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.
Structures of some common lipids.
^ Despite their differing functions, all biological membranes have a common structure: a very thin film of lipid and protein molecules, which are able to move about in the plane of the membrane.
  • Lipid Membranes 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC math.lanl.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The structure of this lipid gives it some interesting characteristics.

^ Meet the Fats " by Paul Reisberg at Wellesley has Chime structures of common lipids and Olestra and other stuff.
  • http://www.mpcfaculty.net/ron_rinehart/30B/lipidchm.htm 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.mpcfaculty.net [Source type: Academic]

At the top are oleic acid[1] and cholesterol.[2] .The middle structure is a triglyceride composed of oleoyl, stearoyl, and palmitoyl chains attached to a glycerol backbone.^ Triglycerides are chains of carbons called “fatty acids”, attached at one end to a carbon backbone.
  • Your blood lipids : Type 1 Diabetes : UCSF Diabetes Education Online 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.dtc.ucsf.edu [Source type: General]

^ Chemically, these compounds are built on a backbone of glycerol, which was a three-carbon chain.
  • Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC peer.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The bulk of dietary lipid is neutral fat or triglyceride , composed of a glycerol backbone with each carbon linked to a fatty acid.
  • Absorption of Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.vivo.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Absorption of Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC dwb.unl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At the bottom is the common phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine.[3]
.Lipids are a broad group of naturally-occurring molecules which includes fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others.^ The four major categories of lipids include fats, phospholipids, waxes and steroids .
  • What Is a Lipid Molecule?: Organic Chemistry of Fats, Phospholipids, Waxes & Steroids 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC organic-chemistry.suite101.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Examples of lipids include fats, phospholipids, and steroids.

^ Lipids are a large and diverse group of natural organic compounds such as fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins, monoglycerides and others.
  • Tag: Lipids - Explore content tagged Lipids on eHow.com 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

.The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules.^ Major functions: energy storage, major membrane components Other functions: signals, electron carriers, emulsifying agents....

^ Triglycerides are Energy-storage molecules.
  • Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC bioweb.wku.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Energy storage Forming the membranes around our cells.
  • Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC bioweb.wku.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Lipids may be broadly defined as hydrophobic or amphiphilic small molecules; the amphiphilic nature of some lipids allows them to form structures such as vesicles, liposomes, or membranes in an aqueous environment.^ The lipid environment is defined by the family of molecules that are characterized by their hydrophobic nature and their common metabolic origin.

^ Some lipids are linear aliphatic molecules, while others have ring structures.

^ Also, lipid membranes are asymmetric and fluid structures.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Lipids/Membrane Lipids - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

.Biological lipids originate entirely or in part from two distinct types of biochemical subunits or "building blocks": ketoacyl and isoprene groups.^ The term lipid describes a group of biological compounds that are insoluble in water but are relatively soluble in many organic solvents.
  • Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.mmeade.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This diversity makes it impossible to define lipids on the basis of a single core structural feature or biosynthetic origin, as can be done with the other major groups of biomolecules.
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipids - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Subsequent reactions effect an oxidative cleavage of glucose to pyruvic acid (CH 3 COCO 2 H), and this in turn is transformed to the two-carbon building block, acetate.

[4] .Using this approach, lipids may be divided into eight categories: fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids and polyketides (derived from condensation of ketoacyl subunits); and sterol lipids and prenol lipids (derived from condensation of isoprene subunits).^ Acyl-lipid metabolism/Sphingolipid Hydroxylase .
  • The Plant Specific Database - Gene Family Results 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC genomics.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Acyl-lipid metabolism/Sphingolipid Fatty Acid Hydroxylase .
  • The Plant Specific Database - Gene Family Results 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC genomics.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Acyl-lipid metabolism/Fatty Acid ?
  • The Plant Specific Database - Gene Family Results 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC genomics.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Although the term lipid is sometimes used as a synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides.^ Although the term lipid is sometimes used as a synonym for fats , fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides and should not be confused with the term fatty acid.
  • Lipid | LifeMojo 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.lifemojo.com [Source type: General]

^ Tags: fat , body , triglycerides , molecules , lipids What Does the Body Use Lipids For?
  • Tag: Lipids - Explore content tagged Lipids on eHow.com 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the term lipid is often used as a synonym for fat , the latter is in fact a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides .
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipids - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Lipids also encompass molecules such as fatty acids and their derivatives (including tri-, di-, and monoglycerides and phospholipids), as well as other sterol-containing metabolites such as cholesterol.^ Fatty acids Triglycerides Phospholipids Sphingolipid .

^ Organization in lipid membranes containing cholesterol.
  • Lipid Biophysics at Augsburg College 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.augsburg.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Biosynthesis Fatty acid derivatives .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[5] .Although humans and other mammals use various biosynthetic pathways to both break down and synthesize lipids, some essential lipids cannot be made this way and must be obtained from the diet.^ This lipid is synthesized in humans, albeit at a slow rate, from linolenic acid, an essential fatty acid that cannot be made in the body but must be supplied in the diet.
  • Review: Brain Lipids and Disorders in Biological Psychiatry 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC brneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The human body can synthesize lipids, but some essential fats must be obtained through diet.
  • About Lipids | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They must be supplied in the diet because the human and other mammalians cannot synthesize them from other sources.
  • LIPID-CONTAINING COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF - Patent application 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Contents

Categories of lipids

Fatty acyls

.Fatty acyls, a generic term for describing fatty acids, their conjugates and derivatives, are a diverse group of molecules synthesized by chain-elongation of an acetyl-CoA primer with malonyl-CoA or methylmalonyl-CoA groups in a process called fatty acid synthesis.^ Fatty acid synthesis ends with the generation of palmitic acid (C 16 ).
  • Botany online: Basic Metabolism - Biosyntheses - Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Biosynthesis Fatty acid derivatives .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To proceed with fatty acid synthesis , both acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA are needed.
  • Botany online: Basic Metabolism - Biosyntheses - Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de [Source type: Academic]

[6][7] .They are made of a hydrocarbon chain that terminates with a carboxylic acid group; this arrangement confers the molecule with a polar, hydrophilic end, and a nonpolar, hydrophobic end that is insoluble in water.^ The phosphate group is polar and therefore capable of interacting with water molecules.

^ The "R" group of some amino acids is nonpolar and the "R" group of some others is polar or it ionizes.

^ Fatty acids are chains of hydrocarbons 4-22 (or more) carbons long with a carboxyl group at one end.
  • Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC faculty.stcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fatty acid structure is one of the most fundamental categories of biological lipids, and is commonly used as a building block of more structurally complex lipids.^ Learn more about fatty acids .
  • Chemistry for Biologists: Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.rsc.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Most recent articles in the category lipids .

^ Compare the fatty acid on the left to the one above.
  • Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC bioweb.wku.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The carbon chain, typically between four to 24 carbons long,[8] may be saturated or unsaturated, and may be attached to functional groups containing oxygen, halogens, nitrogen and sulfur.^ When the carbon chain contains no double bonds , it is called saturated.
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipids - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Long chains of carbon atoms are common.

^ The chains are usually 14-24 carbon groups long.

.Where a double bond exists, there is the possibility of either a cis or trans geometric isomerism, which significantly affects the molecule's molecular configuration.^ These double bonds are almost always in the cis configuration.
  • Biochemistry/Lipids - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Biochemistry/Membranes and Lipids - Wikimedia Labs, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.labs.wikimedia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, unsaturated fatty acids can occur either in cis or trans geometric isomers .
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipids - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Notice that all the double bonds have the Cis configuration.

.Cis-double bonds cause the fatty acid chain to bend, an effect that is more pronounced the more double bonds there are in a chain.^ Fatty acids with one or more double bonds are called mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  • Olestra-5: Lipids and Fats 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.chemcases.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fatty acids with several carbon-carbon double bonds are said to be "polyunsaturated".

^ Each cis double bond causes a kink in the chain, as emphasized in the diagram above.
  • Lipids & Membranes 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.rpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This in turn plays an important role in the structure and function of cell membranes.^ Lipids can also function as structural components in the cell.
  • Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC bioweb.wku.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It is also an important component of cell membranes.

^ Membrane Structure and Function They also separate compartments inside the cell to protect important ...
  • Why are lipids important to cell structure and function? - Yahoo! Answers 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

[9] .Most naturally occurring fatty acids are of the cis configuration, although the trans form does exist in some natural and partially hydrogenated fats and oils.^ Naturally occurring fatty acids are in the cis conformation.
  • Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC fst.osu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fats are made of glycerol and fatty acids.
  • About Lipids | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most abundant saturated fatty acid in nature is hexadecanoic or palmitic acid.
  • Lipids, fatty acids, structure, composition, biochemistry and function 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC lipidlibrary.aocs.org [Source type: Reference]

[10]
.Examples of biologically important fatty acids are the eicosanoids, derived primarily from arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, which include prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes.^ Leukotrienes are also derived from arachidonic acid.

^ Biosynthesis Fatty acid derivatives .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Sphingomyelin and glycosphingolipids Fatty acids Eicosanoids .
  • Lipids, fatty acids, structure, composition, biochemistry and function 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC lipidlibrary.aocs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Other major lipid classes in the fatty acid category are the fatty esters and fatty amides.^ Fatty acid methyl esters by GC .

