. "Turn on Web Interactivity with LAMP". http://www.techsoup.org/learningcenter/webbuilding/page5067.cfm. Retrieved 2007-02-22. 
  25. ^ a b Galli, Peter (2007-08-08). "Vista Aiding Linux Desktop, Strategist Says". eWEEK (Ziff Davis Enterprise Inc.). http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Linux-and-Open-Source/Vista-Aiding-Linux-Desktop-Strategist-Says/. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  26. ^ a b Paul, Ryan (2007-09-03). "Linux market share set to surpass Win 98, OS X still ahead of Vista". Ars Technica (Ars Technica, LLC). http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20070903-linux-marketshare-set-to-surpass-windows-98.html. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  27. ^ a b Beer, Stan (2007-01-23). "Vista to play second fiddle to XP until 2009: Gartner". iTWire (iTWire). http://www.itwire.com.au/content/view/8842/53/. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  28. ^ a b "Operating System Marketshare for Year 2007". Market Share. Net Applications. 2007-11-19. http://marketshare.hitslink.com/report.aspx?qprid=2&qpmr=15&qpdt=1&qpct=3&qptimeframe=Y. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  29. ^ a b "Vista slowly continues its growth; Linux more aggressive than Mac OS during the summer". XiTiMonitor (AT Internet/XiTi.com). 2007-09-24. http://www.xitimonitor.com/en-us/internet-users-equipment/operating-systems-august-2007/index-1-2-7-107.html. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
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Further reading

External links

External links for readers new to Linux

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Tux.svg
.Linux is a free, open-source operating system derived from UNIX. It was first developed in 1991 by Linus Torvalds.^ You can buy a Linux book and get the operating system included with the book for free.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ This is not true with an open source operating system such as Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sourced

.
  • Some people have told me they don't think a fat penguin really embodies the grace of Linux, which just tells me they have never seen an angry penguin charging at them in excess of 100mph.^ We don't think that Linux is in that body.
    • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

    ^ They are constructs, by some of the people, for some people.
    • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

    ^ GPL is just virus-l by man_of_mr_e (Score:2) Friday June 01 2001, @12:34PM Hey, they must really be scared now!
    • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

    .They'd be a lot more careful about what they say if they had.^ They can make a sales pitch about how MS is secure, but any PHB can point and say 'this is done by the guys at the NSA! We can trust them, right?'* .
    • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Caitlyn Martin While I'm very positive about the openSUSE team I must say that I am a lot less sanguine about some in their community.
    • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I really do care about Okular - I gave quite a lot of my time to improve it.

    • Torvalds, Linus (1996-06-09). .Post to comp.os.linux.announce newsgroup.^ I know this part of my post might provoke controversy with some readers- I’m fully aware of all the ways that OS X is un-Linux-like.
      • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

      Retrieved on 2006-08-28.
  • Linux is only free if your time has no value.^ Linux can only run a handful of Windows programs, but out of the box these machines (except the XO) can do what most people need most of the time.
    • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ LCA2010 is the second time linux.conf.au has been held in New Zealand, with the first being Dunedin in 2006.

    ^ Linux is not the only free clone/copy/edition of Unix, there are three open source versions of BSD Unix (FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD).
    • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Jamie Zawinski. .mouthing off about linux.^ I don’t give a damn about OSS–you can sit in your dungeon and get off developing the 40000th audio framework codebase for Linux all you want.
      • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

      date=2000. .Retrieved on 2008-12-21.
  • Note that nobody reads every post in linux-kernel.^ The UNIX tools philosophy further reading An article within the coreutils documentation (installed on nearly every GNU/Linux distro) provides further explanation of the UNIX tools philosophy.
    • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ In August 2008 Dana Blankenhorn did a series of blog postings at ZDNet about buying a Linux Laptop .
    • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In fact, nobody who expects to have time left over to actually do any real kernel work will read even half.^ Working with files and folders summary, Who would not want to read this guide?
    • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Real-time kernels, bizarre driver hacks — I’ve been there.
    • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I doubt the Linux community as a whole is mature enough to realize this fact, but it’s good to see that there are some sensible people who do not believe the myths and the delusional claims that Linux fanboys make up all the time.
    • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

