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Coordinates: 38°42′50″N 9°8′22″W / 38.71389°N 9.13944°W / 38.71389; -9.13944

Lisbon
Lisboa

Flag

Seal
Location of Lisbon in Portugal
Coordinates: 38°42′N 9°11′W / 38.7°N 9.183°W / 38.7; -9.183
Country  Portugal
Region Lisboa Region
District Lisbon District
Government
 - Mayor António Costa (elected) PS
Area
 - City 84.8 km2 (32.7 sq mi)
 - Metro 2,957.4 km2 (1,141.9 sq mi)
Population
 - City 480,766(est.2009)
 Density 6,368/km2 (16,493/sq mi)
 Metro 2,661,850(est.2009)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
Website www.cm-lisboa.pt

Lisbon (Portuguese: Lisboa; Portuguese pronunciation: [liʒˈboɐ]) is the capital and largest city of Portugal. It is considered an alpha global city and is the seat of the district of Lisbon and the main city of the Lisbon region. Its municipality, which matches the city proper excluding the larger continuous conurbation, has a municipal population of 564,477[1] in 84.8 km2 (33 sq mi), while the Lisbon Metropolitan Area in total has around 2.8 million inhabitants, and 3.34 million people live in the broader agglomeration of Lisbon Metropolitan Region (includes cities ranging from Leiria to Setúbal).[2]

Due to its economic output, standard of living, and market size, the Grande Lisboa (Greater Lisbon) subregion is considered the third most important financial and economic centre in the Iberian Peninsula.[3] The Lisbon region is the wealthiest region in Portugal and it is well above the European Union's GDP per capita average – it produces 37% of the Portuguese GDP. It is also the political centre of the country, as seat of government and residence of the Head of State.

The city was under Roman rule from 205 BC, when it was already a 1000 year old town[citation needed]. Julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city for the Christians and since then it has been a major political, economic and cultural center of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially – by statute or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal.

Lisbon hosts two agencies of the European Union, namely, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA). The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), is also headquartered in Lisbon.

Contents

Geography and location

Location

Lisbon seen from a SPOT Satellite

Lisbon is situated at 38°42' north, 9°5' west, making it the westernmost capital in mainland Europe. It is located in the west of the country, on the Atlantic Ocean coast at the point where the river Tagus flows into the Atlantic Ocean.

The city occupies an area of 84.8 km2 (33 sq mi). The city boundaries, unlike those of most major cities, are narrowly defined around the historical city perimeter. This gave rise to the existence of several administratively defined cities around Lisbon, such as Amadora, Queluz, Agualva-Cacém, Odivelas, Loures, Sacavém, Almada, Barreiro, Seixal and Oeiras, which are in fact part of the metropolitan perimeter of Lisbon.

The western side of the city is mainly occupied by the Monsanto Forest Park, one of the largest urban parks in Europe with an area close to 10 km2 (4 sq mi).

History

Neolithic era to the Roman Empire

The Castle of Saint George has played an important role in the history of Lisbon throughout the ages, for example, by protecting its citizens or being the residence of the royal family.

During the Neolithic the region was inhabited by Iberian-related peoples, who also lived in other regions of Atlantic Europe at the time. They built religious monuments called megaliths. Dolmens and menhirs still survive in the countryside around the city.

The Indo-European Celts invaded after the first millennium BC and intermarried with the Pre-Indo-European population, giving a rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.

Archaeological findings suggest that some Phoenician influence existed in the place since 1200 BC, leading some historians to the theory that a Phoenician trading post might have occupied the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill. The magnificent harbour provided by the estuary of the river Tagus made it an ideal spot for a settlement to provide foodstuffs to Phoenician ships travelling to the tin islands (modern Isles of Scilly) and Cornwall.

The new city might have been named ���������� �������� Allis Ubbo or "safe harbor" in Phoenician, according to one of several theories for the origin of its name.[4] Another theory is that it took its name from the pre-Roman name of the River Tagus, Lisso or Lucio.

Besides sailing to the North, the Phoenicians might also have taken advantage of a settlement at the mouth of Iberia's largest river to trade with the inland tribes for valuable metals. Other important local products were salt, salted fish, and the Lusitanian horses that were renowned in antiquity.

Recently, Phoenician remains from the eighth century BC were found beneath the Mediaeval Sé de Lisboa (Lisbon See), or main Cathedral of the modern city. Most modern historians,[5] however, consider the idea of a Phoenician foundation of Lisbon as unreal, and instead believe that Lisbon was an ancient autochthonous settlement (what the Romans called an oppidum) that at most, maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, to account for the presence of Phoenician pottery and other material objects.

Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by the geographer Pomponius Mela, a native of Hispania. It was later known as "Olisippo" to Pliny, and to the Greeks as Olissipo (Ολισσιπο) and "Olissipona" (Ολισσιπόνα).[6] According to tradition the name was derived from Ulysses. In some versions of the myth, the hero founded the city after he left Troy and departed to the Atlantic to escape the Greek coalition.

If all of Odysseus' travels were in the Atlantic as Cailleux[7] argued, then this could mean that Odysseus founded the city coming from the north, before trying to round Cape Malea, (which Cailleux located at Cabo de São Vicente), in a southeasterly direction, to reach his homeland of Ithaca, supposedly present Cadiz. However, the presence of Phoenicians (even if occasional) is thought to predate any Greek presence in the area.

Later on, the Greek name was corrupted in vulgar Latin to Olissipona. Some of the native gods worshiped in Lisbon were Aracus, Carneus, Bandiarbariaicus and Coniumbricenses.

Roman Empire to the Moorish conquest

Lisbon Cathedral, built after 1147 over the remnants of the mosque of the Islamic period.

During the Punic wars, after the defeat of Hannibal (whose troops included members of the Conii[citation needed]) the Romans decided to deprive Carthage of its most valuable possession, Hispania (the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula). After the defeat of the Carthaginians by Scipio Africanus in Eastern Hispania, the pacification of the West was led by Consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus.

He obtained the alliance of Olissipo which sent men to fight alongside the Legions against the Celtic tribes of the Northwest. In return, Olissipo was integrated in the Empire under the name of Felicitas Julia, a Municipium Cives Romanorum. It was granted self-rule over a territory going as far away as 50 kilometres (30 miles), exempted from taxes, and its citizens given the privileges of Roman citizenship.

It was in the newly created province of Lusitania, whose capital was Emerita Augusta. The attacks by the Lusitanians during the frequent rebellions over the next couple of centuries weakened the city, and a wall was built.