^ The major class of membrane lipids are the phospholipids.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Lipids/Membrane Lipids - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) .
  • Lipids - Definition, Glossary, Details - Oilgae 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: Academic]

.Fatty esters include important biochemical intermediates such as wax esters, fatty acid thioester coenzyme A derivatives, fatty acid thioester ACP derivatives and fatty acid carnitines.^ Waxes : esters of long-chain fatty acids with long-chain fatty alcohols b.
  • http://www.mpcfaculty.net/ron_rinehart/30B/lipidchm.htm 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.mpcfaculty.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Fatty acid methyl esters by GC .

^ Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) .
  • Lipids - Definition, Glossary, Details - Oilgae 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: Academic]

.The fatty amides include N-acyl ethanolamines, such as the cannabinoid neurotransmitter anandamide.^ Lipids include oils, fatty acids, waxes, steroids (such as cholesterol and estrogen), and other related compounds.
  • Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The first includes nuclear receptors such as the PPAR protein family, known to be responsive to fatty acids and their derivatives.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Lipid droplets: FSP27 knockout enhances their sizzle 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Two strategies by which phase changes of membrane lipids are avoided: Cholesterol is abundant in membranes, such as plasma membranes, that include many lipids with long-chain saturated fatty acids.
  • Lipids & Membranes 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.rpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

[11]

Glycerolipids (triglycerides)

.Glycerolipids are composed mainly of mono-, di- and tri-substituted glycerols,[12] the most well-known being the fatty acid esters of glycerol (triacylglycerols), also known as triglycerides.^ Most of the lipid found in food is in the form of triglycerides which are fatty acid esters of glycerol.
  • Nutrition Fact Sheet: Lipids, Northwestern Nutrition, Feinberg School of Medicine 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.feinberg.northwestern.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipids - Definition, Glossary, Details - Oilgae 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fatty acids Triglycerides Phospholipids Sphingolipid .

^ The fatty acids are present as esters bonded to glycerol.
  • Lipid Bilayer Membranes - ChemWiki 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In these compounds, the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are each esterified, usually by different fatty acids.^ Triacylglycerols: triesters of glycerol and fatty acids .

^ The hydroxyls at C1 & C2 of glycerol are esterified to fatty acids.
  • Lipids & Membranes 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.rpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A triglyceride consists of a glycerol and three fatty acids.

.Because they function as a food store, these lipids comprise the bulk of storage fat in animal tissues.^ On function for Lipids is that of Energy storage .
  • Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC bioweb.wku.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Which of these is not a function of lipids?
  • CHEMISTRY II: WATER AND ORGANIC MOLECULES 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Animals in general use fat for energy storage because fat stores 9 KCal/g of energy.

.The hydrolysis of the ester bonds of triacylglycerols and the release of glycerol and fatty acids from adipose tissue is called fat mobilization.^ The fatty acids are present as esters bonded to glycerol.
  • Lipid Bilayer Membranes - ChemWiki 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fat gets deposited in the adipose tissue.

^ Triacylglycerol + 3 KOH Glycerol + 3 Fatty acid salts of potassium .

[13]
.Additional subclasses of glycerolipids are represented by glycosylglycerols, which are characterized by the presence of one or more sugar residues attached to glycerol via a glycosidic linkage.^ In glycolipids, one or more sugars are attached to this group.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Lipids/Membrane Lipids - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some substances classified as bacterial glycolipids have the sugar part acylated by one or more fatty acids and the glycerol part may be absent.

^ The carboxyl and the fatty acids are attached to the -OH groups of the Glycerol via a "dehydration synthesis" reaction to yield an " ester " bond.

.Examples of structures in this category are the digalactosyldiacylglycerols found in plant membranes[14] and seminolipid from mammalian sperm cells.^ Lipids are found in all organisms as structural components of the cell membrane.
  • Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.mmeade.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Normally, GM1 is found in the cell membrane.
  • Research reveals lipid’s unexpected role in triggering death of brain cells 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.stjude.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Research reveals lipid’s unexpected role in triggering death of brain cells 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.stjude.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Research reveals lipids' unexpected role in triggering death of brain cells 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.eurekalert.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cholesterol is a waxy alcohol substance that is found in the cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma of all animals.
  • Lipid Panel Test Article 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.christianet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]

Glycerophospholipids

.Glycerophospholipids, also referred to as phospholipids, are ubiquitous in nature and are key components of the lipid bilayer of cells, as well as being involved in metabolism and cell signaling.^ The bilayer contains lipids and natural detergents.
  • My Life on a Raft :The Scientist [2010-02-01] 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.the-scientist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Phospholipids are the main component of cell membranes.

^ Lipids are also an important component of the cell membrane.
  • Testing for Lipids, Proteins and Carbohydrates | SEP LESSONS 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC seplessons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Neural tissue (including the brain) contains relatively high amounts of glycerophospholipids, and alterations in their composition has been implicated in various neurological disorders.^ However, some fat sources such as acidulated soap stocks, can contain high amounts of free fatty acids without being rancid.

^ Foodstuff containing CNS lipids are useful as dietary supplements in the treatment and prophylaxis of various ailments and disorders that are generated due to deficiency of naturally occurring CNS lipids.
  • DAIRY BASED FOODSTUFF CONTAINING CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LIPIDS - Patent application 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It is hypothesized that in this instance, the amount of omega-3 relative to omega-6 in the tissue had exceeded the ratio tolerated by the body.
  • LIPID-CONTAINING COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF - Patent application 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[16] .Glycerophospholipids may be subdivided into distinct classes, based on the nature of the polar headgroup at the sn-3 position of the glycerol backbone in eukaryotes and eubacteria, or the sn-1 position in the case of archaebacteria.^ They are by long-established custom subdivided into triglycerides, 1,2- or 1,3-diglycerides, and 1- or 2-monoglycerides, according to the number and position of acyl groups (not, as one might suppose, the number of glycerol residues).

^ Most complex lipids are either glycerophospholipids, or simply phospholipids, and contain a polar phosphorus moiety and a glycerol backbone, or glycolipids, which contain a polar carbohydrate moiety instead of phosphorus.

^ This is why minerals are subdivided into two classes: macrominerals and microminerals.
  • Nutrients - calcium, food, nutrition, deficiency, needs, body, diet, absorption, carbohydrate, health, protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamin, amino, acids, water, vitamins, soluble 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[17]
Phosphatidylethanolamine[3]
.Examples of glycerophospholipids found in biological membranes are phosphatidylcholine (also known as PC, GPCho or lecithin), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE or GPEtn) and phosphatidylserine (PS or GPSer).^ Biological membrane lipids - - Glycerophospholipids .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The head groups of the phospholipids found in biological membranes are phosphatidylcholine ( lecithin ), phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol.
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipids - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Further esterification of the phosphoric acid of PA with a variety of small, hydroxyl-containing molecules leads to a series of derived phosphoglycerides, including phosphatidyl choline (PC), commonly known as lecithin, phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidyl serine (PS).
  • Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.mmeade.com [Source type: Reference]

.In addition to serving as a primary component of cellular membranes and binding sites for intra- and intercellular proteins, some glycerophospholipids in eukaryotic cells, such as phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidic acids are either precursors of, or are themselves, membrane-derived second messengers.^ Intracellular second messengers Additional Reading .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is also an important component of cell membranes.

^ Lipids are also an important component of cell membranes.

[18] .Typically, one or both of these hydroxyl groups are acylated with long-chain fatty acids, but there are also alkyl-linked and 1Z-alkenyl-linked (plasmalogen) glycerophospholipids, as well as dialkylether variants in archaebacteria.^ Triglycerides have 3 fatty acid chains, but the phospholipids have only 2 fatty acid chains and one phosphate (-) group .

^ There are several regularities in the chemistry of these unsaturated fatty acids.

^ Waxes : esters of long-chain fatty acids with long-chain fatty alcohols b.
  • http://www.mpcfaculty.net/ron_rinehart/30B/lipidchm.htm 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.mpcfaculty.net [Source type: Academic]

[19]

Sphingolipids

.Sphingolipids are a complex family of compounds[20] that share a common structural feature, a sphingoid base backbone that is synthesized de novo from the amino acid serine and a long-chain fatty acyl CoA, then converted into ceramides, phosphosphingolipids, glycosphingolipids and other compounds.^ As in sphingomyelin, the amino group of the sphingosine backbone is acylated by a fatty acid.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Lipids/Membrane Lipids - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Waxes are composed of a long-chain fatty acid bonded to a long-chain alcohol .

^ Structure of an amino acid.
  • CHEMISTRY II: WATER AND ORGANIC MOLECULES 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The major sphingoid base of mammals is commonly referred to as sphingosine.^ The two major lipoprotein groups are high-density lipoprotein (HDL), commonly referred to as "good" cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol.
  • Lipids: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The two major lipoprotein groups are high-density lipoprotein (HDL), commonly referred to as "good" cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein ( LDL ), also known as "bad" cholesterol.