    Except Alan Cox, but he's actually not human, but about a thousand gnomes working in under-ground caves in Swansea. .None of the individual gnomes read all the postings either, they just work together really well.^ GPL is just virus-l by man_of_mr_e (Score:2) Friday June 01 2001, @12:34PM Hey, they must really be scared now!
    • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

    ^ All the tools listed use the X windowing system to work and simply run from the command line (so they can be scripted/automated if necessary).
    • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ All the core UNIX system tools were designed so that they could operate together.
    • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

  • 2.6.<odd>: still a stable kernel, but accept bigger changes leading up to it (timeframe: a month or two).
    .2.<odd>.x: aim for big changes that may destabilize the kernel for several releases (timeframe: a year or two)
    <odd>.x.x: Linus went crazy, broke absolutely _everything_, and rewrote the kernel to be a microkernel using a special message-passing version of Visual Basic.
    ^ After 15 years of development, the first "finished" version of Wine was released in June 2008 (see Run Windows Software on Linux with Wine 1.0 ).
    • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ No doubt, Microsoft defenders will cite the many months, if not years, that a new version of Windows is beta tested by thousands of people before it is released.
    • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Virtual Terminals and screen Using the key combination ALT - F* keys you may change to different virtual terminals.
    • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

    (timeframe: "we expect that he will be released from the mental institution in a decade or two").
    • Torvalds, Linus (2005-03-02). .Message to Linux kernel mailing list.^ Where is the latest version of this FAQ? Is there a mailing list for the Linux Gamers' FAQ? Som Čech/Slovák a namiesto hodín anglického jazyka som hral(a) hry.
      • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

      ^ Q: Is there a mailing list for the Linux Gamers' FAQ? .
      • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

      .Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  • Making Linux GPL'd was definitely the best thing I ever did.^ I think one of the best things about Linux is its diversity.
    • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Antlr has a great IDE in AntlrWorks, which definitely makes things easier.

    ^ While advanced users can customize things to their liking, it makes things harder on new users for whom every Linux computer they encounter may look and act differently.
    • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

If you are interested in learning how to install a particular Linux distribution, visit this page.
.This project is meant to help people understand how the internals of Linux work.^ The WINE project ( http://www.winehq.com ) is working on making it possible to run Windows applications under Linux.
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Linux Exposed The Unix Philosophy Explained Or an entire book which is considered the authoritative guide toward understanding the philosophy behind how the UNIX system was built.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I just can’t understand why Linux people does not set standards for hardware or why they don’t sell they own computers that just works out of the box.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

.By studying the learning materials here you will hopefully come away with a better understanding of source code, programming, Linux, the history of Linux (e.g.^ You are free to recite the source code.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ You are free to read the source code.
  • Slashdot | Ballmer Calls Linux "A Cancer" 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC slashdot.org [Source type: General]

^ Fbb for linux, source code.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

.History of the Linux kernel), operating systems, and probably other things that only thorough reflection upon the experience can glean.^ Implementations for the other operating systems follow.
  • Linux 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC linuxmafia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Linux 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linuxmafia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux does not maintain any sort of binary compatibility between versions; this means that commercial software distributed “binary only” has a high chance of breaking on a kernel or glibc upgrade; while this can be a problem on other platforms, it’s much worse on Linux.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Contributors

.
  • Sjohnson 16:52, 23 August 2007 (UTC) (I'd like to help out by contributing some of my knowledge.^ I know this part of my post might provoke controversy with some readers- I’m fully aware of all the ways that OS X is un-Linux-like.
    • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

    )
  • JimD (Mostly working on the Linux kernel source code study guide (below)).
  • CQ Working with BSD also.