During the time of Augustus the Romans built a great Theatre; the Cassian Baths underneath the current Rua da Prata; Temples to Jupiter, Diana, Cybele, Tethys and Idae Phrygiae (an uncommon cult from Asia Minor), besides temples to the Emperor; a large necropolis under Praça da Figueira; a large Forum and other buildings such as insulae (multi-storied apartment buildings) in the area between the modern Castle hill and Downtown.

Many of these ruins were first unearthed during the middle Eighteenth century, when the recent discovery of Pompeii made Roman Archeology fashionable among Europe's upper classes.

Economically strong, Olissipo was known for its garum, a sort of fish sauce highly prized by the elites of the Empire and exported in Amphorae to Rome and other cities. Wine, salt and its famously fast horses were also exported.

The city came to be very prosperous through suppression of piracy and technological advances, which allowed a boom in the trade with the newly Roman Provinces of Britannia (particularly Cornwall) and the Rhine, and through the introduction of Roman culture to the tribes living by the river Tagus in the interior of Hispania.

The city was ruled by an oligarchical council dominated by two families, the Julii and the Cassiae. Petitions are recorded addressed to the Governor of the province in Emerita and to the Empreror Tiberius, such as one requesting help dealing with "sea monsters" allegedly responsible for shipwrecks.

The Roman Sertorius led a large rebellion against the Dictator Sulla early in the Roman Period.

Among the majority of Latin speakers lived a large minority of Greek traders and slaves.

The city was connected by a broad road to Western Hispania's two other large cities, Bracara Augusta in the province of Tarraconensis (today's Portuguese Braga), and Emerita Augusta, the capital of Lusitania (now Mérida in Spain).

Olissipo, like most great cities in the Western Empire, was a centre for the dissemination of Christianity. Its first attested Bishop was St. Potamius (c. 356), and there were several martyrs killed by the pagans during the great persecutions; Maxima, Verissimus and Julia are the most significant names.

At the end of the Roman domain, Olissipo was one of the first Christian cities. It suffered invasions from the Sarmatian Alans and the Germanic Vandals, who controlled the region from 409 to 429. The Germanic Suebi, who established a kingdom in Gallaecia (modern Galicia and northern Portugal), with capital in Bracara Augusta (Braga), from 409 to 585, also controlled the region of Lisbon for long periods of time.

In 585 the Suebi kingdom was included in the Germanic Visigothic kingdom of Toledo, that comprised all of the Iberian Peninsula. Lisbon was then called Ulishbona.

Moorish rule

On August 6, 711 Lisbon was taken by the Moors (it was called al-ʾIšbūnah in Arabic الأشبونة), under whose rule the city flourished.[citation needed] The Moors, who were Muslims from North Africa and the Middle East, built many mosques and houses as well as a new city wall, currently named the Cerca Moura. The city kept a diverse population including Christians, Berbers, Arabs, Jews and Saqalibas.

Arabic was forced on the Christians as the official language. Mozarabic was the mother language spoken by the Christian population. Islam was the official religion practiced by the Arabs and Muladi (muwallad), the Christians could keep their religion but under Dhimmi status and were required to pay the jizyah.

The Moorish influence is still present in Alfama, the old part of Lisbon that survived the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. Many placenames are derived from Arabic; the Alfama, the oldest existing district of Lisbon, for example, is derived from the Arabic "al-hamma".

For a brief time during the Taifa period Lisbon was the center town in the Regulo Eslavo of the Taifa of Badajoz and then as an independent Taifa ruled by Abd al-Aziz ibn Sabur and Abd al-Malik ibn Sabur sons of Sabur al-Jatib (Sabur the Slav), a Slav that had been at the service of al-Hakam II before ruling the Taifa of Badajoz.

In 1147, as part of the Reconquista, crusader knights led by Afonso I of Portugal, sieged and reconquered Lisbon. The city, with around 154,000 residents at the time, returned to Christian rule.

The reconquest of Portugal and re-establishment of Christianity is one of the most significant events in Lisbon's history; although it is known through the chronicle Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, attributed to Osburnus, that there was a bishop in the town that was killed by the crusaders and that the population was praying to the Virgin Mary when afflicted with plague, which indicates that the Mozarab population followed the Mozarabic rite. Arabic lost its place in everyday life. Any remaining Muslim population were gradually converted to Roman Catholicism, or expelled, and the mosques were turned back into churches.

From the Middle Ages to the Portuguese Empire

It received its first Foral in 1179. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Iberian Christian kingdoms, bringing back booty and slaves. In raid against Lisbon in 1189, the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female and child captives.[8] Lisbon became the capital city of Portugal in 1255 due to its central location in the new Portuguese territory. The first Portuguese university was founded in Lisbon in 1290 by Dinis I of Portugal as Estudo Geral (General Study). The university was transferred several times to Coimbra, where it was installed definitively in the 16th century (today's University of Coimbra).

During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, the city expanded substantially and became an important trading post with both northern Europe and Mediterranean cities.

Most of the Portuguese expeditions of the age of discovery left from Lisbon during the 15th to 17th centuries, including Vasco da Gama's departure to India in 1497. In 1506, thousands of "New Christians" (converted Jews) were massacred in Lisbon.[9] The 16th century marks the golden age for Lisbon. The city became the European hub of commerce with Africa, India, the Far East and, later, Brazil, exploring riches like spices, slaves, sugar, textiles and other goods. This was the time of the exuberant Manueline style, which has left its mark in two 16th century Lisbon monuments, the Belém Tower and the Jerónimos Monastery, both of which were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.

A description of Lisbon in the sixteenth century was written by Damião de Góis and published in 1554.[10]

Portugal lost its independence to Spain in 1580 after a succession crisis, and the 1640 revolt that restored the Portuguese independence took place in Lisbon (see Philip III of Portugal). In the early 18th century, gold from Brazil allowed King John V to sponsor the building of several Baroque churches and theatres in the city.

1755 Lisbon earthquake

This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor.
Statue of King José I in Commerce Square (Praça do Comércio), erected in 1775 as part of the rebuilding of Lisbon after the earthquake of 1755.