.Ceramides (N-acyl-sphingoid bases) are a major subclass of sphingoid base derivatives with an amide-linked fatty acid.^ Biosynthesis Fatty acid derivatives .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fatty acid derivatives - Triglycerides .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Acyl-lipid metabolism/Fatty Acid ?
  • The Plant Specific Database - Gene Family Results 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC genomics.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The fatty acids are typically saturated or mono-unsaturated with chain lengths from 16 to 26 carbon atoms.^ Saturated fatty acids - - Unsaturated fatty acids .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most phospholipids have a saturated fatty acid on C-1 and an unsaturated fatty acid on C-2 of the glycerol backbone.
  • Fatty Acid, Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Saturated fatty acids .
  • Lipids, fatty acids, structure, composition, biochemistry and function 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC lipidlibrary.aocs.org [Source type: Reference]

[21]
Sphingomyelin[3]
.The major phosphosphingolipids of mammals are sphingomyelins (ceramide phosphocholines),[22] whereas insects contain mainly ceramide phosphoethanolamines[23] and fungi have phytoceramide phosphoinositols and mannose-containing headgroups.^ Sphingomyelin has a phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine head group.
  • Lipids & Membranes 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.rpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In sphingomyelin, a sphingolipid, the ceramide is esterified to phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as the polar head group.

^ Sphingomyelin is an abundant sphingolipid generated by transfer of the phosphocholine moiety of phosphatidylcholine to a ceramide, thus sphingomyelin is a unique form of a phospholipid.
  • Biochemistry of Lipids: Fatty Acids, Omega Fats, Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Eicosanoids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Reference]

[24] .The glycosphingolipids are a diverse family of molecules composed of one or more sugar residues linked via a glycosidic bond to the sphingoid base.^ Most of the fatty acids in the membrane are unsaturated because this allows the membrane to be more flexible (cis bonds are bent) to allow certain molecules through the membrane.
  • Lipid Bilayer Membranes - ChemWiki 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Up to three molecules of fatty acids can bond together, creating monoglycerides (one), diglycerides (two) and triglycerides (three fatty acids).
  • About Lipids | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fatty acids with one or more double bonds are called mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  • Olestra-5: Lipids and Fats 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.chemcases.com [Source type: Academic]

.Examples of these are the simple and complex glycosphingolipids such as cerebrosides and gangliosides.^ Aβ peptides interact with several glycosphingolipids (GSLs), including both neutral GSLs such as asialo-GM1 [9] or galactosylceramide (GalCer) [10] , [11] and gangliosides such as GM1 [12] .
  • PLoS ONE: How Cholesterol Constrains Glycolipid Conformation for Optimal Recognition of Alzheimer's β Amyloid Peptide (Aβ1-40) 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Complex glycolipids, for example gangliosides, contain a branched chain of as many as seven sugar residues.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Lipids/Membrane Lipids - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although binding bacterial toxins cannot be the normal function of gangliosides, such observations suggest that these glycolipids might also serve as receptors for normal extracellular molecules.
  • Membrane Structure -- Molecular Biology of the Cell -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Sterol lipids

.Sterol lipids, such as cholesterol and its derivatives, are an important component of membrane lipids,[25] along with the glycerophospholipids and sphingomyelins.^ The sphingomyelins are also membrane lipids.

^ Biological membrane lipids - - Glycerophospholipids .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is also an important component of cell membranes.

.The steroids, all derived from the same fused four-ring core structure, have different biological roles as hormones and signaling molecules.^ All steroids are molecules that have 4 rings like in Figure 2.14.
  • Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC faculty.stcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Structure of four steroids.
  • CHEMISTRY II: WATER AND ORGANIC MOLECULES 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Steroids The steroids are a family of lipids based on a molecule with four fused carbon rings.

.The eighteen-carbon (C18) steroids include the estrogen family whereas the C19 steroids comprise the androgens such as testosterone and androsterone.^ Lipids include oils, fatty acids, waxes, steroids (such as cholesterol and estrogen), and other related compounds.
  • Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Examples of lipids include the fats, waxes, oils and steroids (eg testosterone, cholesterol).
  • Lipids - Definition, Glossary, Details - Oilgae 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Steroids The steroids are a family of lipids based on a molecule with four fused carbon rings.

The C21 subclass includes the progestogens as well as the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.[26] .The secosteroids, comprising various forms of vitamin D, are characterized by cleavage of the B ring of the core structure.^ Cholesterol is a hydrocarbon multiple ring structure that forms a basic building block for animal cell wall construction.
  • Lipid_Management 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ttobey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cytoplasmic lipid bodies are osmiophilic structures, surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer with a unique fatty acid composition, have a neutral lipid rich core, and contain a variable protein composition ( 3 – 5 ).
  • Lipid Bodies Are Reservoirs of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Sites of Prostaglandin-E2 Synthesis in Colon Cancer Cells -- Accioly et al. 68 (6): 1732 -- Cancer Research 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Their specific structure and function varies according to what functional group s are attached to these rings.
  • lipid@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Academic]
  • lipid@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Academic]

[27] .Other examples of sterols are the bile acids and their conjugates,[28] which in mammals are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol and are synthesized in the liver.^ Biosynthetic derivatives - - Bile acids .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Your liver uses cholesterol to produce the bile acids.
  • Mount Sinai - Cardiovascular Institute and Center for Cardiovascular Health 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.mssm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cholesterol is a fatty substance produced by the liver to help meet the bodys need for hormones and bile acids.
  • Cholesterol and lipids - WrongDiagnosis.com 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

.The plant equivalents are the phytosterols, such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and brassicasterol; the latter compound is also used as a biomarker for algal growth.^ In plants, cholesterol is rarely present in other than small amounts, but such phytosterols as sitosterol, stigmasterol, avenasterol, campesterol and brassicasterol, and their fatty acid esters are usually found, and they perform a similar function.
  • Lipids, fatty acids, structure, composition, biochemistry and function 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC lipidlibrary.aocs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Such compounds are destroyed by some of the methods used in the isolation of glycosphingolipids, so they may be more widespread than has been thought.
  • Lipids, fatty acids, structure, composition, biochemistry and function 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC lipidlibrary.aocs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This strongly suggests possible similarity of the biosynthetic pathways that are present in both plant and microbial organisms responsible for synthesis of such compounds.

[29] .The predominant sterol in fungal cell membranes is ergosterol.^ While phospholipids are the major component of biological membranes, other non-glyceride lipid components like sphingolipids and sterols (such as cholesterol in animal cell membranes) are also found in biological membranes.
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipids - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Four major phospholipids predominate in the plasma membrane of many mammalian cells: phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylethanolamine.
  • Membrane Structure -- Molecular Biology of the Cell -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[30]

Prenol lipids

.Prenol lipids are synthesized from the 5-carbon precursors isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate that are produced mainly via the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway.^ MG1655 Pathway: lipid-A-precursor biosynthesis .
  • Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 lipid-A-precursor biosynthesis 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC biocyc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fatty-acid facts Fatty acids are compounds synthesized in nature via condensation of malonyl coenzyme A units by a fatty-acid synthase complex.

^ The structures of two lipid anchors are shown underneath: (C) a myristyl anchor (a 14-carbon saturated fatty acid chain), and (D) a farnesyl anchor (a 15-carbon unsaturated hydrocarbon chain).
  • Membrane Structure -- Molecular Biology of the Cell -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[31] The simple isoprenoids (linear alcohols, diphosphates, etc.) are formed by the successive addition of .C5 units, and are classified according to number of these terpene units.^ The isopentane units in most of these terpenes are easy to discern, and are defined by the shaded areas.

^ These fat deposits can lead to atherosclerosis , or hardening of the arteries, and cardiovascular disease, the number one killer in the United States.

^ The hydroxy acids are classified according to the number of carboxylic acids on their configuration.
  • Moisturizers: eMedicine Dermatology 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Structures containing greater than 40 carbons are known as polyterpenes.^ Saturated fatty acids of less than eight carbon atoms are liquid at physiological temperature, whereas those containing more than ten are solid.
  • Biochemistry of Lipids: Fatty Acids, Omega Fats, Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Eicosanoids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Short chain FA (SCFA) have a carbon chain length of up to four; medium chain FA (MCFA) have a chain length of 6-12 and long chain FA (LCFA) have a chain length greater than 12.
  • lipids.html 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC oneweb.utc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Two key exceptions to this are the PUFAs known as linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, containing unsaturation sites beyond carbons 9 and 10 (relative to the α-COOH group).
  • Biochemistry of Lipids: Fatty Acids, Omega Fats, Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Eicosanoids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Reference]

.Carotenoids are important simple isoprenoids that function as antioxidants and as precursors of vitamin A.^ Tocopherol (with the greatest Vitamin E activity) illustrated is an important natural antioxidant.
  • Lipids, fatty acids, structure, composition, biochemistry and function 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC lipidlibrary.aocs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Sphingomyelin is a precursor for a number of sphingolipid metabolites that have important functions in cellular signalling, including sphingosine-1-phosphate (see below), as part of the 'sphingomyelin cycle'.
  • Lipids, fatty acids, structure, composition, biochemistry and function 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC lipidlibrary.aocs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Among other fatty acids, palmitoleic and oleic acid have been shown to be important for sleep disorders, perhaps due to their function as precursors of the sleep inducing oleamide.
  • LIPID-CONTAINING COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF - Patent application 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[32] .Another biologically important class of molecules is exemplified by the quinones and hydroquinones, which contain an isoprenoid tail attached to a quinonoid core of non-isoprenoid origin.^ Lipids are important biological molecules.
  • Tag: Lipids - Explore content tagged Lipids on eHow.com 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules.