Linux feature requests

.Have a program, perhaps an executable that can be run to see if Linux will 'just work' on one's system.^ Working with MS-DOS files Use the mtools programs to work with ms-dos based files, execute mtools for a full listing of available m* tools.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Which games do and don't work networked with {Linux, Other Platforms} Why doesn't the Unreal Tournament Web Administration seem to be running?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ There is at least one other option available in CSIRO right now, we’ll just have to wait and see.

.This executable could check someone's hardware against a database of drivers perhaps.^ Some hardware vendors will release technical specs so that someone in the Linux community can write a driver for the device, but other vendors aren't so open minded.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One could also selectively input peripherals to check or even create a hypothetical system to check. --Remi 16:33, 26 October 2007 (UTC)
^^ Already completed. .Ubuntu 8.04 Hardy Heron (Live CD Version) shipped with a hardware checker that will test your computers compatibility with Ubuntu/Linux.^ In addition, the upcoming version of Windows is likely to be expensive and require new hardware, two other areas where Linux competes well.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of July 2008, Dell was still offering Ubuntu 7.10 despite the fact that version 8.04 had been out for a couple months.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linux Live CD for ham radio operators, based on Puppy Live CD. .
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

-Germ
But an application that someone can easily install on Windows without having to reboot could be useful. --Devourer09 17:27, 22 August 2008 (UTC)
I think Wubi is an application that can do this. They ought to use more mirrors, presumings its not a specialized version of Ubuntu. Emesee 18:43, 22 August 2008 (UTC)

Live CD

.A Live CD is a CD which contains a ready-to-use, fully operational copy (called an image) of a version of the Linux operating system.^ Linux Live CD for ham radio operators, based on Puppy Live CD. .
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ The CD based versions of Linux differ in their use of the hard disk.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The CD is used to boot the computer in place of the hard drive.^ In general new computers can boot from a USB flash drive, however older computers may not be able to.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using fdisk Using fdisk with the -l option will output information on any hard drives connected to the system and information on their partitions (for example, the type of partition).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ For example: cd /proc/ide0/hda Under this directory there will be various information on the hard drive or cdrom connected.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Due to the fact that this method does not touch the contents of the hard disk, it is a popular way to test out a new operating system.^ Again, this gets the system out of your way to perform necessary operations.
  • Linux 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC linuxmafia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Linux 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linuxmafia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact is, every new way of doing it draws in an ever wider developer crowd.
  • Lunduke.com » Linux Sucks! Video from LinuxFest NW 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC lunduke.com [Source type: General]

^ Now, the free VMware Server software can be used to create a new virtual machine into which you can install any operating system.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It will not make any permanent alterations to the system. .Usually these Live CDs have installer programs so that if you like what the live CD contains, you can install it on your hard disk by clicking on a link.^ To run Windows, it has to first be installed to your hard disk.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Live USBs are closely related to live CDs, but sometimes have the ability to save settings and permanently install software packages back onto the USB device.
  • Welcome to Linux Cd.org - Best prices for your favorite distro! 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.linuxcd.org [Source type: General]

^ A clean install refers to starting with nothing (either an entirely empty hard disk or just an empty partition or just unallocated space on the hard disk) and ending up with just Windows.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, one must click through a fair amount of warning messages before anything is overwritten on the hard disk.^ Some, such as Lindows, do not write anything at all to your hard disk, making it the safest and easiest way to experience Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or, you can use a program to totally wipe everything off the hard disk before installing Linux.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Windows must boot from the first hard disk.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See the List of live CDs at Wikipedia.

Virtualization

.You can also run two OS's simultaneously on the same machine.^ The reason for this is that the problem of fsck times on ext4 (as described in my previous post about Ext4 [1] ) is compounded if you have multiple DomUs running fsck at the same time.

