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Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display.
  1. Polarizing filter film with a vertical axis to polarize light as it enters.
  2. Glass substrate with ITO electrodes. The shapes of these electrodes will determine the shapes that will appear when the LCD is turned ON. Vertical ridges etched on the surface are smooth.
  3. Twisted nematic liquid crystal.
  4. Glass substrate with common electrode film (ITO) with horizontal ridges to line up with the horizontal filter.
  5. Polarizing filter film with a horizontal axis to block/pass light.
  6. Reflective surface to send light back to viewer. (In a backlit LCD, this layer is replaced with a light source.)

A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat panel used for electronically displaying information such as text, images, and moving pictures. Its uses include monitors for computers, televisions, instrument panels, and other devices ranging from aircraft cockpit displays, to every-day consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones. Among its major features are its lightweight construction, its portability, and its ability to be produced in much larger screen sizes than are practical for the construction of cathode ray tube (CRT) display technology. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment. It is an electronically-modulated optical device made up of any number of pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome. The earliest discovery leading to the development of LCD technology, the discovery of liquid crystals, dates from 1888.[1] By 2008, worldwide sales of televisions with LCD screens had surpassed the sale of CRT units.



LCD alarm clock

Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes, and two polarizing filters, the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. With no actual liquid crystal between the polarizing filters, light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer.

The surface of the electrodes that are in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectionally rubbed using, for example, a cloth. The direction of the liquid crystal alignment is then defined by the direction of rubbing. Electrodes are made of a transparent conductor called Indium Tin Oxide (ITO).

Before applying an electric field, the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is determined by the alignment at the surfaces of electrodes. In a twisted nematic device (still the most common liquid crystal device), the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular to each other, and so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure, or twist. This reduces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light, and the device appears grey. If the applied voltage is large enough, the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are almost completely untwisted and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated as it passes through the liquid crystal layer. This light will then be mainly polarized perpendicular to the second filter, and thus be blocked and the pixel will appear black. By controlling the voltage applied across the liquid crystal layer in each pixel, light can be allowed to pass through in varying amounts thus constituting different levels of gray.

LCD with top polarizer removed from device and placed on top, such that the top and bottom polarizers are parallel.

The optical effect of a twisted nematic device in the voltage-on state is far less dependent on variations in the device thickness than that in the voltage-off state. Because of this, these devices are usually operated between crossed polarizers such that they appear bright with no voltage (the eye is much more sensitive to variations in the dark state than the bright state). These devices can also be operated between parallel polarizers, in which case the bright and dark states are reversed. The voltage-off dark state in this configuration appears blotchy, however, because of small variations of thickness across the device.

Both the liquid crystal material and the alignment layer material contain ionic compounds. If an electric field of one particular polarity is applied for a long period of time, this ionic material is attracted to the surfaces and degrades the device performance. This is avoided either by applying an alternating current or by reversing the polarity of the electric field as the device is addressed (the response of the liquid crystal layer is identical, regardless of the polarity of the applied field).

When a large number of pixels are needed in a display, it is not technically possible to drive each directly since then each pixel would require independent electrodes. Instead, the display is multiplexed. In a multiplexed display, electrodes on one side of the display are grouped and wired together (typically in columns), and each group gets its own voltage source. On the other side, the electrodes are also grouped (typically in rows), with each group getting a voltage sink. The groups are designed so each pixel has a unique, unshared combination of source and sink. The electronics, or the software driving the electronics then turns on sinks in sequence, and drives sources for the pixels of each sink.