^ Attached to this is the inner core containing at least two 3-deoxy-D- manno -octulosonate units followed by two units of heptose.
  • Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 lipid-A-precursor biosynthesis 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC biocyc.org [Source type: Academic]

[33] Vitamin E and vitamin K, as well as the ubiquinones, are examples of this class. .Prokaryotes synthesize polyprenols (called bactoprenols) in which the terminal isoprenoid unit attached to oxygen remains unsaturated, whereas in animal polyprenols (dolichols) the terminal isoprenoid is reduced.^ Cholesterol and other steroids, fat-soluble vitamins, ubiquinone and plastoquinone, and dolichols are all isoprenoid lipids -- synthesized by condensation of isoprene units.

[34]

Saccharolipids

Structure of the saccharolipid Kdo2-Lipid A.[35] Glucosamine residues in blue, Kdo residues in red, acyl chains in black and phosphate groups in green.
.Saccharolipids describe compounds in which fatty acids are linked directly to a sugar backbone, forming structures that are compatible with membrane bilayers.^ Fatty acids - Structure .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This section describes the structure and physical and chemical properties of fatty acids.
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fatty acid structure and conformation .
  • BC Online: 1A - Lipid Structure 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the saccharolipids, a monosaccharide substitutes for the glycerol backbone present in glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids.^ The other major class of sphingolipids (besides the sphingomyelins) are the glycosphingolipids generated by substitution of carbohydrates to the sn 1 carbon of the glycerol backbone of a ceramide.
  • Biochemistry of Lipids: Fatty Acids, Omega Fats, Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Eicosanoids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Most complex lipids are either glycerophospholipids, or simply phospholipids, and contain a polar phosphorus moiety and a glycerol backbone, or glycolipids, which contain a polar carbohydrate moiety instead of phosphorus.

.The most familiar saccharolipids are the acylated glucosamine precursors of the Lipid A component of the lipopolysaccharides in Gram-negative bacteria.^ These acids are also precursors to the prostaglandins, a family of physiologically potent lipids present in minute amounts in most body tissues.

^ Several N-acyl homoserine lactones were later shown to be largely present in Gram-negative bacteria, playing the role of quorum-sensing signals.

^ Students know most macromolecules (polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids) in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursors.
  • Testing for Lipids, Proteins and Carbohydrates | SEP LESSONS 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC seplessons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Typical lipid A molecules are disaccharides of glucosamine, which are derivatized with as many as seven fatty-acyl chains.^ Fatty acids are typically found as components of larger lipid molecules.

^ Acyl-lipid metabolism/Fatty Acid ?
  • The Plant Specific Database - Gene Family Results 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC genomics.msu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Resorcinolic lipid molecules have a dual, aromatic and acyclic character, demonstrated by the presence of the aromatic ring and straight hydrocarbon chain of a length depending on the source of these lipids.

.The minimal lipopolysaccharide required for growth in E. coli is Kdo2-Lipid A, a hexa-acylated disaccharide of glucosamine that is glycosylated with two 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) residues.^ Attached to this is the inner core containing at least two 3-deoxy-D- manno -octulosonate units followed by two units of heptose.
  • Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 lipid-A-precursor biosynthesis 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC biocyc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Molecular cloning of the genes for lipid A disaccharide synthase and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase in Escherichia coli."
  • Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 lipid-A-precursor biosynthesis 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC biocyc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lipid A is a β-1,6-linked glucosamine disaccharide.
  • Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 lipid-A-precursor biosynthesis 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC biocyc.org [Source type: Academic]

[35]

Polyketides

.Polyketides are synthesized by polymerization of acetyl and propionyl subunits by classic enzymes as well as iterative and multimodular enzymes that share mechanistic features with the fatty acid synthases.^ Once chylomicrons enter the bloodstream, an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase breaks down the triglycerides into fatty acid and glycerol .
  • Lipid Profile - effects, food, nutrition, body, diet, health, protein, fat, acids, weight, water, soluble, Blood Lipids and Lipid Transport, Treating Abnormal Blood Lipids 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipid Profile 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.diet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is well established the EFAs have important impacts on human health, and it is widely agreed that the classic "Western diet" is particularly imbalanced vis-à-vis foods containing omega-3 versus omega-6 fatty acids.
  • Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.springer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fatty-acid facts Fatty acids are compounds synthesized in nature via condensation of malonyl coenzyme A units by a fatty-acid synthase complex.

.They comprise a large number of secondary metabolites and natural products from animal, plant, bacterial, fungal and marine sources, and have great structural diversity.^ Fatty acids (FA) and lipid-containing FA are ubiquitous in nature and a number of structures occur in both terrestrial and marine organisms, but the latter organisms have proved to be a major source of unique structures.
  • Marine Lipids - MDPI 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.mdpi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Like a typical natural product, mannosylerythritol lipids do not possess a single defined structure but consist of similar compounds depending on the producing microorganism and the substrate used.
  • (WO/2004/020647) PROCESS FOR PRODUCING AND RECOVERING MANNOSYLERYTHRITOL LIPIDS FROM CULTURE MEDIUM CONTAINING THE SAME 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Steroids are widely distributed in animals, where they are associated with a number of physiological processes.

[36][37] .Many polyketides are cyclic molecules whose backbones are often further modified by glycosylation, methylation, hydroxylation, oxidation, and/or other processes.^ Cells are made of molecules based on based on 4 main chemical elements: carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen (plus lots of other elements) and the many compounds that can be made from combining these elements.
  • Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.biology.iupui.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oxidation is a natural process in the body that occurs from chemical combinations with unstable molecules.
  • Cholesterol - Introduction 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Phosphatidylserine is an essential cofactor for the activation of protein kinase C, and it is involved in many other biological processes, including blood coagulation and apoptosis (programmed cell death).
  • Lipids, fatty acids, structure, composition, biochemistry and function 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC lipidlibrary.aocs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Many commonly used anti-microbial, anti-parasitic, and anti-cancer agents are polyketides or polyketide derivatives, such as erythromycins, tetracyclines, avermectins, and antitumor epothilones.^ By virtue of this key position, the therapeutic applications being pursued aim at using these compounds either as direct anti-tumor agents or as vaccine adjuvants.
  • Lipid A in Cancer Therapy 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.springer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These activities are targets of numerous pharmacological agents such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), COX-2 inhibitors, and leukotriene antagonists.
  • Fatty Acid, Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NSAIDs, which inhibit COX, are used as chemopreventive agents for carcinogenesis of colon and cause apoptosis of cancer cells.
  • Lipid Bodies Are Reservoirs of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Sites of Prostaglandin-E2 Synthesis in Colon Cancer Cells -- Accioly et al. 68 (6): 1732 -- Cancer Research 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[38]

Biological functions

Membranes

.Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized into membrane-bound organelles which carry out different biological functions.^ The primary function of TGs is to store energy in adipocytes and muscle cells; cholesterol is an ubiquitous constituent of cell membranes, steroids, bile acids, and signaling molecules.
  • Introduction: Lipid Disorders: Merck Manual Professional 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The best model for the structure of cell membranes involves a bilayer of amphipathic lipids approximately 8 nm wide into which various proteins are embedded.

^ We proposed three major tenets: 1) the lipid bilayer was not just a homogenous solvent or carrier for membrane proteins, but that the make-up of the lipids regulates lateral cell membrane heterogeneity; 2) rafts are not fixed in size but have the capability to coalesce to form larger functional rafts with scaffolding proteins holding them together; and 3) rafts serve to dynamically compartmentalize the membrane into different “reaction chambers” that allow completely independent processes to occur side by side.
  • My Life on a Raft :The Scientist [2010-02-01] 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.the-scientist.com [Source type: Academic]

.The glycerophospholipids are the main structural component of biological membranes, such as the cellular plasma membrane and the intracellular membranes of organelles; in animal cells the plasma membrane physically separates the intracellular components from the extracellular environment.^ Cholesterol is also a ubiquitous component of animal cell membranes.
  • BC Online: 1C - Dynamics of Membrane Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Biological membrane lipids - - Glycerophospholipids .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is also an important component of cell membranes.

.The glycerophospholipids are amphipathic molecules (containing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions) that contain a glycerol core linked to two fatty acid-derived "tails" by ester linkages and to one "head" group by a phosphate ester linkage.^ Structure - similar to a triacylglycerol, but has only 2 fatty acid tails, and in addition has a phosphate group = (1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and a -PO4) The -PO4 makes the glycerol "head" water soluble, or hydrophilic .
  • Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.biology.iupui.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Triglycerides have 3 fatty acid chains, but the phospholipids have only 2 fatty acid chains and one phosphate (-) group .

^ Glycerides are lipids possessing a glycerol core structure with one or more fatty acyl groups, which are fatty acid-derived chains attached to the glycerol backbone by ester linkages.
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.While glycerophospholipids are the major component of biological membranes, other non-glyceride lipid components such as sphingomyelin and sterols (mainly cholesterol in animal cell membranes) are also found in biological membranes.^ Meer, G. Lipid traffic in animal cells.
  • Membrane Structure -- Molecular Biology of the Cell -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cholesterol is also a ubiquitous component of animal cell membranes.
  • BC Online: 1C - Dynamics of Membrane Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The sphingomyelins are also membrane lipids.

[39] .In plants and algae, the galactosyldiacylglycerols,[40] and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol,[14] which lack a phosphate group, are important components of membranes of chloroplasts and related organelles and are the most abundant lipids in photosynthetic tissues, including those of higher plants, algae and certain bacteria.^ It is also an important component of cell membranes.

^ Lipids are also an important component of cell membranes.