^ First of all since it has to be installed you cannot run shred on your operating systems filesystem, you also cannot use shred on a windows machine easily since you cannot install shred on this machine.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.For example, you can install VirtualBox onto your windows or mac system, and then install whatever OS you want into the VirtualBox environment (each install takes up disk space, and the number that you can run at once is limited by RAM - a good graphical linux can run just fine on 256MB, and run a little bit slower on half that).^ To run Windows, it has to first be installed to your hard disk.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was predicted that Linux will surpass the Mac OS as the number two desktop operating system.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a guest copy of Windows, running under either Linux or Mac OS X as the host OS, you can install any and all Windows programs.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are other virtualization options: Xen, VMware, etc...^ There are also many other kill options such as kill -HUP (hangup) ...
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ And prior to October 2005 there were no pre-built virtual machines available from VMWare, if you wanted to run Linux, you had to install it.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may want to explore chroot systems, user-mode linux (UML), Xen, and VMWare, among other options.
  • Linux 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC linuxmafia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Linux 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linuxmafia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Content to study

External materials

Additional resources

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Etymology

.From the name of its creator, Linus Torvalds, influenced by the term Unix.^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Linus Torvalds was partly influenced by a speech about GNU in Finland in 1990.
  • GNU/Linux FAQ - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC gnu.gds.tuwien.ac.at [Source type: Original source]
  • GNU/Linux FAQ - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) 25 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The original name of Linux was Freax, combining the words Free and Unix, and referring to phreaking.^ Linux, like all Unix variants, provides multiple scripting languages, referred to as shell scripts.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The combination results in a copyleft free software license that is incompatible with the GNU GPL. It also has an advertising clause like the original BSD license and the Apache license.
  • Various Licenses and Comments about Them - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wouldn't it be better to reserve the name "GNU/Linux" for distributions that are purely free software?
  • GNU/Linux FAQ - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC gnu.gds.tuwien.ac.at [Source type: Original source]

.The administrator of the server on which Linux was first held didn't like the connection to phreaking, so Torvalds changed the name to Linux.^ But hey think of it this way: in 1990 we didn’t even have Linux, and in 2000 Linux looks like a crippled OS compared to today’s Linux.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The openSUSE code has become a base system for Novell's commercial products, first named as Novell Linux, but later renamed to SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.
  • DistroWatch.com: Put the fun back into computing. Use Linux, BSD. 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC distrowatch.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: Is there anything like GameSpy (server browsing) for Linux?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

Pronunciation

  • enPR: lĭnʹəks, IPA: /ˈlɪn.əks/, SAMPA: /"lIn.@ks/ or
  • enPR: lĭnʹo͝oks, IPA: /ˈlɪn.ʊks/, SAMPA: /"lIn.Uks/ or
  • enPR: līʹnəks, IPA: /ˈlaɪ.nəks/, SAMPA: /"laI.n@ks/ (considered incorrect by many)

Proper noun

Singular
Linux
Plural
Linuxes or Linuces
Linux (plural Linuxes or Linuces)
  1. (operating systems, uncountable) A free Unix-like operating system kernel created by Linus Torvalds and released under the GNU General Public License.
  2. (operating systems, countable) One of any number of systems that uses Linux as its kernel.

Usage notes

  • In the sense of "one of any number of systems that uses Linux as its kernel", some prefer the term GNU/Linux.

Translations

.The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers.^ This needs to be done before you remove a floppy/CDROM or any other removable device (see below, Section 9.1 for an example).
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Catalan

Proper noun

Linux m. 
  1. Linux (free Unix-like operating system)

Dutch

Proper noun

Linux (plural: Linuxen, Linuxes; diminutive linuxje, plural diminutive linuxjes)
  1. (operating systems) Linux

German

Linux

Proper noun

Linux n.
  1. (operating systems) Linux (free Unix-like operating system)

Polish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: [ˈlinuks]

Proper noun

Linux m.
  1. (operating systems) Linux

Declension

Singular Plural
Nominative Linux Linuksy
Genitive Linuksa Linuksów
Dative Linuksowi Linuksom
Accusative Linuksa Linuksy
Instrumental Linuksem Linuksami
Locative Linuksie Linuksach
Vocative Linuksie Linuksy

Derived terms

  • linuksowy

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Linux Guide article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Contents

Getting started

Installing Linux

Using Linux

Managing Linux

Programming on Linux

Applications of Linux


Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Category:Linux article)