Prior to the 18th century, Lisbon had experienced several important earthquakes – eight in the 14th century, five in the 16th century (including the 1531 earthquake that destroyed 1,500 houses, and the 1597 earthquake when three streets vanished), and three in the 17th century. On 1 November 1755 the city was destroyed by another earthquake, which killed an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Lisbon residents[11] and destroyed 85 percent of the city.[12] With a population estimated at between 200,000 and 275,000 residents,[13][14] Lisbon was, in 1755, one of the largest cities in Europe. Among several important structures of the city, the Royal Ribeira Palace and the Royal Hospital of All Saints were lost. The event shocked the whole of Europe. Voltaire wrote a long poem, "Poême sur le désastre de Lisbonne", shortly after the quake, and mentioned it in his 1759 novel Candide (indeed, many argue that this critique of optimism was inspired by that earthquake). Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. also mentions it in his 1857 poem, The Deacon's Masterpiece, or The Wonderful One-Hoss Shay. In the town of Cascais, some 30 km (19 mi) west of Lisbon, the waves wrecked several boats and when the water withdrew, large stretches of sea bottom were left uncovered. In coastal areas such as Peniche, situated about 80 km (50 mi) north of Lisbon, many people were killed by the tsunami. In Setúbal, 30 km (19 mi) south of Lisbon, the water reached the first floor of buildings. The destruction was also great in the Algarve, southern Portugal, where the tsunami dismantled some coastal fortresses and, in the lower levels, razed houses. In some places the waves crested at more than 30 m (98.43 ft). Almost all the coastal towns and villages of Algarve were heavily damaged, except Faro, which was protected by sandy banks. In Lagos, the waves reached the top of the city walls. For many Portuguese coastal regions, the destructive effects of the tsunami were more disastrous than those of the earthquake proper. In southwestern Spain, the tsunami caused damage to Cadiz and Huelva, and the waves penetrated the Guadalquivir River, reaching Seville. In Gibraltar, the sea rose suddenly by about two metres. In Ceuta the tsunami was strong, but in the Mediterranean Sea, it decreased rapidly. On the other hand, it caused great damage and casualties to the western coast of Morocco, from Tangier, where the waves reached the walled fortifications of the town, to Agadir, where the waters passed over the walls, killing many. The tsunami also reached Cornwall, in the United Kingdom, at a height of three metres. Along the coast of Cornwall, the sea rose rapidly in vast waves, and then embedded equally rapidly. A two metre tsunami also hit Galway in Ireland, and did some considerable damage to the Spanish Arch section of the city wall.

After the 1755 earthquake, the city was rebuilt largely according to the plans of Prime Minister Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, the 1st Marquess of Pombal; hence the designation of the lower town as Baixa Pombalina (Pombaline Downtown). Instead of rebuilding the medieval town, Pombal decided to demolish the remains of the earthquake and rebuild the downtown in accordance with modern urban rules.

19th and 20th centuries

In 1834 the Assembly of the Republic was installed in the São Bento Palace.

In the first years of the 19th century, Portugal was invaded by the troops of Napoléon Bonaparte, making Queen Maria I and Prince-Regent João (future John VI) flee temporarily to Brazil. Considerable property was pillaged by the invaders.

The city felt the full force of the Portuguese liberal upheavals, beginning its tradition of cafés and theatres. In 1879 the Avenida da Liberdade was opened, replacing a previous public garden.

Lisbon was the centre of the republican coup of October 5, 1910 which instated the Portuguese Republic. Previously, it was also the stage of the regicide of Carlos I of Portugal (1908).

The city refounded its university in 1911 after centuries of inactivity in Lisbon, incorporating reformed former colleges and other non-university higher education schools of the city (such as the Escola Politécnica – now Faculdade de Ciências). Today there are 3 public universities in the city (University of Lisbon, Technical University of Lisbon and New University of Lisbon), a public university institute (ISCTE – Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa) and a polytechnic institute (IPL – Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa). See list of universities in Portugal.

During World War II Lisbon was one of the very few neutral, open European Atlantic ports, a major gateway for refugees to the U.S. and a spy nest. More than 100,000 refugees were able to flee Nazi Germany via Lisbon.[15]

In 1974, Lisbon was the central destination point of the Carnation Revolution maneuvers, the end of the Portuguese Corporative Regime (Estado Novo).

In 1988, a fire near the historical centre of Chiado greatly disrupted normal life in the area for about 10 years.

In 1994, Lisbon was the European Capital of Culture.

Expo '98 was held in Lisbon. The timing was intended to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Vasco da Gama's sea voyage to India.

Contemporary events

In 2007 the Treaty of Lisbon was signed in this city, which initiated a new chapter in the history of the European Union.

The Lisbon Agenda was a European Union agreement on measures to revitalize the EU economy, signed in Lisbon in March 2000.

On the 7 July 2007, Lisbon held the ceremony of the "New 7 Wonders Of The World"[16] election, in Luz stadium, with live transmission for millions of people all over the world.

In October 2007 Lisbon hosted the 2007 EU Summit, where agreement was reached regarding a new EU governance model. The resulting Treaty of Lisbon was signed on the 13 December 2007 and came into force on 1 December 2009.

Climate

Lisbon has a Mediterranean climate that is strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream, giving it one of the mildest climates in Europe. The city is sunny throughout the year, with an annual average of 2900–3300 hours of sunshine.

Summers are hot and dry with average daytime temperatures of 26–29 °C (79–84 °F), falling to 16–18 °C (61–64 °F) at night. Winters are cool and rainy with temperatures around 8–15 °C (46–59 °F), while spring and autumn are generally mild, or even warm during daytime. Extreme temperatures may reach 37 °C (99 °F) or more in some of the warmest summer afternoons and 2 °C (36 °F) in the coldest winter mornings. From May to September the weather tends to be settled most of the time with blues skies and some wind as well. Annual rainfall is around 700–750 mm (28–30 in), spread over 100 rainy days, mostly from October to May.

Climate data for Lisbon
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.6
(69)
24.8
(77)
28.3
(83)
29.4
(85)
35.0
(95)
41.5
(107)
40.6
(105)
37.9
(100)
37.1
(99)
32.6
(91)
25.0
(77)
25.1
(77)
41.5
(107)
Average high °C (°F) 14.5
(58)
15.9
(61)
18.2
(65)
19.2
(67)
21.4
(71)
24.8
(77)
27.5
(82)
27.8
(82)
26.2
(79)
22.1
(72)
18.0
(64)
15.2
(59)
20.9
(70)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.3
(52)
12.6
(55)
14.3
(58)
15.4
(60)
17.4
(63)
20.4
(69)
22.7
(73)
23.0
(73)
21.8
(71)
18.4
(65)
14.8
(59)
12.4
(54)
17.0
(63)
Average low °C (°F) 8.1
(47)
9.2
(49)
10.4
(51)
11.5
(53)
13.3
(56)
15.9
(61)
17.9
(64)
18.1
(65)
17.3
(63)
14.6
(58)
11.5
(53)
9.5
(49)
13.1
(56)
Record low °C (°F) 0.4
(33)
1.2
(34)
2.9
(37)
5.5
(42)
6.9
(44)
10.3
(51)
13.1
(56)
13.8
(57)
10.7
(51)
8.0
(46)
3.9
(39)
2.4
(36)
0.4
(33)
Precipitation mm (inches) 96.8
(3.81)
90.2
(3.55)
51.2
(2.02)
64.7
(2.55)
55.6
(2.19)
17.2
(0.68)
6.1
(0.24)
6.8
(0.27)
28.5
(1.12)
79.8
(3.14)
107.1
(4.22)
121.8
(4.8)
725.8
(28.57)
Source: Instituto de Meteorologia (1971-2000 climatology) [17] June 2009

Demographics

The population of the city proper was 564,477 and the metropolitan area (Lisbon Metropolitan Area) was 2,800,000 according to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística[18] (National Institute of Statistics). The Lisbon Metropolitan Area coincides with two NUTS II units, Grande Lisboa (Greater Lisbon), in the northern bank of the Tagus, and Península de Setúbal (Setúbal Peninsula), to the south, which are the two subregions of Região Lisboa (Lisbon Region). The population density of the city itself is 6,658 inhabitants per square kilometre (17,240 /sq mi).