^ Lipids are also an important component of the cell membrane.
  • Testing for Lipids, Proteins and Carbohydrates | SEP LESSONS 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC seplessons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bilayers have been found to exhibit high levels of birefringence which can be used to probe the degree of order (or disruption) within the bilayer using techniques such as dual polarisation interferometry
Self-organization of phospholipids: a spherical liposome, a micelle and a lipid bilayer.
.A biological membrane is a form of lipid bilayer.^ Biological membrane lipids - - Glycerophospholipids .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lipids in biological membranes - - Composition of the lipid bilayer .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Waxes - Biological membrane lipids .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The formation of lipid bilayers is an energetically-preferred process when the glycerophospholipids described above are in an aqueous environment.^ Formation of lipid bilayers is a spontaneous process when the glycerophospholipids described above are placed in water.
  • Lipid - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This lipid bilayer formation is spontaneous because of the hydrophobic interactions and energetically favorably structure.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Lipids/Membrane Lipids - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Different classes of drugs have been described with the capacity to inhibit lipid body formation, although no specific lipid body inhibitor has been identified thus far (reviewed in ref.
  • Lipid Bodies Are Reservoirs of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Sites of Prostaglandin-E2 Synthesis in Colon Cancer Cells -- Accioly et al. 68 (6): 1732 -- Cancer Research 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[41] .In an aqueous system, the polar heads of lipids align towards the polar, aqueous environment, while the hydrophobic tails minimize their contact with water and tend to cluster together, forming a vesicle; depending on the concentration of the lipid, this biophysical interaction may result in the formation of micelles, liposomes, or lipid bilayers.^ This lipid bilayer formation is spontaneous because of the hydrophobic interactions and energetically favorably structure.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Lipids/Membrane Lipids - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Their polar heads align with each other and their non-polar hydrocarbon tails align as well.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Lipids/Membrane Lipids - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Each lipid has two long hydrophobic hydrocarbon "tails" and a single polar "head".
  • Biochemistry/Lipids And The Plasma Membrane - Wikimedia Labs, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.labs.wikimedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other aggregations are also observed and form part of the polymorphism of amphiphile (lipid) behavior.^ As part of its mission, the NINDS conducts research on lipid storage diseases and other inherited neurometabolic disorders.
  • Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ From other studies, it is known that antimicrobial lipids, in contrast to other antibiotics, do not form resistant organisms.
  • Lipids and MRSA - Lauricidin® (monolaurin) 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.lauricidin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Images suggesting fusion of lipid bodies with each other were frequently observed, as well as, interactions with other organelles including ER, nuclei, and cytoplasmic vacuoles ( Fig.
  • Lipid Bodies Are Reservoirs of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Sites of Prostaglandin-E2 Synthesis in Colon Cancer Cells -- Accioly et al. 68 (6): 1732 -- Cancer Research 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Phase behavior is an area of study within biophysics and is the subject of current academic research.^ In studying collective behavior of this type, membrane research is showing the way for other areas of biology in which we ultimately have to come to grips with collectives, not simply with protein A interacting with protein B. .
  • My Life on a Raft :The Scientist [2010-02-01] 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.the-scientist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Structure and phase behavior of O-stearoylethanolamine: A combined calorimetric, spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction study.
  • "lipids" "lipidit" "lipidi" "rasva-aineet" "rasva- Full-Text RSS Feed 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.terkko.helsinki.fi [Source type: Academic]

^ Currently participating in or has participated in an investigational drug or medical device study within 30 days or five half-lives, whichever is longer, prior to enrollment in this study.
  • Lipid Infusion in Dialysis Patients With Endotoxemia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC clinicaltrials.gov [Source type: Academic]

[42][43] .Micelles and bilayers form in the polar medium by a process known as the hydrophobic effect.^ Because the peptide bonds themselves are polar and because water is absent, all peptide bonds in the bilayer are driven to form hydrogen bonds with one another.
  • Membrane Structure -- Molecular Biology of the Cell -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Amphipathic lipids in association with water form complexes in which their polar regions are in contact with water and their hydrophobic regions are away from water.
  • Lipids & Membranes 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.rpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Both forms of the protein are embedded in the lipid bilayer thru hydrophobic interactions.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Lipids/Membrane Lipids - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

[44] .When dissolving a lipophilic or amphiphilic substance in a polar environment, the polar molecules (i.e., water in an aqueous solution) become more ordered around the dissolved lipophilic substance, since the polar molecules cannot form hydrogen bonds to the lipophilic areas of the amphiphile.^ Since water is also a polar molecule the polar end of the phospholipid is "attracted" to the + ends of the water molecules.

^ Dissolved substances are called solutes; a fluid in which one or more substances can dissolve is called a solvent.
  • CHEMISTRY II: WATER AND ORGANIC MOLECULES 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Water forms as the two molecules bond covalently.
  • Chapter - Molecules of Life Ppt Presentation 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So in an aqueous environment, the water molecules form an ordered "clathrate" cage around the dissolved lipophilic molecule.^ Membrane lipid molecules are amphipathic, and some of them (the phospholipids) assemble spontaneously into bilayers when placed in water; the bilayers form sealed compartments that reseal if torn.
  • Membrane Structure -- Molecular Biology of the Cell -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Living things are composed of atoms and molecules within aqueous solutions (solutions that have materials dissolved in water).
  • CHEMISTRY II: WATER AND ORGANIC MOLECULES 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The nonpolar nature of lipids limits the passage of polar water molecules within cells, between cells, and from cells to the environment.
  • Moisturizers: eMedicine Dermatology 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[45]

Energy storage

.Triacylglycerols, stored in adipose tissue, are a major form of energy storage in animals.^ TAGs are the major storage form of energy.

^ This course covers the delivery of nutrients from foods to mammalian cells; major metabolic pathways; function of nutrients in energy metabolism, nitrogen and lipid metabolism, structural tissues and regulation; essentiality, activation, storage, excretion, and toxicity of nutrients.
  • Browse: Keywords: Lipids | OER Commons 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.oercommons.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to lipid storage diseases, other lysosomal storage diseases include the mucolipidoses, in which excessive amounts of lipids and sugar molecules are stored in the cells and tissues, and the mucopolysaccharidoses, in which excessive amounts of sugar molecules are stored.
  • Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The adipocyte, or fat cell, is designed for continuous synthesis and breakdown of triacylglycerols, with breakdown controlled mainly by the activation of hormone-sensitive enzyme lipase.^ In men, fat gravitates towards the center because the "male hormone" testosterone inhibits activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), an enzyme that plays a role in breaking down fat in the thigh.
  • Bigger Bottoms Boost Health? - Weight Loss and Weight Management Information Including Popular Diet Plans on MedicineNet.com 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To accomplish these feats, fat-storing cells, referred to as white fat cells or adipocytes, are uniquely specialized to accommodate over 95% of their cell volume as a single lipid droplet (Figure 1 ).
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Lipid droplets: FSP27 knockout enhances their sizzle 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cytokines - signaling molecules released from immune cells (like lymphocytes) or fat cells (adipocytes) that are typically part of the inflammation response.

[46] .The complete oxidation of fatty acids provides high caloric content, about 9 kcal/g, compared with 4 kcal/g for the breakdown of carbohydrates and proteins.^ Oxidation of fatty acids - - Regulation of fatty acid oxidation .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mobilization of fatty acids - - Oxidation of fatty acids .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It also explains how living organisms obtain fatty acids, both from their diets and through metabolic breakdown of stored fats.
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Migratory birds that must fly long distances without eating use stored energy of triacylglycerols to fuel their flights.^ Normally, cells use the energy stored in ATP by breaking one of the phosphate bonds, producing ADP. Energy is required to convert ADP + P i back to ATP. .

^ Fatty acids are stored for future use as triacylglycerols (TAGs) in all cells, but primarily in adipocytes of adipose tissue.
  • Fatty Acid, Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Triglycerides are carried to adipose tissue where they are stored and later returned to cells where they are used for energy....
  • Tag: Lipids - Explore content tagged Lipids on eHow.com 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

[47]

Signaling

.In recent years, evidence has emerged showing that lipid signaling is a vital part of the cell signaling.^ Lipids also make up a part of the cell...
  • Tag: Lipids - Explore content tagged Lipids on eHow.com 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules.

^ Our data show that treatment with aspirin significantly reduced the number of lipid bodies and PGE 2 levels in CACO-2 and IEC-6 H- ras V12 cells ( Figs.
  • Lipid Bodies Are Reservoirs of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Sites of Prostaglandin-E2 Synthesis in Colon Cancer Cells -- Accioly et al. 68 (6): 1732 -- Cancer Research 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[48] .Lipid signaling may occur via activation of G protein-coupled or nuclear receptors, and members of several different lipid categories have been identified as signaling molecules and cellular messengers.^ Signaling molecules on the outside of the cell can bind receptor proteins in the membrane.
  • BC Online: 1C - Dynamics of Membrane Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ New and unexpected biological functions, biosynthetic pathways and receptors are being revealed for lipids as appreciation of their complex interactions with protein and DNA are appreciated.
  • Keystone Symposia Conference | Bioactive Lipids: Biochemistry and Diseases - Program 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.keystonesymposia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The enzymes that create or degrade these lipids are subject to signal-mediated regulation , providing a mechanism for modulating affinity of a protein for a membrane surface.
  • Lipids & Membranes 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.rpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

[49] .These include sphingosine-1-phosphate, a sphingolipid derived from ceramide that is a potent messenger molecule involved in regulating calcium mobilization,[50] cell growth, and apoptosis;[51] diacylglycerol (DAG) and the phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs), involved in calcium-mediated activation of protein kinase C;[52] the prostaglandins, which are one type of fatty-acid derived eicosanoid involved in inflammation and immunity;[53] the steroid hormones such as estrogen, testosterone and cortisol, which modulate a host of functions such as reproduction, metabolism and blood pressure; and the oxysterols such as 25-hydroxy-cholesterol that are liver X receptor agonists.^ Oxysterols derived from cholesterol are involved in the regulation of three important metabolic pathways: steroid hormone biosynthesis, bile acid synthesis, and conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol.