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

Linux
The console image for Linux.
Manufacturer Various
Active 1991—present
Total Games unknown (57 present)
← (none) (none) →
Popular guides
  1. Dominions 3: The Awakening
  2. NetHack
  3. America's Army
  4. Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri
  5. Sid Meier's Alien Crossfire
  6. MAME
  7. On the Rain-Slick Precipice of Darkness: Episode Two
  8. Wolfenstein: Enemy Territory
  9. On the Rain-Slick Precipice of Darkness: Episode One
  10. SimCity 3000
.Linux (called GNU/Linux by some due to its GNU origins) is a free and open-source operating system which can run on many different hardware architectures, such as PCs, GameCubes, and Xboxes.^ Solaris Operating System runs Linux applications easily.
  • World Wide linux operating system Resources 25 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.linuxjapan.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Today there are many different variants of the GNU/Linux system (often called “distros”).
  • Linux and GNU - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linux operating system.
  • World Wide linux operating system Resources 25 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.linuxjapan.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Linux Software Labs Inc. 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux-software.com [Source type: General]

.Because of the dominance of Microsoft Windows in the PC market very few commercial games are released for Linux, although some developers actively support it alongside Windows (such as BioWare and Epic Games); as a result, most or all of their titles have Linux support.^ All of the most prevalent Linux distributions are supported.
  • Linux Recovery Software - Recover data from Linux Ext2, Ext3 partitions 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.diskdoctors.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Linux is a progressive alternative to Microsoft Windows®.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic_L: Linux Operating System 25 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: General]

^ Microsoft has the most visible position in the market, and as such controls the market.
  • ShopForLinux Announces Launch of New Website, Provides Linux Distributions (Operating Systems) 25 September 2009 5:39 UTC www.prlog.org [Source type: News]

.Rather than releasing separate Linux retail packages, compatible titles include a Linux installer along with the Windows version or offer it as a separate download on the game's website.^ Sites for downloading Linux packages .

^ FreeBSD, a version of Unix (rather than Linux), also has a LiveCD .
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This version is Linux compatible.
  • Picasa 3 for Linux: Free download from Google 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC picasa.google.com [Source type: General]

.Support is noted by showing Tux (the Linux mascot) on the website or the back of the box.^ Tux, the Linux mascot .

^ If you're using Linux/m68k and haven't filled out the registration form , do it now and show the commercial Linux developers that Linux/m68k is worth their support!
  • The Linux/m68k Home Pages 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.linux-m68k.org [Source type: General]

^ This script used the Unix or Linux mail command to email a file to her that showed a list of all the websites on our server that she needed to bill our customers for.
  • linux-unix | devdaily.com 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.devdaily.com [Source type: General]

.In addition to commercial releases, Linux gamers also have access to a wide selection of free and open-source games (such as NetHack and Lincity).^ X-gamers.net - ENJOY Linux Games .
  • linuX-gamers.net - ENJOY Linux Games 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.linux-gamers.net [Source type: General]

^ Free linux game .
  • Linux operating system software 25 September 2009 5:39 UTC wyyruyan.vip.sina.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Meetup topics: Linux , Open Source .
  • Linux Meetup Groups - Linux Meetups 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.meetup.com [Source type: General]

.Many Windows games can now be played on Linux using Wine or its forks CrossOver Games and Cedega, and most MS-DOS games can be played using DOSBox.^ WINE allows many Windows software to run on Linux.
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

^ What games can I emulate using WINE and Cedega?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Do you play games in Linux ?

Pages in category "Linux"

The following 57 pages are in this category, out of 57 total.

A

B

C

D

  • DOSBox
  • DROD: The City Beneath
  • Descent 3
  • Dominions 3: The Awakening
  • Dominions II: The Ascension Wars
  • Dominions: Priests, Prophets & Pretenders
  • Doom 3
  • Doom II: Hell on Earth

E

E cont.