Important factors to consider when evaluating an LCD monitor:

  • Resolution: The horizontal and vertical screen size expressed in pixels (e.g., 1024×768). Unlike CRT monitors, LCD monitors have a native-supported resolution for best display effect.
  • Dot pitch: The distance between the centers of two adjacent pixels. The smaller the dot pitch size, the less granularity is present, resulting in a sharper image. Dot pitch may be the same both vertically and horizontally, or different (less common).
  • Viewable size: The size of an LCD panel measured on the diagonal (more specifically known as active display area).
  • Response time: The minimum time necessary to change a pixel's color or brightness. Response time is also divided into rise and fall time. For LCD monitors, this is measured in btb (black to black) or gtg (gray to gray). These different types of measurements make comparison difficult.[2]
  • Input lag - a delay between the moment monitor receives the image over display link and the moment the image is displayed. Input lag is caused by internal digital processing such as image scaling, noise reduction and details enhancement, as well as advanced techniques like frame interpolation. Input lag can measure as high as 3-4 frames (in excess of 67 ms for a 60p/60i signal). Some monitors and TV sets feature a special "gaming mode" which disables most internal processing and sets the display to its native resolution.
  • Refresh rate: The number of times per second in which the monitor draws the data it is being given. Since activated LCD pixels do not flash on/off between frames, LCD monitors exhibit no refresh-induced flicker, no matter how low the refresh rate.[3] High-end LCD televisions now feature up to 240 Hz refresh rate, which allows advanced digital processing to insert additional interpolated frames to smooth up motion, especially with lower-framerate 24p material like the Blu-ray disc. However, such high refresh rates may not be supported by pixel response times, and additional processing can introduce considerable input lag.
  • Matrix type: Active TFT or Passive.
  • Viewing angle: (coll., more specifically known as viewing direction).
  • Color support: How many types of colors are supported (coll., more specifically known as color gamut).
  • Brightness: The amount of light emitted from the display (coll., more specifically known as luminance).
  • Contrast ratio: The ratio of the intensity of the brightest bright to the darkest dark.
  • Aspect ratio: The ratio of the width to the height (for example, 4:3, 5:4, 16:9 or 16:10).
  • Input ports (e.g., DVI, VGA, LVDS, DisplayPort, or even S-Video and HDMI).
  • Gamma correction

Brief history

  • 1888: Friedrich Reinitzer (1858-1927) discovers the liquid crystalline nature of cholesterol extracted from carrots (that is, two melting points and generation of colors) and published his findings at a meeting of the Vienna Chemical Society on May 3, 1888 (F. Reinitzer: Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Cholesterins, Monatshefte für Chemie (Wien) 9, 421-441 (1888)).[4]
  • 1904: Otto Lehmann publishes his work "Flüssige Kristalle" (Liquid Crystals).
  • 1911: Charles Mauguin first experiments of liquids crystals confined between plates in thin layers.
  • 1922: Georges Friedel describes the structure and properties of liquid crystals and classified them in 3 types (nematics, smectics and cholesterics).
  • 1962: The first major English language publication on the subject "Molecular Structure and Properties of Liquid Crystals", by Dr. George W. Gray.[5]
  • 1962: Richard Williams of RCA found that liquid crystals had some interesting electro-optic characteristics and he realized an electro-optical effect by generating stripe-patterns in a thin layer of liquid crystal material by the application of a voltage. This effect is based on an electro-hydrodynamic instability forming what is now called “Williams domains” inside the liquid crystal.[6]
  • 1964: George H. Heilmeier, then working in the RCA laboratories on the effect discovered by Williams achieved the switching of colors by field-induced realignment of dichroic dyes in a homeotropically oriented liquid crystal. Practical problems with this new electro-optical effect made Heilmeier continue to work on scattering effects in liquid crystals and finally the achievement of the first operational liquid crystal display based on what he called the dynamic scattering mode (DSM). Application of a voltage to a DSM display switches the initially clear transparent liquid crystal layer into a milky turbid state. DSM displays could be operated in transmissive and in reflective mode but they required a considerable current to flow for their operation.[7][8][9] George H. Heilmeier was inducted in the National Inventors Hall of Fame and credited with the invention of LCD.[10]
  • 1960s: Pioneering work on liquid crystals was undertaken in the late 1960s by the UK's Royal Radar Establishment at Malvern, England. The team at RRE supported ongoing work by George Gray and his team at the University of Hull who ultimately discovered the cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals (which had correct stability and temperature properties for application in LCDs).
  • 1970: On December 4, 1970, the twisted nematic field effect in liquid crystals was filed for patent by Hoffmann-LaRoche in Switzerland, (Swiss patent No. 532 261) with Wolfgang Helfrich and Martin Schadt (then working for the Central Research Laboratories) listed as inventors.[7] Hoffmann-La Roche then licensed the invention to the Swiss manufacturer Brown, Boveri & Cie who produced displays for wrist watches during the 1970s and also to Japanese electronics industry which soon produced the first digital quartz wrist watches with TN-LCDs and numerous other products. James Fergason while working with Sardari Arora and Alfred Saupe at Kent State University Liquid Crystal Institute filed an identical patent in the USA on April 22, 1971.[11] In 1971 the company of Fergason ILIXCO (now LXD Incorporated) produced the first LCDs based on the TN-effect, which soon superseded the poor-quality DSM types due to improvements of lower operating voltages and lower power consumption.
  • 1972: The first active-matrix liquid crystal display panel was produced in the United States by T. Peter Brody.[12]
  • 2007: In the 4Q of 2007 for the first time LCD televisions surpassed CRT units in worldwide sales.[13]
  • 2008: LCD TVs become the majority with a 50% market share of the 200 million TVs forecast to ship globally in 2008 according to Display Bank.[14]