Like most big cities, Lisbon is surrounded by many satellite cities. It is estimated that more than one million people enter Lisbon every day from the outskirts. Cascais and Estoril are among the most interesting neighbouring towns for night life. Beautiful palaces, landscapes and historical sites can be found in Sintra and Mafra. Other major municipalities around Lisbon include Amadora, Oeiras, Odivelas, Loures, Vila Franca de Xira and, in the south bank of the Tagus river estuary, Almada, Barreiro and Seixal.

Lisbon is ranked number 1 in the Portuguese most livable cities survey of living conditions published yearly by Expresso.[19]

Demographic evolution of Lisbon (1801–2004)
1801 1849 1900 1930 1960 1981 1991 2001 2004 2009
203.999 174.900 350.919 591.939 801.155 807.937 663.394 564.657 529.485 480.766

Culture and sights

The city of Lisbon is rich in architecture; Romanesque, Gothic, Manueline, Baroque, Traditional Portuguese, Modern and Post-Modern constructions can be found all over the city. The city is also crossed by great boulevards and monuments along these main thoroughfares, particularly in the upper districts; notable among these are the Avenida da Liberdade (Liberty Avenue), Avenida Fontes Pereira de Melo, Avenida Almirante Reis and Avenida da República (Republic Avenue). The most famous museums in Lisbon are the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (National Museum of Ancient Art), the Museu do Azulejo (Museum of Portuguese-style Tile Mosaics), the Museu Calouste Gulbenkian (Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, containing varied collections of ancient and modern art), the Lisbon Oceanarium (Oceanário de Lisboa, the second largest in the world), the Museu Nacional do Traje e da Moda (National Museum of Costume and Fashion), the Berardo Collection Museum (Modern Art) at the Belém Cultural Center, the Museu Nacional dos Coches (National Coach Museum, containing the largest collection of royal coaches in the world), the Museu da Farmácia (Pharmacy Museum) and the Museum of the Orient.

Lisbon's opera house, the Teatro Nacional de São Carlos, hosts a relatively active cultural agenda, mainly in autumn and winter. Other important theatres and musical houses are the Centro Cultural de Belém, the Teatro Nacional D. Maria II and the Gulbenkian Foundation.

Partial view of old Lisbon, viewed from Cacilhas

The monument to Christ the King (Cristo Rei) stands on the left side of the river, in Almada. With open arms, overlooking the whole city, it resembles the Corcovado monument in Rio de Janeiro, and was built after World War II, as thanks for Portugal's being spared the horrors and destruction of the war.

Every June there are 5 days of popular street celebrations in memory of a saint born in Lisbon – Anthony of Lisbon (or Santo António). Saint Anthony, also known as Saint Anthony of Padua, was a wealthy Portuguese bohemian who was canonised and made Doctor of the Church after a life preaching to the poor, simpler people. Although Lisbon’s patron saint is Saint Vincent, whose remains are in the Lisbon Cathedral, there are no festivities associated with him.

Parque Eduardo VII is the second largest park of the city after Parque Florestal de Monsanto, prolonging the main avenue (Avenida da Liberdade). Originally named Parque da Liberdade, was after renamed Park Edward VII of England who visited Lisbon in 1903, it includes a large variety of plants in a winter garden (Estufa Fria).

Lisbon is home every year to the Lisbon Gay & Lesbian Film Festival,[20] the Lisboarte,[21] the DocLisboa – Lisbon International Documentary Film Festival,[22] the Arte Lisboa – Contemporary Art Fair,[23] the Festival of the Oceans,[24] the International Organ Festival of Lisbon,[25] the MOTELx – Lisbon International Horror Film Festival,[26] the Lisbon Village Festival,[27] the Festival Internacional de Máscaras e Comediantes, the Lisboa Mágica – Street Magic World Festival, the Monstra - Animated Film Festival, the Lisbon Book Fair,[28] the Peixe em Lisboa – Lisbon Fish and Flavours,[29] the Lisbon International Handicraft Exhibition,[30] the Lisbon Photo Marathon, the IndieLisboa – International Independent Film Festival,[31] the Alkantara Festival,[32] the Temps d´Images Festival[33] and the Jazz in August festival.[34]

Lisbon has been home three times (in 2004, 2005, and 2008) to Rock in Rio, one of the world's largest pop-rock festivals. Annual popular music events within the metropolitan area include the Optimus Alive! and Super Bock Super Rock festivals.

Lisbon is also home to the Lisbon Architecture Triennial,[35] the Moda Lisboa (Fashion Lisbon),[36] ExperimentaDesign – Biennial of Design[37] and LuzBoa – Biennial of Light.[38]

Alfama

View of the Alfama district.

The oldest district of Lisbon, spreading on the slope between the Castle of Lisbon and the Tejo river. Its name comes from the Arabic Al-hamma, meaning fountains or baths. It contains many important historical attractions, with many Fado bars and restaurants.During the times of Moorish domination, Alfama constituted the whole of the city, which later spread to the West (Baixa neighbourhood). Alfama became inhabited by the fishermen and the poor, and its condition as the neighbourhood of the poor continues to this day. The great 1755 Lisbon Earthquake did not destroy the Alfama, which has remained a picturesque labyrinth of narrow streets and small squares. Lately the neighbourhood has been invigorated with the renovation of the old houses and new restaurants where Fado - Portuguese typical melancholy music - can be enjoyed. The Castle of São Jorge and the Lisbon Cathedral are located in this area. 4 Other attractions include:

Baixa

The Baixa Pombalina seen from the Elevador de Santa Justa.

The heart of the city is the Baixa (Downtown) or city centre; The Pombaline Baixa is an elegant district, primarily constructed after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. It takes its name from Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquess of Pombal, the Prime Minister to Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777 and key figure of The Enlightenment in Portugal, who took the lead in ordering the rebuilding of Lisbon after the 1755 earthquake. The Marquis of Pombal imposed strict conditions on rebuilding the city, and the current grid pattern strongly differs from the organic streetplan that characterised the district before the Earthquake.