F

G

H

  • Heroes of Might and Magic
  • Heroes of Might and Magic III: Armageddon's Blade
  • Heroes of Might and Magic III: The Restoration of Erathia
  • Heroes of Might and Magic III: The Shadow of Death
  • Homeworld

J

L

M

  • MAME
  • MESS
  • Medal of Honor: Allied Assault

N

O

  • On the Rain-Slick Precipice of Darkness: Episode One
  • On the Rain-Slick Precipice of Darkness: Episode Two

P

Q

S

T

U

W

X


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

.Linux is an alternative Operating system.^ Linux and Unix operating systems (incl.
  • Linux Hamradio Application and Utilities Homepage: All software 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC radio.linux.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1991, Linux was created with a announcement on a Minix Usenet group by Finnish student Linus Torvalds, stating that he was looking for feedback on a free operating system he was developing.
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In contrast, Linux users often run as regular non-root users which not only means better security it also means that, if they get a virus, the operating system greatly restricts what the virus can do.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is used mainly on server computers.^ Windows applications are run by a server version of Windows and use the Terminal Services feature to communicate with a client computer.
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are not so many games available for Linux as there are for Windows and this is often cited as one of main causes of Linux not being used more often.^ Can I emulate regular Windows games using Linux?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Q: Can I emulate regular Windows games using Linux?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Compression There are two main compression utilities used in GNU/Linux.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]

.However, there are games of all genres and many Windows games can be played on Linux using helper software called Wine.^ What games can I emulate using WINE and Cedega?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Q: Why not play games that have been natively ported using WINE? .
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ Can you actually play Windows games on Linux?
  • Alltop - Top Linux News 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC linux.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.See Wikipedia for more information about Linux.^ For more information on Linux and NTFS, see the Linux NTFS Project .
  • Linux vs Windows (a comparison) 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC www.michaelhorowitz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What about more information on emulation?
  • Linux Gamers' FAQ 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC icculus.org [Source type: General]

^ See below for more information.
  • http://mirror.uta.edu/LDP/LDP/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary/html/GNU-Linux-Tools-Summary.html 23 September 2009 4:38 UTC mirror.uta.edu [Source type: Reference]


Stub
This article is a stub. You can help by adding to it.
Stubs are articles that writers have begun work on, but are not yet complete enough to be considered finished articles.

This article uses material from the "Linux" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Linux
[[File:|50px|Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux]]
File:Ubuntu 10.
Ubuntu, a popular Linux distribution, one of many available
OS family Unix-like
Working state Current
Source model Free and open source software
Supported platforms IA-32, MIPS, x86-64, SPARC, DEC Alpha, Itanium, PowerPC, ARM, m68k, PA-RISC, s390, SuperH, M32R and more
Kernel type Monolithic
Userland GNU and others.
License Various including GNU General Public License, BSD License, Apache License, MIT License, and others[1]

Linux or GNU/Linux is a free and open source software operating system for computers. The operating system is a collection of the basic instructions that tell the electronic parts of the computer what to do and how to work. Free and open source software (FOSS) means that everyone has the freedom to use it, see how it works, and change it.

There is a lot of software for Linux, and since Linux is open source it means that most of the software for it is open source and free. This is one of the reasons why some people like to use Linux.

Contents

How Linux was made

In the 1980s, many people liked to use an operating system called Unix. But because it restricted the user from sharing and improving the system, some people made a new operating system that would work like Unix but which anybody could share or improve. MINIX, similar to Unix, was used as a teaching tool for university students to learn how operating systems worked. MINIX also restricted its sharing and improvement by its users.

A group of people called the GNU project wrote different parts of a new operating system called GNU, but it did not have all the parts an operating system needs to work. In 1991 Linus Torvalds began to work on a replacement for MINIX that would be free to use, and which would not cost anything. Linus started the project when he was attending the University of Helsinki.[2][3] This eventually became the Linux kernel.

Linus Torvalds shared the Linux kernel on some internet groups for MINIX users. Linus first called the operating system "Freax". The name Freax came from joining up the English words "free" and "freak", and adding an X to the name because Unix has an X in its name. Ari Lemmke, who worked with Linus at the University, was responsible for the servers that Freax was stored on. Ari did not think Freax was a good name, so he called the project "Linux" without asking Linus. Later, Linus agreed that Linux was a better name for his project.