A detailed description of the origins and the complex history of liquid crystal displays from the perspective of an insider during the early days has been published by Joseph A. Castellano in Liquid Gold: The Story of Liquid Crystal Displays and the Creation of an Industry.[15] Another report on the origins and history of LCD from a different perspective has been published by Hiroshi Kawamoto, available at the IEEE History Center.[16]

Color displays

A subpixel of a color LCD
Comparison of the OLPC XO-1 display (left) with a typical color LCD. The images show 1×1 mm of each screen. A typical LCD addresses groups of 3 locations as pixels. The XO-1 display addresses each location as a separate pixel.
Example of how the colors are generated (R-red, G-green and B-blue)

In color LCDs each individual pixel is divided into three cells, or subpixels, which are colored red, green, and blue, respectively, by additional filters (pigment filters, dye filters and metal oxide filters). Each subpixel can be controlled independently to yield thousands or millions of possible colors for each pixel. CRT monitors employ a similar 'subpixel' structures via phosphors, although the electron beam employed in CRTs do not hit exact 'subpixels'. Because they utilize red, green and blue elements, both LCD and CRT monitors are direct applications of the RGB color model and give the illusion of representing a continuous spectrum of hues as a result of the trichromatic nature of human vision.

Color components may be arrayed in various pixel geometries, depending on the monitor's usage. If the software knows which type of geometry is being used in a given LCD, this can be used to increase the apparent resolution of the monitor through subpixel rendering. This technique is especially useful for text anti-aliasing.

To reduce smudging in a moving picture when pixels do not respond quickly enough to color changes, so-called pixel overdrive may be used.

Passive-matrix and active-matrix addressed LCDs

A general purpose alphanumeric LCD, with two lines of 16 characters.

LCDs with a small number of segments, such as those used in digital watches and pocket calculators, have individual electrical contacts for each segment. An external dedicated circuit supplies an electric charge to control each segment. This display structure is unwieldy for more than a few display elements.

Small monochrome displays such as those found in personal organizers, or older laptop screens have a passive-matrix structure employing super-twisted nematic (STN) or double-layer STN (DSTN) technology—the latter of which addresses a color-shifting problem with the former—and color-STN (CSTN)—wherein color is added by using an internal filter. Each row or column of the display has a single electrical circuit. The pixels are addressed one at a time by row and column addresses. This type of display is called passive-matrix addressed because the pixel must retain its state between refreshes without the benefit of a steady electrical charge. As the number of pixels (and, correspondingly, columns and rows) increases, this type of display becomes less feasible. Very slow response times and poor contrast are typical of passive-matrix addressed LCDs.