The Pombaline Baixa is one of the first examples of earthquake-resistant construction. Architectural models were tested by having troops march around them to simulate an earthquake. Notable features of Pombaline structures include the 'Pombaline cage', a symmetrical wood-lattice framework aimed at distributing earthquake force, and inter-terrace walls that are built higher than roof timbers to reduce fire contagion.

It was placed on Portugal's "tentative list" of potential World Heritage Sites on 7 December 2004. Other monuments in this area include:

Chiado

Luís de Camões Square, in the Chiado neighbourhood.

The Chiado is a traditional shopping area that mixes old and modern commercial establishments, concentrated specially in the Carmo's and Garrett's streets. Locals as well as tourists visit the Chiado to buy books, garments, pottery as well as to have a cup of coffee. The most famous café of Chiado is A Brasileira, famous for having had poet Fernando Pessoa among its customers. The Chiado is also an important cultural area, with several museums and theatres. Several buildings of the Chiado were destroyed in a fire in 1988, an event that deeply shocked the country. Thanks to a renovation project that lasted more than 10 years, coordinated by celebrated architect Siza Vieira, the affected area is now recovered. Many international brands are there like Hugo Boss, Pepe Jeans, G-Star, Hermès, Marc by Marc Jacobs, Fornarina, Colcci, Cartier, Diesel, H&M...

Attractions include:

Bairro Alto

Bairro Alto (literally upper quarter in Portuguese) is an area of central Lisbon. It functions as a residential, shopping and entertainment district. Today, the Bairro Alto is the heart of Lisbon's youth and of the Portuguese capital's nightlife. Lisbon's Punk, Gay, Metal, Goth, Hip Hop and Reggae scenes, all have the Bairro as their home, due to the number of clubs and bars dedicated to each of them. The fado, Portugal's national song, still survives in the new Lisbon's nightlife. The crowd is a mix of local and tourist, straight and gay, and almost anything else imagined.

Estrela

The Baroque-Neoclassical Estrela Basilica is the main attraction of this district. The huge church has a giant dome, and is located in a hill in what was at the time the western part of Lisbon and can be viewed from far away. The style is similar to the Mafra National Palace, in late baroque and neoclassical. The front has two twin bell towers and includes statues of saints and some allegoric figures. The Parliament, housed in Sao Bento Palace, is in this district. Nearby is the official residence of Portugal’s Prime Minister. and the Prazeres Cemetery is nearby as well.

Alcântara

A new hangout in Lisbon, the Docas.

Although today it is quite central, it was once a mere suburb of Lisbon, comprising mostly farms and palaces. In the 16th century, there was a brook there which the nobles used to promenade in their boats. Through the late 19th century, Alcântara became a popular industrial area, with lots of small factories and warehouses. Through the centuries, this area has lost all of its charm and old buildings, as well as its brook, and the womenfolk used to go there to do their laundry. Around the early 1990s, Alcântara started to become a place for pubs and discothèques, mainly because its outer area is mostly commercial, and the noise generated at night, and the "movida", would not disturb its residents. Today, some of these areas are slowly being taken over by loft developments and new apartments that can profit from its excellent river views and central location.

Belém

The Praça do Império with the Jerónimos Monastery in the background in the Santa Maria de Belem parish.

Santa Maria de Belém, or just Belém (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsɐ̃tɐ mɐˈɾiɐ dɨ bɨˈlɐ̃ĩ]) is a parish of Lisbon, Portugal, located 6 km (4 mi) west of the present city centre and 2 km (1 mi) west of Ponte 25 de Abril (25th of April Bridge). Its name is derived from the Portuguese for Bethlehem.

Belém is famous as the place from which many of the great Portuguese explorers set off on their voyages of discovery. In particular, it is the place from which Vasco da Gama departed for India in 1497. It is also a former royal residence and features the 17th-18th century Belém Palace, former royal residence and now occupied by the President of Portugal, and the Ajuda Palace, begun in 1802 but never completed.

Belém Tower

Perhaps Belém's most famous feature is its tower, Torre de Belém, whose image is much used by Lisbon's tourist board. The tower was built as a fortified lighthouse late in the reign of Dom Manuel (1515–1520) to guard the entrance to the port at Belém. It stood on a little island in right side of the Tagus, surrounded by water.

Belém's other major historical building is the Mosteiro dos Jerónimos (Jerónimos Monastery), which the Torre de Belém was built partly to defend. The building of the monastery, an example of Manueline architecture, was begun in 1502 on the instructions of Manuel I and took 50 years to complete. It was built as a monument to Vasco da Gama's successful voyage to India and was funded by a tax on eastern spices. The monastery contains the tomb of Vasco da Gama. Located in the wings of the monastery are the Museu Nacional de Arqueologia (National Archaeological Museum) and the Museu da Marinha (Maritime Museum).

Monument to the Discoveries
Detail of the Monument to the Discoveries

Belém's most notable modern feature is the Padrão dos Descobrimentos (Monument to the Discoveries). This is a 52 m (170.60 ft) high slab of concrete, erected in 1960 to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the death of Henry the Navigator. The monument is carved into the shape of the prow of a ship in which stand statues of various explorers, as well as a statue of Henry himself. Adjacent to the monument is a square into whose surface is set a map showing the routes of various Portuguese explorers.

In the heart of Belém is the Praça do Império: gardens centred upon a large fountain, laid out during World War II. To the west of the gardens lies the Centro Cultural de Belém. This was built for Portugal's 1992 presidency of the EU. It is now an arts complex, containing Belém's Museu do Design (Design Museum). To the southeast of the gardens is the Belém Palace (1770), the official residence of the Portuguese President. Five hundred metres to the east of Praça do Império lies Belém's other major square Praça Afonso de Albuquerque.

Belém is home to a number of other museums, many of which were established by Salazar for the 1940 Belém Expo: Museu da Electricidade (Electricity Museum), Museu do Centro Científico e Cultural de Macau (Macau Cultural Museum), Museu de Arte Popular (Folk Art Museum) and Museu Nacional dos Coches (Coach Museum).

Belenenses, a renowned sports club from Lisbon is based in Belém.

Belém's main street is Rua de Belém, in which there is a 160-year-old pastry shop, at which can be purchased one of the famous pastel de Belém (plural: pastéis de Belém) - custard tarts made with flaky pastry. Other attractions within the area are:

  • Padrão dos Descobrimentos (Monument of the Discoveries), built in mid-20th century, during Estado Novo dictatorial regime
  • Belem Cultural Centre, example of Portuguese contemporary architecture, finished in 1994
  • Belem Tower, an ex-libris of the city, built in the 16th century
  • Belem Palace, 18th century palace, which is now the official residence of the President of the Republic
  • Coach Museum, displaying most relevant and spectuacular carriages from 17th to 19th century.