Linux relied on software code from MINIX at first. But, with code from the GNU system available for free, it would be good for Linux if it could use that code, instead of code from MINIX. The GNU General Public License is a software license that lets people change any part of the code they want to, as long as they share any changes they make with the people they give their software to. The software from GNU was all licensed under the GNU General Public License, so Linus and the other people who worked on Linux could use it too.

To make the Linux kernel suitable for use with the code from the GNU Project, Linus Torvalds started a switch from his original license (which did not allow people to sell it) to the GNU GPL.[4] Linux and GNU developers worked together to integrate GNU code with Linux to make a free operating system.

Because of the way that the new operating system was created by combining the work of the GNU project and Linus Torvalds, many people say that it's better to use the name GNU/Linux, but most people just say "Linux".

Since then, thousands of programmers and companies have worked to make Linux better.

Tux the penguin

[[File:|thumb|100px|right|Tux the penguin]] The mascot of Linux is a cartoon penguin named "Tux". When a person sees the penguin on software and hardware, it means that it will work with Linux, and sometimes all systems that are like Unix.

The idea of the penguin came from the creator of Linux, Linus Torvalds. The image was made by a man named Larry Ewing in a competition to create a logo. The image, Tux, did not win, but it was picked as a mascot later.

Tux has now become a symbol for Linux, and sometimes even for open source. He can be seen in many different places and often, when people refer to Linux, they think about Tux. Tux has even been included in many video games, such as Super Tux (like Super Mario Bros.), Tux Racer (where players race Tux down an icy hill) and Pingus (like Lemmings).

Uses

Desktop

Although there are only a few Linux versions for some Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows programs in areas like desktop publishing[5] and professional audio and video[6][7][8] there are programs that are comparatively similar in quality compared to those available for Mac and Windows.[9]

Many free software titles that are popular on Windows, such as Pidgin, Mozilla Firefox, Openoffice.org, and GIMP, are available for Linux. A growing amount of proprietary desktop software can also be used under Linux, such as[10] Adobe Flash Player, Opera, Google Picasa, RealPlayer, and Skype. CrossOver is a proprietary solution based on the open source Wine project that supports running older Windows versions of Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop versions until CS2. Microsoft Office 2007 and Adobe Photoshop CS3 are known not to work.[11][12]

KDE 4.1 and Gnome 2.20
File:KDE 4.1.0 File:Gnome-2.
KDE 4.1 Gnome 2.20

Servers and supercomputers

File:Roadrunner supercomputer
Roadrunner, the world's fastest supercomputer 2009, which runs Linux

GNU/Linux has mainly been used as a server operating system, and has risen to be known by a lot of people in that area; Netcraft reported in February 2008 that five of the ten best internet hosting companies run Linux on their web servers.[13] This is because of its stability and uptime, and the fact that desktop software with a graphical user interface for servers is often unneeded.

Linux is commonly used as an operating system for supercomputers. As of November 2007, out of the top 500 systems, 426 (85.2%) run Linux.[14]

Pronunciation

In 1992, Torvalds explained how he pronounces the word Linux:

'li' is pronounced with a short [ee] sound: compare prInt, mInImal etc. 'nux' is also short, non-diphthong, like in pUt. It's partly due to minix: linux was just my working name for the thing, and as I wrote it to replace minix on my system, the result is what it is... linus' minix became linux.