High-resolution color displays such as modern LCD computer monitors and televisions use an active matrix structure. A matrix of thin-film transistors (TFTs) is added to the polarizing and color filters. Each pixel has its own dedicated transistor, allowing each column line to access one pixel. When a row line is activated, all of the column lines are connected to a row of pixels and the correct voltage is driven onto all of the column lines. The row line is then deactivated and the next row line is activated. All of the row lines are activated in sequence during a refresh operation. Active-matrix addressed displays look "brighter" and "sharper" than passive-matrix addressed displays of the same size, and generally have quicker response times, producing much better images.

Active matrix technologies

A Casio 1.8 in color TFT liquid crystal display which equips the Sony Cyber-shot DSC-P93A digital compact cameras

Twisted nematic (TN)

Twisted nematic displays contain liquid crystal elements which twist and untwist at varying degrees to allow light to pass through. When no voltage is applied to a TN liquid crystal cell, the light is polarized to pass through the cell. In proportion to the voltage applied, the LC cells twist up to 90 degrees changing the polarization and blocking the light's path. By properly adjusting the level of the voltage almost any grey level or transmission can be achieved.

In-plane switching (IPS)

In-plane switching is an LCD technology which aligns the liquid crystal cells in a horizontal direction. In this method, the electrical field is applied through each end of the crystal, but this requires two transistors for each pixel instead of the single transistor needed for a standard thin-film transistor (TFT) display. With older versions of IPS, before LG Enhanced IPS was introduced in 2009, the additional transistor resulted in blocking more transmission area, thus requiring a brighter backlight, which consumed more power, and made this type of display less desirable for notebook computers. This technology is most commonly used in the Apple iMac, and soon also the Apple iPad.

Advanced fringe field switching (AFFS)

Known as fringe field switching (FFS) until 2003,[17] advanced fringe field switching is a similar technology to IPS or S-IPS offering superior performance and color gamut with high luminosity. AFFS is developed by HYDIS TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD, Korea (formally Hyundai Electronics, LCD Task Force).[18]

AFFS-applied notebook applications minimize color distortion while maintaining its superior wide viewing angle for a professional display. Color shift and deviation caused by light leakage is corrected by optimizing the white gamut which also enhances white/grey reproduction.

In 2004, HYDIS TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD licenses AFFS patent to Japan's Hitachi Displays. Hitachi is using AFFS to manufacture high end panels in their product line. In 2006, HYDIS also licenses AFFS to Sanyo Epson Imaging Devices Corporation.

HYDIS introduced AFFS+ which improved outdoor readability in 2007.

Vertical alignment (VA)

Vertical alignment displays are a form of LCDs in which the liquid crystal material naturally exists in a vertical state removing the need for extra transistors (as in IPS). When no voltage is applied, the liquid crystal cell remains perpendicular to the substrate creating a black display. When voltage is applied, the liquid crystal cells shift to a horizontal position, parallel to the substrate, allowing light to pass through and create a white display. VA liquid crystal displays provide some of the same advantages as IPS panels, particularly an improved viewing angle and improved black level.[citation needed]

Blue Phase mode

Blue phase LCDs do not require a liquid crystal top layer. Blue phase LCDs are relatively new to the market,and very expensive because of the low volume of production. They provide a higher refresh rate than normal LCDs, but normal LCDs are still cheaper to make and actually provide better colors and a sharper image.[citation needed]

Quality control

Some LCD panels have defective transistors, causing permanently lit or unlit pixels which are commonly referred to as stuck pixels or dead pixels respectively. Unlike integrated circuits (ICs), LCD panels with a few defective pixels are usually still usable. It is claimed that it is economically prohibitive to discard a panel with just a few defective pixels because LCD panels are much larger than ICs, but this has never been proven. Manufacturers' policies for the acceptable number of defective pixels vary greatly. At one point, Samsung held a zero-tolerance policy for LCD monitors sold in Korea.[19] Currently, though, Samsung adheres to the less restrictive ISO 13406-2 standard.[20] Other companies have been known to tolerate as many as 11 dead pixels in their policies.[21] Dead pixel policies are often hotly debated between manufacturers and customers. To regulate the acceptability of defects and to protect the end user, ISO released the ISO 13406-2 standard.[22] However, not every LCD manufacturer conforms to the ISO standard and the ISO standard is quite often interpreted in different ways.