Gare do Oriente

The Gare do Oriente or Orient Station.

Gare do Oriente (Orient Station) is one of the main transportation hubs of Lisbon, for trains, metro, buses and taxis. Its glass and steel columns are reminiscent of palms, making the whole structure fascinating to look at (especially in sunlight or when illuminated at night). It was designed by the architect Santiago Calatrava from Valencia (Spain). Cross through the shopping mall just across the street and you are in Parque das Nações (Park of the Nations), site of the 1998 World Expo.

Economy

Overall view of the Nations' Park.

The Lisbon region is the wealthiest region in Portugal and it is well above the European Union's GDP per capita average – it produces 45% of the Portuguese GDP. Lisbon's economy is based primarily on the tertiary sector. Most of the headquarters of multinationals operating in Portugal are concentrated in the Grande Lisboa subregion, specially in the Oeiras municipality. Lisbon Metropolitan Area is heavily industrialized, especially the south bank of the Tagus river (Rio Tejo).

The country's chief seaport, featuring one of the largest and most sophisticated regional markets on the Iberian Peninsula, Lisbon and its heavily populated surroundings are also developing as an important financial center and a dynamic technological hub.

Lisbon has the largest and most developed mass media sector of Portugal, and is home to several related companies ranging from leading television networks and radio stations to major newspapers.

The Euronext Lisbon stock exchange, part of the pan-European Euronext system together with the stock exchanges of Amsterdam, Brussels and Paris, is tied with the New York Stock Exchange since 2007, forming the multinational NYSE Euronext group of stock exchanges.

Transport

Lisbon's public transport network is extremely far-reaching and reliable and has its Metro as its main artery, connecting the city centre with the upper and eastern districts, and now reaching the suburbs. Ambitious expansion projects will increase the network by almost one third, connecting the airport, and the northern and western districts. Bus, funicular and tram services have been supplied by the Companhia de Carris de Ferro de Lisboa (Carris), for over a century.

A traditional form of public transport in Lisbon is the tram. Originally introduced in the 19th century, the trams were originally imported from the U.S. and called americanos. The original trams can still be seen in the Museu da Carris (the Public Transport Museum) (Carris). Other than on the modern Line 15, the Lisbon tramway system still employs small (four wheel) vehicles of a design dating from the early part of the twentieth century. These distinctive yellow trams are one of the tourist icons of modern Lisbon, and their size is well suited to the steep hills and narrow streets of the central city.[39][40]


There are other commuter bus services from the city: Vimeca,[41] Rodoviaria de Lisboa,[42] Transportes Sul do Tejo,[43] Boa Viagem,[44] Barraqueiro[45] are the main ones, operating from different terminals in the city.

There are four commuter train lines departing from Lisbon: the Cascais, Sintra and Azambuja lines (operated by Comboios de Portugal (CP)), as well as a fourth line to Setúbal (operated by Fertagus) crossing the Tagus river over the 25 de Abril Bridge. A separate CP line to Setúbal ends at the southern bank of the Tagus and requires ferry transfer to reach Lisbon. The major railway stations are Santa Apolónia, Rossio, Gare do Oriente and Cais do Sodré.

The city does not offer a light rail service (tram line 15, although running with new and faster trams does not fall onto this category), but there are plans to build some lines with this service around the city (but not into the city itself).

The city is connected to the far side of the Tagus by two important bridges:

Panoramic view of Lisbon from the top of Cristo-Rei, with 25 April Bridge in the foreground.
  • The Vasco da Gama Bridge, inaugurated on May 1998 is, at 17.2 km (10.7 mi), the longest bridge in Europe.

Another way of crossing the river is by taking the ferry. The company is Transtejo-Soflusa,[46] which operates from different points in the city to Cacilhas, Seixal, Montijo, Porto Brandão and Trafaria under the brand Transtejo and to Barreiro under the brand Soflusa.

Lisbon is connected to its suburbs and the rest of Portugal by an extensive motorway network. There are three circular motorways around the city; the 2ª Circular, the CRIL and the CREL.

The Portela Airport is located within the city limits. TAP and Portugalia have their hubs here, and flights are available to Europe, Africa, and the Americas.

Education

A building of the New University of Lisbon.

The city has several private and public secondary schools, primary schools as well as Kindergärten. In Greater Lisbon area there are also international schools such as Saint Julian's School, the Carlucci American International School of Lisbon, Saint Dominic's International School, Deutsche Schule Lissabon, Instituto Español de Lisboa (Lisbon Spanish Institute), and Lycée Français Charles Lepierre.

There are three major public universities in Lisbon: the University of Lisbon (Lisbon's oldest university in operation, founded in 1911, also called the Classic University of Lisbon), the Technical University of Lisbon (founded in 1930) and the New University of Lisbon (founded in 1973), providing degrees in all academic disciplines. There is also one state-run university institute – the ISCTE, and a polytechnic institute – the Polytechnical Institute of Lisbon.

Major private institutions of higher education include the Portuguese Catholic University, as well as the Lusíada University, the Universidade Lusófona, and the Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa, among others.

The total number of enrolled students in higher education in Lisbon was, for the 2007-2008 school year, of 125,867 students, of whom 81,507 in the Lisbon's public institutions.[47]

Sports

Luz Stadium

The Lisbon sports clubs Sport Lisboa e Benfica (commonly "Benfica") and Sporting Clube de Portugal (commonly "Sporting"), have many sports teams in the highest Portuguese divisions and European competitions. Belenenses, another important club with a great tradition in Portuguese sport, is also from the Portuguese capital.

Football is the most popular sport in Lisbon. Major football clubs include S.L. Benfica, with its home 65,000 seat stadium the UEFA Elite stadium Estádio da Luz (named after the area in which the stadium is situated (Luz) and not, as is popularly believed, 'Stadium of Light'). Benfica has won the UEFA Champions League twice and has appeared in the final seven times, and Sporting Clube de Portugal, the other major football team from the city, also having a UEFA elite stadium, 52,000 seat Estádio José de Alvalade stadium. It has won the UEFA Cup Winners Cup once and was the UEFA Cup finalist in the 2004-05 season. Former players from this team include Luís Figo and Cristiano Ronaldo. Belenenses is another important football team in the city, having Estádio do Restelo as its home stadium in the Belém neighbourhood of Lisbon. Belenenses holds the distinction of being the first club, other than perennial winners Sporting, Benfica and Porto, to win the Portuguese League, taking the trophy in the 1945-46 season.

Other sports, such as indoor football, handball, basketball and roller hockey are also popular.

There are many other sport facilities in Lisbon, ranging from athletics to sailing to golf to mountain-biking.