Torvalds has made available an audio sample which indicates his own pronunciation, in English and Swedish.[15][16]

Some English speakers pronounce the name as lee-narks or lee-nix or lie-nix.[needs proof]

Code size

A 2001 study of Red Hat Linux 7.1 found this distribution had 30 million lines of code. The study said red hat 7.1 required about eight thousand man-years of time to development . the study also said, if all this software had been made by proprietary means, it would have cost about 1.08 billion dollars (in year 2000 U.S.A. dollars) to make in the United States.[17]

Most of the code (71%) was written in the C programming language, and many other languages were used, including C++, assembly language, Perl, Python, Fortran, and various shell scripting languages. A little more than half of all lines of code were licensed under the GPL. The Linux kernel was made up of 2.4 million lines of code, or 8% of all the code.[17]

Different GNU/Linux versions

[[File:|thumb|Fedora, another GNU/Linux operating system]] People who want to get GNU/Linux can download it from the Internet or buy it from a store or a website. Sometimes books and magazines about GNU/Linux have a CD or DVD with GNU/Linux on it. Any certain version of GNU/Linux is called a "distribution", or "distro". A GNU/Linux version has the Linux kernel and the GNU operating system, and some extra programs that might not be part of GNU. Different versions include different extra programs. The versions used by the most people include:

People might pay some money for a version, so they can have a CD-ROM or DVD and to help the company to make their versions better. Usually when someone pays, it is so the company will help the user after they install it, which is called "support".

Software for Linux includes:

Licensing, trademark, and naming

The Linux kernel and most GNU software are licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL requires that anyone who distributes the Linux kernel must make the source code (and any modifications) available to the recipient under the same terms. In 1997, Linus Torvalds said, “Making Linux GPL'd was definitely the best thing I ever did.”[18] Other key components of a Linux system may use other licenses; many libraries use the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), a type of the GPL that is less restricted, and the X Window System uses the MIT License.

Other pages

Other websites

References

  1. "Debian GNU/Linux Licenses – Ohloh". ohloh.net. https://www.ohloh.net/p/debian/analyses/latest. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  2. "What would you like to see most in minix?". comp.os.minix. (Web link). Retrieved on 2008-08-18.
  3. http://www.linuxinthechannel.com/minix.php
  4. Torvalds, Linus (1992-01-05). "RELEASE NOTES FOR LINUX v0.12". Linux Kernel Archives. http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/Historic/old-versions/RELNOTES-0.12. Retrieved 2007-07-23. "The Linux copyright will change: I've had a couple of requests to make it compatible with the GNU copyleft, removing the “you may not distribute it for money” condition. I agree. I propose that the copyright be changed so that it confirms to GNU ─ pending approval of the persons who have helped write code. I assume this is going to be no problem for anybody: If you have grievances (“I wrote that code assuming the copyright would stay the same”) mail me. Otherwise The GNU copyleft takes effect as of the first of February. If you do not know the gist of the GNU copyright ─ read it." 
  5. Advani, Prakash (2000-10-27). "Microsoft Office for Linux?". FreeOS. FreeOS Technologies (I) Pvt. Ltd.. http://www.freeos.com/articles/2540/. Retrieved 2008-08-18. 
  6. Smith-Heisters, Ian (2005-10-11). "Editing audio in Linux". Ars Technica. Ars Technica, LLC. http://arstechnica.com/guides/tweaks/linux-audio.ars. Retrieved 2008-08-18. 
  7. Lumma, Carl (April 2007). "Linux: It's Not Just For Computer Geeks Anymore". Keyboard Magazine. New Bay Media, LLC.. http://www.keyboardmag.com/article/linux-its-not/apr-07/27458. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  8. James, Daniel (February 2004). "Using Linux For Recording & Mastering". Sound On Sound. SOS Publications Group. http://www.soundonsound.com/sos/feb04/articles/mirrorimage.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  9. "The table of equivalents/replacements/analogs of Windows software in Linux". http://www.linuxrsp.ru/win-lin-soft/table-eng.html. 
  10. "The Global Desktop Project, Building Technology and Communities". http://www.iist.unu.edu/globaldesktop/. Retrieved 2008-08-18. 
  11. "Microsoft Office 2007". CodeWeavers. CodeWeavers Inc.. 2007-11-25. http://www.codeweavers.com/compatibility/browse/group/?app_parent=1911. Retrieved 2008-08-18. 
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  14. Operating system Family share for 11/2007 | TOP500 Supercomputing Sites
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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 04, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Linux, which are similar to those in the above article.








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