LCD panels are more likely to have defects than most ICs due to their larger size. For example, a 300 mm SVGA LCD has 8 defects and a 150 mm wafer has only 3 defects. However, 134 of the 137 dies on the wafer will be acceptable, whereas rejection of the LCD panel would be a 0% yield. Due to competition between manufacturers quality control has been improved. An SVGA LCD panel with 4 defective pixels is usually considered defective and customers can request an exchange for a new one. Some manufacturers, notably in South Korea where some of the largest LCD panel manufacturers, such as LG, are located, now have "zero defective pixel guarantee", which is an extra screening process which can then determine "A" and "B" grade panels. Many manufacturers would replace a product even with one defective pixel. Even where such guarantees do not exist, the location of defective pixels is important. A display with only a few defective pixels may be unacceptable if the defective pixels are near each other. Manufacturers may also relax their replacement criteria when defective pixels are in the center of the viewing area.

LCD panels also have defects known as clouding (or less commonly mura), which describes the uneven patches of changes in luminance. It is most visible in dark or black areas of displayed scenes.[23]

Zero-power (bistable) displays

The zenithal bistable device (ZBD), developed by QinetiQ (formerly DERA), can retain an image without power. The crystals may exist in one of two stable orientations ("Black" and "White") and power is only required to change the image. ZBD Displays is a spin-off company from QinetiQ who manufacture both grayscale and color ZBD devices.

A French company, Nemoptic, has developed the BiNem zero-power, paper-like LCD technology which has been mass-produced in partnership with Seiko since 2007.[24] This technology is intended for use in applications such as Electronic Shelf Labels, E-books, E-documents, E-newspapers, E-dictionaries, Industrial sensors, Ultra-Mobile PCs, etc. Zero-power LCDs are a category of electronic paper.

Kent Displays has also developed a "no power" display that uses Polymer Stabilized Cholesteric Liquid Crystals (ChLCD). A major drawback of ChLCD screens are their slow refresh rate, especially at low temperatures[citation needed]. Kent has recently demonstrated the use of a ChLCD to cover the entire surface of a mobile phone, allowing it to change colors, and keep that color even when power is cut off.[25]

In 2004 researchers at the University of Oxford demonstrated two new types of zero-power bistable LCDs based on Zenithal bistable techniques.[26]

Several bistable technologies, like the 360° BTN and the bistable cholesteric, depend mainly on the bulk properties of the liquid crystal (LC) and use standard strong anchoring, with alignment films and LC mixtures similar to the traditional monostable materials. Other bistable technologies (i.e. Binem Technology) are based mainly on the surface properties and need specific weak anchoring materials.


LCD technology still has a few drawbacks in comparison to some other display technologies:

  • While CRTs are capable of displaying multiple video resolutions without introducing artifacts, LCDs produce crisp images only in their native resolution and, sometimes, fractions of that native resolution. Attempting to run LCD panels at non-native resolutions usually results in the panel scaling the image, which introduces blurriness or "blockiness" and is susceptible in general to multiple kinds of HDTV blur. Many LCDs are incapable of displaying very low resolution screen modes (such as 320x200) due to these scaling limitations.
  • Some types of LCDs have a more limited color resolution than advertised,[citation needed] and must use spatial and/or temporal dithering to increase the apparent color depth. This can cause a shimmering effect with some types of displays which can be distracting for some users.
  • Although LCDs typically have more vibrant images and better "real-world" contrast ratios (the ability to maintain contrast and variation of color in bright environments) than CRTs, they do have lower contrast ratios than CRTs in terms of how deep their blacks are. A contrast ratio is the difference between a completely on (white) and off (black) pixel, and LCDs can have "backlight bleed" where light (usually seen around corners of the screen) leaks out and turns black into gray or even a bluish / purple tint with TN-film based displays. However, as of 2009, the very best LCD TVs that do not use LED backlighting can achieve a dynamic contrast ratio of 150,000:1.
  • Most LCDs on sale in 2010 do not include a glare reduction coating. At best, they include a "matte" coating which diffuses but does not reduce reflected light. Therefore the contrast ratio is reduced to nil in any realistic light setting. By contrast, CRTs generally come with glare-reducing gray glass bonded to the surface. Such glass can be added to LCDs at extra expense.
  • LCDs typically have longer response times than their plasma and CRT counterparts, especially older displays, creating visible ghosting when images rapidly change. For example, when moving the mouse quickly on an LCD, multiple cursors can sometimes be seen. **See also: CRT phosphor persistence
  • LCDs appear to exhibit motion blur as the human eye follows moving objects, where some CRT screens do not. This is because an individual LCD pixel is constantly visible for the entire duration of a frame (typically 16.7ms), whereas a CRT pixel is lit for only a fraction of a microsecond once per frame as the electron beam scans past it. This means that even on a hypothetical LCD panel with a response time of zero, a panning image will appear to have motion blur whereas a panning image on a CRT monitor will not. This is caused by the movement of the eye during the time the frame is visible[citation needed]. Blur can be reduced by increasing the refresh rate to a multiple of the frame rate (e.g. 120 or 240 Hz) and employing various image processing techniques. Blur or ghosting can be partially "corrected" using software techniques that present a negative image of the blur to compensate by canceling-out the predicted blur. For example, if a ghost image is caused by a left-over spot that is 5% brighter than normal, the software will draw a negative of the ghost image that is minus-5 percent, and the result will add up to the expected value (n + 5 - 5 = n). However, this technique requires a processing delay, which can be[citation needed] problematic for fast-action video-game usage. Some monitors even come with a "gaming mode" to turn off anti-ghosting when needed.
Two IBM ThinkPad laptop screens viewed at an extreme angle.
  • LCD panels using TN tend to have a limited viewing angle relative to CRT and plasma displays. This reduces the number of people able to conveniently view the same image – laptop screens are a prime example. Usually when looking below the screen, it gets much darker; looking from above makes it look lighter. This distorts the colors and makes cheap LCD monitors unsuitable for work where color is important, such as in graphic design work, as the colors change when the eyes are moved slightly up or down, or when looking either at the top of the screen or at the bottom from a fixed position. Many displays based on thin film transistor variants such as IPS, MVA, or PVA, have much improved viewing angles; typically the color only becomes a little brighter when viewing at extreme angles, though much of the improvements on viewing angles has been done[citation needed] on lateral angles, not on vertical ones.
A damaged LCD security screen at a department store.
  • Consumer LCD monitors tend to be more fragile than their CRT counterparts. The screen may be especially vulnerable due to the lack of a thick glass shield as in CRT monitors, i.e., poking an LCD will cause a ring of color that can damage the screen. CRTs have thick glass protecting them from scratches or 'poke' damage.
  • Dead pixels can occur when the screen is damaged or pressure is put upon the screen; few manufacturers replace screens with dead pixels under warranty.
  • Horizontal and/or vertical banding is a problem in some LCD screens. This flaw occurs as part of the manufacturing process, and cannot be repaired (short of total replacement of the screen). Banding can vary substantially even among LCD screens of the same make and model. The degree is determined by the manufacturer's quality control procedures.
  • The cold cathode fluorescent lamps typically used for back-lights in LCD screens contain mercury, a toxic substance, though LED-backlit LCD screens are mercury-free.
  • Pattern based flicker, caused by imperfect voltage balance[27] - one or more of the tests will usually demonstrate objectionable flicker, which can also show up if the problem pattern occurs as a hatching pattern over a significant area.