^ Steroid hormones - Regulation of cholesterol metabolism .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Bile acids - - Steroid hormones .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[54]

Other functions

.The "fat-soluble" vitamins (A, D, E and K) – which are isoprene-based lipids – are essential nutrients stored in the liver and fatty tissues, with a diverse range of functions.^ It also explains how living organisms obtain fatty acids, both from their diets and through metabolic breakdown of stored fats.
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In spite of its bad press, cholesterol is an essential nutrient necessary for many functions, including: .
  • Cholesterol - Introduction 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fats are important in transporting other nutrients, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K—the “fat-soluble vitamins.” Fats are also an essential component of the cell membrane, and internal fatty tissues protect the vital organs from trauma and temperature change by providing padding and insulation.
  • Building Blocks of Nutrition: Fats, Lipids and Oils 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Building Blocks of Nutrition: Fats, Lipids and Oils 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Acyl-carnitines are involved in the transport and metabolism of fatty acids in and out of mitochondria, where they undergo beta oxidation.^ Oxidation of fatty acids - - Regulation of fatty acid oxidation .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mobilization of fatty acids - - Oxidation of fatty acids .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It also explains how living organisms obtain fatty acids, both from their diets and through metabolic breakdown of stored fats.
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[55] .Polyprenols and their phosphorylated derivatives also play important transport roles, in this case the transport of oligosaccharides across membranes.^ This plays a role in many functions of the cell such as the transport of energy and the conversion of energy.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Lipids/Membrane Lipids - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Secondary functions of lipids include structural components (as in the case of phospholipids that are the major building block in cell membranes) and "messengers" (hormones) that play roles in communications within and between cells.
  • CHEMISTRY II: WATER AND ORGANIC MOLECULES 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Couerbe made the hypothesis that phosphorus may play an important role in the animal brain.

.Polyprenol phosphate sugars and polyprenol diphosphate sugars function in extra-cytoplasmic glycosylation reactions, in extracellular polysaccharide biosynthesis (for instance, peptidoglycan polymerization in bacteria), and in eukaryotic protein N-glycosylation.^ Polyprenol diphosphates were shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides in Salmonella ( Wright A et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1967, 57, 1798 ) and in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycans in Micrococcus ( Higashi Y et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1967, 57, 1878 ).

^ PubMed ] Parelch, R.B. Effects of glycosylation on protein function.
  • Membrane Structure -- Molecular Biology of the Cell -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ PubMed ] Englund, P.T. The structure and biosynthesis of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol protein anchors.
  • Membrane Structure -- Molecular Biology of the Cell -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[56][57] .Cardiolipins are a subclass of glycerophospholipids containing four acyl chains and three glycerol groups that are particularly abundant in the inner mitochondrial membrane.^ Glycerol contains 3 carbons and 3 hydroxyl groups.

^ The reduction in calories results from replacing the traditional three long-chain fatty acids on the glycerol backbone with either one or two lower- calorie short-chain fatty acids.

^ If the acyl chains at the end hydroxyl groups (1 & 3) of glycerol are different, the center carbon becomes a chiral center and enantiomeric configurations must be recognized.

[58] .They are believed to activate enzymes involved with oxidative phosphorylation.^ The increase in AA was attributed to activation of GIVA-PLA2, a Ca2+-dependent enzyme with multiple phosphorylation sites (Sun et al., 2004).
  • Alzforum: News 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.alzforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amongst other functions, it plays a key role in modifying the activities of the enzymes concerned with oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Lipids, fatty acids, structure, composition, biochemistry and function 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC lipidlibrary.aocs.org [Source type: Reference]

[59]

Metabolism

.The major dietary lipids for humans and other animals are animal and plant triglycerides, sterols, and membrane phospholipids.^ The major class of membrane lipids are the phospholipids.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Lipids/Membrane Lipids - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other types of dietary lipids are cholesterol and phospholipids.
  • Nutrition Fact Sheet: Lipids, Northwestern Nutrition, Feinberg School of Medicine 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.feinberg.northwestern.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Lipid droplets within adipocytes are composed of a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters that are surrounded on their surfaces by a phospholipid monolayer associated with lipid droplet proteins ( 6 ).
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Lipid droplets: FSP27 knockout enhances their sizzle 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

.The process of lipid metabolism synthesizes and degrades the lipid stores and produces the structural and functional lipids characteristic of individual tissues.^ Like a typical natural product, mannosylerythritol lipids do not possess a single defined structure but consist of similar compounds depending on the producing microorganism and the substrate used.
  • (WO/2004/020647) PROCESS FOR PRODUCING AND RECOVERING MANNOSYLERYTHRITOL LIPIDS FROM CULTURE MEDIUM CONTAINING THE SAME 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules.

^ Adipose tissue and striated muscle each synthesize LpL, regulated by the fasted/fed and active/sedentary metabolic states.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Molecular processes that handle — and mishandle — dietary lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

Biosynthesis

.In animals, when there is an oversupply of dietary carbohydrate, the excess carbohydrate is converted to triacylglycerol.^ Animals convert excess sugars (beyond their glycogen storage capacities) into fats.
  • CHEMISTRY II: WATER AND ORGANIC MOLECULES 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This involves the synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and the esterification of fatty acids in the production of triacylglycerol, a process called lipogenesis.^ Glucose is catabolized to acetyl-CoA and the acetyl-CoA is used for de novo fatty acid synthesis.
  • Fatty Acid, Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Branched chain fatty acids ( iso - and anteiso -fatty acids) are common minor compounds of the lipids found in dairy products and fish ( <1−3%) and major fatty acids of Gram-positive bacteria.
  • Quantification of Branched Chain Fatty Acids in Polar and Neutral Lipids of Cheese and Fish Samples - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications) 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC pubs.acs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fatty acids with one or more double bonds are called mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  • Olestra-5: Lipids and Fats 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.chemcases.com [Source type: Academic]

[60] .Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units.^ Determinations of substrates (glucose, B-hydroxybutyrate and free fatty acids) in blood will be  made using specific biochemical reactions that generate a specific color in proportion to their concentration.
  • UC MMPC Lipid, Lipoprotein and Glucose Metabolism Core 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC mousephenotype.uc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fatty-acid facts Fatty acids are compounds synthesized in nature via condensation of malonyl coenzyme A units by a fatty-acid synthase complex.

^ In certain embodiments, each of these supplements/nutrients may reduce the requirement for omega-3 fatty acids and allow for a higher omega-6 to omega-3 ratio than in the absence of said supplement(s)/nutrient(s).
  • LIPID-CONTAINING COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF - Patent application 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The acyl chains in the fatty acids are extended by a cycle of reactions that add the acetyl group, reduce it to an alcohol, dehydrate it to an alkene group and then reduce it again to an alkane group.^ Waxes are composed of a long-chain fatty acid bonded to a long-chain alcohol .

^ The fatty acid groups can be the same or different.

^ Unsaturated fatty acids - - Substituent groups .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis are divided into two groups, in animals and fungi all these fatty acid synthase reactions are carried out by a single multifunctional protein,[61] while in plant plastids and bacteria separate enzymes perform each step in the pathway.^ Not all fatty acids are considered harmful.
  • Nutrients - calcium, food, nutrition, deficiency, needs, body, diet, absorption, carbohydrate, health, protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamin, amino, acids, water, vitamins, soluble 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Biosynthesis Fatty acid derivatives .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The sample is divided into two.
  • BC Online: 1C - Dynamics of Membrane Lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

[62][63] .The fatty acids may be subsequently converted to triacylglycerols that are packaged in lipoproteins and secreted from the liver.^ Cholesterol is a fatty substance produced by the liver to help meet the bodys need for hormones and bile acids.
  • Cholesterol and lipids - WrongDiagnosis.com 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

^ Together, these effects may greatly increase fatty acid oxidation within WAT in the FSP27-depleted animal and attenuate the release of fatty acids to muscle and liver where they can cause insulin resistance.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Lipid droplets: FSP27 knockout enhances their sizzle 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All triacylglycerols are esters of glycerol and three fatty acid molecules, nevertheless, the fatty acids can have different chain lengths, branching, unsaturation , and positions on the glycerol molecule.

.The synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids involves a desaturation reaction, whereby a double bond is introduced into the fatty acyl chain.^ Saturated fatty acids - - Unsaturated fatty acids .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Waxes are composed of a long-chain fatty acid bonded to a long-chain alcohol .

^ The Fatty acids can be classified into families based on chain length and on the number of C=C double bonds present.

.For example, in humans, the desaturation of stearic acid by stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 produces oleic acid.^ (Deuterium) to study the in vivo conversion of stearic acid into oleic acid ( J Biol Chem 1936, 114, 381 ).

^ For example, in cis-9-octadecenoic acid, which has the common name of oleic acid, the double bond falls between the 9th and 10th carbon atoms.