Lisbon was among the Portuguese cities which hosted the UEFA Euro 2004 championship. In 2006 and 2007, Lisbon was the starting city of the Dakar Rally. Every March the city hosts the Lisbon Half Marathon.

Parishes

Map of the Freguesias

There are 53 freguesias (civil parishes) in Lisbon:

  • Ajuda (formerly Nossa Senhora da Ajuda)
  • Alcântara
  • Alto do Pina
  • Alvalade
  • Ameixoeira (formerly Funchal)
  • Anjos
  • Beato
  • Benfica
  • Campo Grande
  • Campolide
  • Carnide
  • Castelo
  • Charneca
  • Coração de Jesus (formerly Camões)
  • Encarnação
  • Graça
  • Lapa
  • Lumiar
  • Madalena
  • Mártires
  • Marvila
  • Mercês
  • Nossa Senhora de Fátima
  • Pena
  • Penha de França
  • Prazeres
  • Sacramento
  • Santa Catarina
  • Santa Engrácia (formerly Monte Pedral)
  • Santa Isabel
  • Santa Justa
  • Santa Maria de Belém
  • Olivais (formerly Santa Maria dos Olivais)
  • Santiago
  • Santo Condestável
  • Santo Estêvão
  • Santos-o-Velho
  • São Cristóvão e São Lourenço (formerly São Lourenço)
  • São Domingos de Benfica
  • São Francisco Xavier
  • São João
  • São João de Brito
  • São João de Deus
  • São Jorge de Arroios
  • São José
  • São Mamede
  • São Miguel
  • São Nicolau
  • São Paulo (formerly Marquês de Pombal)
  • São Sebastião da Pedreira
  • São Vicente de Fora (formerly Escolas Gerais)
  • Socorro

Furthermore, and more commonly referred to by its inhabitants, Lisbon is divided into historical "bairros" with no clearly defined boundaries, such as Amoreiras, Bairro Alto, Bica, Alfama, Mouraria, Avenidas Novas, Intendente, Chelas and Lapa.

Prominent people born in Lisbon

Bronze statue of poet Fernando Pessoa in the Café A Brasileira, in the Chiado neighbourhood

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Lisbon is twinned with:

Gallery

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Uma população que se urbaniza, Uma avaliação recente - Cidades, 2004 Nuno Pires Soares, Instituto Geográfico Português (Geographic Institute of Portugal)
  2. ^ Fernando Nunes da Silva (2005), Alta Velocidade em Portugal, Desenvolvimento Regional, Censur ist
  3. ^ Global Financial Centres Index
  4. ^ Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Nov. 5, 2008). "Lisbon, Portugal - Where the Land Ends and the Sea Begins". http://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/en/imgdata/topics/2008/tp081105.html. Retrieved 7 December 09. 
  5. ^ Mattoso, José (dir.), História de Portugal. Primeiro Volume: Antes de Portugal, Lisboa, Círculo de Leitores, 1992 - in Portuguese.
  6. ^ Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
  7. ^ Pays Atlantiques décrits par Homère, Th. Cailleux, 1879, Paris.
  8. ^ Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier
  9. ^ "A 500-Year-Old Memory". The Jewish Week. April 21, 2009.
  10. ^ Urbis Olisiponis descriptio (Évora, 1554); Lisbon in the Renaissance, trans Jeffrey S. Ruth (New York, 1996).
  11. ^ Pereira, A.S. "The Opportunity of a Disaster: The Economic Impact of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake," Discussion Paper 06/03, Centre for Historical Economics and Related Research at York, York University, 2006 (pdf), p. 8.
  12. ^ Historical Depictions of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake
  13. ^ Pereira, "The Opportunity of a Disaster," p. 8, estimates a population of 200,000.
  14. ^ Historical Depictions of the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake, citing an unreferenced estimate of 275,000.
  15. ^ "Portugal". The Virtual Jewish History Tour.
  16. ^ "Welcome to the official global voting platform of". New7Wonders. http://www.new7wonders.com/index.php?id=315&L=0. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  17. ^ "Monthly Averages for Lisbon, Portugal". Instituto de Meteorologia. http://www.meteo.pt/pt/oclima/normais/. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  18. ^ ITDS, Rui Campos, Pedro Senos (2009-06-30). "Statistics Portugal". Ine.pt. http://www.ine.pt/. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  19. ^ Classificação Expresso das melhores cidades portuguesas para viver em 2007, Expresso
  20. ^ "Official web-site.". Lisbon Gay and Lesbian Film Festival. http://www.lisbonfilmfest.org/. Retrieved 2006-11-06. 
  21. ^ "lisboarte.com". lisboarte.com. http://www.lisboarte.com. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  22. ^ "::: doclisboa 2009 :::". Doclisboa.org. http://www.doclisboa.org/. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  23. ^ http://www.artelisboa.fil.pt/
  24. ^ Webcomum. "Festival Dos Oceanos". Festival Dos Oceanos. http://www.festivaldosoceanos.com/. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  25. ^ "Juventude Musical Portuguesa". Jmp.pt. http://www.jmp.pt. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  26. ^ two. "MOTELx - Festival Internacional de Cinema de Terror de Lisboa = {LISBON INTERNATIONAL HORROR FILM FESTIVAL}". Motelx.org. http://www.motelx.org. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  27. ^ "lisbon village festival". lisbon village festival. http://lisbon.villagefestival.net/. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  28. ^ http://www.feiradolivrodelisboa.pt
  29. ^ "Peixe em Lisboa". Peixemlisboa.com. http://www.peixemlisboa.com. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  30. ^ http://www.artesanato.fil.pt/
  31. ^ "Festival IndieLisboa". Indielisboa.com. http://www.indielisboa.com. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  32. ^ "alkantara". Alkantara.pt. http://www.alkantara.pt. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  33. ^ "Festival Temps d'Images Portugal". Tempsdimages-portugal.com. http://www.tempsdimages-portugal.com/. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  34. ^ "Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation / Music Department". Musica.gulbenkian.pt. http://www.musica.gulbenkian.pt/. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  35. ^ "Trienal de Arquitectura de Lisboa". Trienal.blogs.sapo.pt. http://trienal.blogs.sapo.pt. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  36. ^ "ModaLisboa - LisboaFashionWeek - Semana oficial da moda portuguesa". Modalisboa.pt. http://www.modalisboa.pt/. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  37. ^ "Experimentadesign". Experimentadesign.pt. http://www.experimentadesign.pt/. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  38. ^ "Luzboa 2008". Luzboa.com. http://www.luzboa.com. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  39. ^ [1] Information from Carris, Lisbon transportation company.
  40. ^ [2] Details of Lisbon's trams, from Luso Pages
  41. ^ "vimeca". Vimeca.pt. http://www.vimeca.pt. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  42. ^ "Bem vindo ao site da Rodoviária de Lisboa". Rodoviariadelisboa.pt. http://www.rodoviariadelisboa.pt. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  43. ^ "TST - Transportes Sul do Tejo". Tsuldotejo.pt. http://www.tsuldotejo.pt. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  44. ^ "Boa Viagem". Boa-viagem.pt. http://www.boa-viagem.pt. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  45. ^ "Barraqueiro Transportes". Barraqueirotransportes.pt. http://www.barraqueirotransportes.pt. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  46. ^ "Transtejo e Soflusa". Transtejo.pt. http://www.transtejo.pt. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  47. ^ http://www.estatisticas.gpeari.mctes.pt/archive/doc/insc07_08__difusao_.xls
  48. ^ "::Bethlehem Municipality::". www.bethlehem-city.org. http://www.bethlehem-city.org/Twining.php. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  49. ^ "Sister cities of Budapest" (in Hungarian). Official Website of Budapest. http://www.budapest.hu/engine.aspx?page=20030224-cikk-testvervarosok. Retrieved 2009-07-01. 
  50. ^ Madrid city council webpage "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. http://www.munimadrid.es/portal/site/munimadrid/menuitem.dbd5147a4ba1b0aa7d245f019fc08a0c/?vgnextoid=4e84399a03003110VgnVCM2000000c205a0aRCRD&vgnextchannel=4e98823d3a37a010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD&vgnextfmt=especial1&idContenido=1da69a4192b5b010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD Madrid city council webpage. 
  51. ^ Prefeitura.Sp - Descentralized Cooperation
  52. ^ International Relations - São Paulo City Hall - Official Sister Cities
  53. ^ "Intercity and International Cooperation of the City of Zagreb". © 2006-2009 City of Zagreb. http://www1.zagreb.hr/mms/en/index.html. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  54. ^ "Sister cities of Beijing". Official Website of Beijing. http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Sister_Cities/Sister_City/. Retrieved 2009-07-11. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