Energy efficiency

Among newer TV models, LCDs require less energy on average than their plasma counterparts. A 42-inch LCD consumes 203 watts on average compared to 271 watts consumed by a 42-inch plasma display.[28] (This information is outdated - In 2010, both have come down by about another 50W and LED LCDs another 50W lower than standard LCDs)[citation needed]

Energy use per inch is another metric for[citation needed] comparing different display technologies. CRT technology is more efficient per square inch of display area, using 0.23 watts/square inch, while LCDs require 0.27 watts/square inch. Plasma displays are on the high end at 0.36 watts/square inch and DLP/rear projection TVs represent the low end at 0.14 watts/square inch.[29]

Bistable displays do not consume any power when displaying a fixed image, but require a notable amount of power[citation needed] for changing displayed image.


Some of the important LCD manufacturers include Acer, Apple, BenQ, HP, Samsung Electronics and Viewsonic. For a longer list of LCD manufacturers, see the List of Liquid Crystal Display manufacturers article.

Display applications


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  2. ^ LCD Monitor Parameters: Objective and Subjective Analysis Temporal Resolution
  3. ^ Contemporary LCD Monitor Parameters: Objective and Subjective Analysis (page 3)
  4. ^ Tim Sluckin: Ueber die Natur der kristallinischen Flüssigkeiten und flüssigen Kristalle (The early history of liquid crystals), Bunsen-Magazin, 7.Jahrgang, 5/2005
  5. ^ Gray, George W.; Kelly, Stephen M. (1999). "Liquid crystals for twisted nematic display devices". Journal of Materials Chemistry 9: 2037. doi:10.1039/a902682g. 
  6. ^ R. Williams, “Domains in liquid crystals,” J. Phys. Chem., vol. 39, pp. 382–388, July 1963
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  10. ^
  11. ^ "Modifying Light". American Scientist Online.;jsessionid=aaa6J-GFIciRx2%3Ci%3ELive. 
  12. ^ Brody, T.P., "Birth of the Active Matrix", Information Display, Vol. 13, No. 10, 1997, pp. 28-32.
  13. ^ "Worldwide LCD TV shipments surpass CRTs for first time ever". engadgetHD. 2008-02-19. Retrieved 2008-06-13. 
  14. ^ "Displaybank's Global TV Market Forecasts for 2008 - Global TV market to surpass 200 million units". Displaybank. 2007-12-05. Retrieved 2008-06-13. 
  15. ^ Liquid Gold: The Story of Liquid Crystal Displays and the Creation of an Industry, Joseph A. Castellano, 2005 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., ISBN 981-238-956-3.
  16. ^ The History of Liquid-Crystal Displays, Hiroshi Kawamoto, Proceedings of the IEEE, 90, #4 (April 2002), pp. 460–500, doi:10.1109/JPROC.2002.1002521
  17. ^ "AFFS & AFFS+". Technology. Vertex LCD Inc.. 
  18. ^ K. H. Lee, H. Y. Kim, K. H. Park, S. J. Jang, I. C. Park, and J. Y. Lee (June 2006). "A Novel Outdoor Readability of Portable TFT-LCD with AFFS Technology". SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (AIP) 37 (1): 1079–1082. doi:10.1889/1.2433159. 
  19. ^ "Samsung to Offer 'Zero-PIXEL-DEFECT' Warranty for LCD Monitors". December 30, 2004. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  20. ^ "What is Samsung's Policy on dead pixels?". Samsung. February 5, 2005. Retrieved 2007-08-03. 
  21. ^ "Display (LCD) replacement for defective pixels - ThinkPad". Lenovo. June 25, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  22. ^ "What is the ISO 13406-2 standard for LCD screen pixel faults?". Anders Jacobsen's blog. January 4, 2006. 
  23. ^ Sony XBR Mura
  24. ^
  25. ^ Tetsuo Nozawa. "[SID] Entire Surface of Handset becomes LCD Display". Nikkei Tech-On. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  26. ^ Dr Chidi Uche. "Development of bistable displays". University of Oxford. Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  27. ^ LCD Flicker tests
  28. ^ Energy consumption: appliances
  29. ^ "Draft Efficiency Standards for Television" (PDF). California Energy Commission. December 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-31. 

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