^ The names of these enzymes are Δ 5 -eicosatrienoyl-CoA desaturase, Δ 6 -oleoyl(linolenoyl)-CoA desaturase and Δ 9 -stearoyl-CoA desaturase.
  • Fatty Acid, Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Academic]

.The doubly-unsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid as well as the triply-unsaturated linolenic acid cannot be synthesized in mammalian tissues, and are therefore essential fatty acids and must be obtained from the diet.^ They are essential fatty acids in that they cannot be synthesised in animal tissues.
  • Lipids, fatty acids, structure, composition, biochemistry and function 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC lipidlibrary.aocs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Saturated fatty acids - - Unsaturated fatty acids .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Nutritionally, these are essential fatty acids as they cannot be synthesized in animal tissues.

[64]
.Triacylglycerol synthesis takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum by metabolic pathways in which acyl groups in fatty acyl-CoAs are transferred to the hydroxyl groups of glycerol-3-phosphate and diacylglycerol.^ Glycerol contains 3 carbons and 3 hydroxyl groups.

^ Oxysterols derived from cholesterol are involved in the regulation of three important metabolic pathways: steroid hormone biosynthesis, bile acid synthesis, and conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol.

^ The hydroxyls at C1 & C2 of glycerol are esterified to fatty acids.
  • Lipids & Membranes 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.rpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

[65]
.Terpenes and isoprenoids, including the carotenoids, are made by the assembly and modification of isoprene units donated from the reactive precursors isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate.^ The branched chain and cyclic structures of the terpenes and steroids are constructed by sequential alkylation reactions of unsaturated isopentyl pyrophosphate units.

^ Ruzicka L formulated the "biogenetic isoprene rule" as follows: the carbon skeleton of terpenes is composed by isoprene units linked in regular or irregular arrangement.

^ Terpene is the general term for lipids that are synthesized from isoprene units.

[66] .These precursors can be made in different ways.^ The details of how membrane proteins become associated with the lipid bilayer in these different ways are discussed in Chapter 12.
  • Membrane Structure -- Molecular Biology of the Cell -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Interestingly, a careful microscopic inspection of the monolayers revealed subtle differences in the way that these latter peptides change the monolayer morphology.
  • PLoS ONE: Active Fragments from Pro- and Antiapoptotic BCL-2 Proteins Have Distinct Membrane Behavior Reflecting Their Functional Divergence 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As depicted in the following diagram, these 5-carbon reactants are made from three acetate units by way of an aldol-like addition of a malonate intermediate to acetoacetate.

.In animals and archaea, the mevalonate pathway produces these compounds from acetyl-CoA,[67] while in plants and bacteria the non-mevalonate pathway uses pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as substrates.^ Like a typical natural product, mannosylerythritol lipids do not possess a single defined structure but consist of similar compounds depending on the producing microorganism and the substrate used.
  • (WO/2004/020647) PROCESS FOR PRODUCING AND RECOVERING MANNOSYLERYTHRITOL LIPIDS FROM CULTURE MEDIUM CONTAINING THE SAME 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently, an alternative reaction sequence, starting from pyruvic acid and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, has been identified (bottom equations in the following diagram).

^ A majority of these compounds are found only in plants, but some of the larger and more complex terpenes ( e.g.

[66][68] .One important reaction that uses these activated isoprene donors is steroid biosynthesis.^ Oxysterols derived from cholesterol are involved in the regulation of three important metabolic pathways: steroid hormone biosynthesis, bile acid synthesis, and conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol.

^ The hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids are generated by lipoxygenases, and of these the 5-lipoxygenase is especially important as it produces the first intermediate in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes.
  • Lipids, fatty acids, structure, composition, biochemistry and function 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC lipidlibrary.aocs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This illustrates a second important factor contributing to the use of these amphiphiles as cleaning agents.

.Here, the isoprene units are joined together to make squalene and then folded up and formed into a set of rings to make lanosterol.^ The diagram below shows how nucleotides are joined together to form a "chain" of nucleotides.

^ Lipids can be divided into three groups: fats and oils, phospholipids--which help make up the cell membrane of...
  • Tag: Lipids - Explore content tagged Lipids on eHow.com 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Nucleic acids are composed of units called nucleotides, which are linked together to form a larger molecule.

[69] .Lanosterol can then be converted into other steroids such as cholesterol and ergosterol.^ Lipids include oils, fatty acids, waxes, steroids (such as cholesterol and estrogen), and other related compounds.
  • Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The other major finding of this study is that cholesterol could transform the inactive GalCer-NFA into a fully active GSL-cholesterol complex recognized by Aβ 1–40 .
  • PLoS ONE: How Cholesterol Constrains Glycolipid Conformation for Optimal Recognition of Alzheimer's β Amyloid Peptide (Aβ1-40) 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxysterols derived from cholesterol are involved in the regulation of three important metabolic pathways: steroid hormone biosynthesis, bile acid synthesis, and conversion of lanosterol to cholesterol.

[69][70]

Degradation

.Beta oxidation is the metabolic process by which fatty acids are broken down in the mitochondria and/or in peroxisomes to generate acetyl-CoA.^ Acetyl-CoA is generated in the mitochondria primarily from two sources, the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) reaction and fatty acid oxidation .
  • Fatty Acid, Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxidation of fatty acids - - Regulation of fatty acid oxidation .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mobilization of fatty acids - - Oxidation of fatty acids .
  • lipid (biochemistry) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.For the most part, fatty acids are oxidized by a mechanism that is similar to, but not identical with, a reversal of the process of fatty acid synthesis.^ Saponification is the process of breaking down a neutral fat into glycerol and fatty acids by treatment with alkali: .

^ Most phospholipids have a saturated fatty acid on C-1 and an unsaturated fatty acid on C-2 of the glycerol backbone.
  • Fatty Acid, Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Commercially, trans fatty acids are created by hydrogenation, a process employed to increase the oxidative stability and/or modify the physical and functional properties of unsaturated fatty acids.

.That is, two-carbon fragments are removed sequentially from the carboxyl end of the acid after steps of dehydrogenation, hydration, and oxidation to form a beta-keto acid, which is split by thiolysis.^ Subsequent reactions effect an oxidative cleavage of glucose to pyruvic acid (CH 3 COCO 2 H), and this in turn is transformed to the two-carbon building block, acetate.

^ The structures of two lipid anchors are shown underneath: (C) a myristyl anchor (a 14-carbon saturated fatty acid chain), and (D) a farnesyl anchor (a 15-carbon unsaturated hydrocarbon chain).
  • Membrane Structure -- Molecular Biology of the Cell -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Formation of a peptide bond between two amino acids by the condensation (dehydration) of the amino end of one amino acid and the acid end of the other amino acid.
  • CHEMISTRY II: WATER AND ORGANIC MOLECULES 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The acetyl-CoA is then ultimately converted into ATP, CO2, and H2O using the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain.^ No coelutions of branched chain fatty acids with other fatty acids were obtained on the medium polar column used for quantification.
  • Quantification of Branched Chain Fatty Acids in Polar and Neutral Lipids of Cheese and Fish Samples - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications) 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC pubs.acs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The co-enzyme for this reaction is NADP + generating NADPH. The advantage of this series of reactions for converting mitochondrial acetyl-CoA into cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA is that the NADPH produced by the malic enzyme reaction can be a major source of reducing co-factor for the fatty acid synthase activities.
  • Fatty Acid, Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They used variants of natural lipids in which one fatty acid had been replaced by a short chain of six carbons (C6) carrying a fluorescent NBD moiety (C6-NBD).
  • Brilliant lipids - Nature Methods 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.Hence the Krebs Cycle can start at acetyl-CoA when fat is being broken down for energy if there is little or no glucose available.^ Both oxidation and synthesis of fats utilize an activated two carbon intermediate, acetyl-CoA. However, the acetyl-CoA in fat synthesis exists temporarily bound to the enzyme complex as malonyl-CoA. .
  • Fatty Acid, Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Under these conditions the mitochondrial acetyl units can be stored as fat for future energy demands.
  • Fatty Acid, Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Glucose is catabolized to acetyl-CoA and the acetyl-CoA is used for de novo fatty acid synthesis.
  • Fatty Acid, Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Academic]

.The energy yield of the complete oxidation of the fatty acid palmitate is 106 ATP.[71] Unsaturated and odd-chain fatty acids require additional enzymatic steps for degradation.^ Learn the following unsaturated fatty acids -  .
  • BC Online: 1A - Lipid Structure 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) 2.

^ Fatty acids + Long chain alcohol .

Nutrition and health

.Most of the lipid found in food is in the form of triacylglycerols, cholesterol and phospholipids.^ Most of the lipid found in food is in the form of triglycerides which are fatty acid esters of glycerol.
  • Nutrition Fact Sheet: Lipids, Northwestern Nutrition, Feinberg School of Medicine 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.feinberg.northwestern.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Lipids - Definition, Glossary, Details - Oilgae 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the most stable configuration for amphipathic lipids w ith a cylindrical shape, such as phospholipids .
  • Lipids & Membranes 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.rpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The major plasma lipids include cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids.
  • Lipid Profile - Oakwood Healthcare System 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.oakwood.org [Source type: News]

.A minimum amount of dietary fat is necessary to facilitate absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) and carotenoids.^ Fat soluble vitamins .

^ The essential dietary substances called vitamins are commonly classified as "water soluble" or "fat soluble".

^ Fat soluble vitamin levels may be decreased.
  • Lipid Disorders - Evaluation, Treatment and Research at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC patientrecruitment.nhlbi.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[72] .Humans and other mammals have a dietary requirement for certain essential fatty acids, such as linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) and alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) because they cannot be synthesized from simple precursors in the diet.^ They are essential fatty acids in that they cannot be synthesised in animal tissues.
  • Lipids, fatty acids, structure, composition, biochemistry and function 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC lipidlibrary.aocs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Nutritionally, these are essential fatty acids as they cannot be synthesized in animal tissues.

^ Mammals can synthesize most of all the fatty acids they need.

[73] .Both of these fatty acids are 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids differing in the number and position of the double bonds.^ Saturated fatty acids contain no C=C double bonds.

^ If the fatty acid is unsaturated, the base name reflects the number of double bonds (e.g.
  • BC Online: 1A - Lipid Structure 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The fatty acid groups can be the same or different.

.Most vegetable oils are rich in linoleic acid (safflower, sunflower, and corn oils).^ Burr GO and Miller used the alkali conjugation as a rapid analytical method for determining linoleic acid content of vegetable fats.

^ First isolation of linoleic acid ("Leinol") prepared from linseed oil by Sacc F ( Ann 1844, 51, 213 ).

^ The composition of claim 16, comprising three or more of the following components:a peanut oil present at 8 to 56 percent by weight in said composition;a vegetable oil present at 8 to 46 percent by weight in said composition;an avocado oil present at 3 to 16 percent by weight in said composition;an olive oil present at 5 to 32 percent by weight in said composition;a sunflower oil present at 6 to 34 percent by weight in said composition; anda safflower oil present at 2 to 30 percent by weight in said composition.
  • LIPID-CONTAINING COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF - Patent application 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Alpha-linolenic acid is found in the green leaves of plants, and in selected seeds, nuts and legumes (particularly flax, rapeseed, walnut and soy).^ There are numerous other omega-3 PUFAs found in nature but for the purposes of this discussion focus is placed on ALA, EPA, and DHA. Most of the ALA consumed in the diet comes from plant sources such as flax seed, walnuts, pecans, hazelnuts, and kiwifruit.
  • Fatty Acid, Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nuts and seeds are plant embryos containing plant stem cells.
  • LIPID-CONTAINING COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF - Patent application 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Starches can be found in potatoes, rice, wheat, corn, bananas, peas, beans, lentils, and other tubers, seeds and fruits of plants.
  • Testing for Lipids, Proteins and Carbohydrates | SEP LESSONS 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC seplessons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74] .Fish oils are particularly rich in the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).^ Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase family .
  • TAIR - Lipid Metabolism Gene Families 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.arabidopsis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Branched chain fatty acids ( iso - and anteiso -fatty acids) are common minor compounds of the lipids found in dairy products and fish ( <1−3%) and major fatty acids of Gram-positive bacteria.
  • Quantification of Branched Chain Fatty Acids in Polar and Neutral Lipids of Cheese and Fish Samples - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications) 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC pubs.acs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lipids include oils, fatty acids, waxes, steroids (such as cholesterol and estrogen), and other related compounds.
  • Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[75] .A large number of studies have shown positive health benefits associated with consumption of omega-3 fatty acids on infant development, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and various mental illnesses, such as depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dementia.^ Branched chain fatty acids ( iso - and anteiso -fatty acids) are common minor compounds of the lipids found in dairy products and fish ( <1−3%) and major fatty acids of Gram-positive bacteria.
  • Quantification of Branched Chain Fatty Acids in Polar and Neutral Lipids of Cheese and Fish Samples - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS Publications) 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC pubs.acs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The ratio of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids is critical to normal cellular function and alterations in this ratio have been correlated with diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.
  • Fatty Acid, Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Triglyceride, and Phospholipid Synthesis and Metabolism 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC themedicalbiochemistrypage.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent work has suggested that contrary to images of early hominids as hunters and scavengers of meat, human brain development might have required the consumption of fish which is highly enriched in arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids.  A large percent of the brain consists of lipids, which are highly enriched in these  two fatty acids.  These acids are necessary for the proper development of the human brain and in adults, deficiencies in these might contribute to cognitive disorders like ADHD, dementia, and dyslexia.
  • BC Online: 1A - Lipid Structure 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC employees.csbsju.edu [Source type: Academic]

[76][77] .In contrast, it is now well-established that consumption of trans fats, such as those present in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.^ The risk for coronary heart disease is highest in those with a combination of risk factors.
  • Screening for Lipid Disorders in Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.ahrq.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These unnatural trans-fats appear to to be associated with increased heart disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity, as well as immune response and reproductive problems.

^ In 2003, ADM, Decatur, IL, introduced NovaLipid(TM), an extensive line of zero- and reduced-trans oils and fats produced through enzymatic interesterification.

[78][79][80]
.A few studies have suggested that total dietary fat intake is linked to an increased risk of obesity[81][82] and diabetes.^ These unnatural trans-fats appear to to be associated with increased heart disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity, as well as immune response and reproductive problems.

^ Evidence suggests that increased levels of LDL are highly correlated with increased risk of heart disease, even while total cholesterol remains within normal range [ 20 ].
  • Breast Cancer Research | Full text | Extended adjuvant hormonal therapy with exemestane has no detrimental effect on the lipid profile of postmenopausal breast cancer patients: final results of the ATENA lipid sub-study 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC cl.exct.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Adipose expression is also increased in human type 2 diabetes ( 103 ), which likely accelerates the delivery of NEFA calories into this tissue and could worsen obesity (Table 1 ).
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Molecular processes that handle — and mishandle — dietary lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

[83][84] .However, a number of very large studies, including the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, an eight year study of 49,000 women, the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, revealed no such links.^ A conventional curriculum for a 5 year program at a university of medicine would be comprised of 40 weeks of Foundation study concerning classes in a large range of subjects including anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and immunology.

^ Results: Median length of follow-up was 3.8 years.
  • Lipids « NPCi blog 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.npci.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Dietary fatty acids are intricately linked with reproduction from menstruation, to fertilization, to gestation-related complications such as diabetes, to development of the fetus, to pre-term delivery, to post-natal health of the mother and the child.
  • LIPID-CONTAINING COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF - Patent application 17 January 2010 9:48 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[85][86][87] .None of these studies suggested any connection between percentage of calories from fat and risk of cancer, heart disease or weight gain.^ Non-specific factors may play a role; patients with heart disease are less active, may lose weight and muscle strength, and frequently smoke cigarettes.
  • Vascular calcifications, leptins and lipids 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC courses.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These unnatural trans-fats appear to to be associated with increased heart disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity, as well as immune response and reproductive problems.

^ It should be the goal for high-risk people, including those with existing heart disease, diabetes, or two or more risk factors for heart disease; 70 mg/dL is an optimal goal for these individuals.
  • Cholesterol - Introduction 6 February 2010 12:012 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

The Nutrition Source, a website maintained by the Department of Nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health, summarizes the current evidence on the impact of dietary fat: "Detailed research—much of it done at Harvard—shows that the total amount of fat in the diet isn't really linked with weight or disease."[88]

See also

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Bibliography

  • Bhagavan NV. (2002). Medical Biochemistry. San Diego: Harcourt/Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-095440-0. 
  • Devlin TM. (1997). Textbook of Biochemistry: With Clinical Correlations (4th ed.). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-17053-4. 
  • Stryer L, Berg JM, Tymoczko JL. (2007). Biochemistry (6th ed.). San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-8724-5. 
  • Van Holde KE, Mathews CK. (1996). Biochemistry (2nd ed.). Menlo Park, Calif: Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co. ISBN 0-8053-3931-0. 

External links

Introductory
Classification
  • LIPID MAPS - LIPID Metabolites And Pathways Strategy
Nomenclature
Databases
  • LIPID MAPS - Comprehensive lipid and lipid-associated gene/protein databases.
  • LipidBank - Japanese database of lipids and related properties, spectral data and references.
  • LIPIDAT - Database composed mainly of phospholipids and associated thermodynamic data.
General
  • ApolloLipids - Provides dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment information as well as continuing medical education programs
  • National Lipid Association - Professional medical education organization for health care professionals who seek to prevent morbidity and mortality stemming from dyslipidemias and other cholesterol-related disorders.

Simple English

File:Common lipids
Structures of some common lipids. At the top are oleic acid[1] and cholesterol.[2] The middle structure is a triglyceride composed of oleoyl, stearoyl, and palmitoyl chains attached to a glycerol backbone. At the bottom is the common phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine.[3]
A lipid is a type of molecule useful in biology. It is also oily or waxy. Fats are made from lipid molecules. Sources of lipid can be found in algae, seeds, meat, cheese, butter and fish. Lipids are long chains of carbon and hydrogen molecules. Lipids are classified as simple and complex. Examples of complex molecules could be steroids or phospholipids.The function of the lipids is to serve as an energetic reserve.

References

  1. Stryer et al., p. 328.
  2. Maitland, Jr Jones (1998). Organic Chemistry. W W Norton & Co Inc (Np). p. 139. ISBN 0-393-97378-6. 
  3. see Stryer, p. 330

Bibliography

  • Stryer L, Berg JM, Tymoczko JL (2007). Biochemistry (6th ed.). San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-8724-5. 



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Lipid, which are similar to those in the above article.








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