For other places with the same name, see Lisbon (disambiguation).
Lisbon roofs
Lisbon roofs

The capital of Portugal, Lisbon (Portuguese: Lisboa) has experienced a renaissance in recent years, with a contemporary culture that is alive and thriving and making its mark in today's Europe. Perched on the edge of the Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon is one of the rare Western European cities that face the ocean and uses water as an element that defines the city. Lisbon enchants travelers with its white bleached limestone buildings, intimate alleyways, and an easy going charm that makes it a popular year round destination.

Understand

Like Amman, Bath, Iasi, Istanbul, Moscow, Rome, San Francisco, Seattle, Sheffield, and Yaounde, Lisbon is built on seven hills.

The sparkling new Lisboa Ask Me Centre (Pç. do Comércio, Tel. +351 (21) 031-2815, open 9AM - 8PM daily) will help you find accommodation and the staff are happy to dispense advice, maps and brochures. Smaller Ask Me Lisboa kiosks are dotted about the Rossio district and airport and their multilingual staff also have maps and brochures.

The Lisboa Card, which can be purchased from tourist information outlets, offers free use of all public transport in the city and free or reduced price tickets to many museums, galleries and tourist attractions. They can be purchased in 24 hour (adult / child: €14.85 / €7.50), 48 hour (€25.50 / €12.75) and 72 hour (€31 / €15.50) denominations. They are not very good value unless you plan to visit a lot of museums. Especially so if you are a holder of a student identification card (international or national) since the student discounts to these attractions are often the same as for the Lisboa Card.

Climate and what to wear

Lisbon is very close to ocean and that brings windy and fast-changing weather, so you'd better bring a jacket or an umbrella with you, at least in spring and autumn.

Orientation

Bairro Alto ('high neighborhood') is located on the top of one of the hills and you can get there by subway (Baixa/Chiado station) or by taking the marvelous funicular from the Restauradores plaza.

Get in

By plane

Portugal's largest international airport is the Aeroporto da Portela (IATA: LIS). It is located between Loures and Lisboa. Alameda das Comunidades Portuguesas, Tel: +350 (21) 841-3000, Fax: +351 (21) 841-3675, [1]

It is the main air hub for TAP Portugal [2], a Star Alliance [3] member airline that covers an extensive network throughout Europe, Africa (Morroco, Algerie, Senegal, Guine Bissau, Mozambique, South Africa, Angola, Cape Verde, S. Tome e Principe) and the Americas (US, Venezuela and Brazil).

There are also several other airlines flying into Lisbon, such as Continental Airlines, US Airways, British Airways, Air France, Egyptair, Turkish Airlines, Lufthansa, Finnair, Iberia, Easyjet and KLM.

Getting from/to the airport

  • Aerobus (line 91) links the airport to the city center. It departs every 20 minutes 7AM-9PM. A ticket is €3.50 and is valid on all public transportation lines, such as buses and surface trams (but not for metro) for one day.
  • Bus lines 5, 8, 22, 44, 45, 83. Board fare is €1.40. 7 Colinas transport card (see "Get around" section) can be used which can be bought at the airport post office)
  • Taxis cost about €10.00 from the airport to the city center. Charge is according to the meter, adding €1.20 per item of luggage. As with many cities, watch out for dishonesty and if you think you are being charged significantly more (paying €45 to get into the city but only €6 back to the airport is not unheard of) ask for their number and a receipt, and make it clear you plan to complain. To avoid fraud, you can buy a taxi-voucher in the airport (€18 - a lot more than the average real meter price) which is good to go anywhere in the center, with luggage. Make sure to ask the driver how much he estimates the fare will be before getting in the taxi, which will diminish the chance for a surprise bounce in the price.
If arriving by plane in Lisbon, it is better to use public transport to your hotel or final destination, instead of taxis. The airport information desk at Lisbon airport can provide you with all the required information. Taxi drivers at the taxi stand at Lisbon are very infamously unreliable and if they can rip you off, they will. If you do not speak Portuguese or if you don't know the shortest way to your destination, do not use a taxi. If your final destination is less than 1 mile from the airport, taxi drivers will refuse to take you although they are not allowed to refuse destinations. If you insist in taking the taxi, the driver might abuse you verbally and try to rip you off. You may also request for a car rental services at the airport or an airport transfer wich are provided on all airports in Portugal and Islands.
If you arrive at Lisbon International Airport, do not use a taxi, unless you speak and understand Portuguese and know the layout of the city. Otherwise you will be ripped off as countless other tourists before you ever since the airport was opened. Take the public bus instead. If you insist in taking a taxi and your destination is less than 1 mile away, the driver will probably refuse to take you, shout at you during the whole trip (and still rip you off by making a large detour).

By train

There are two big train stations in Lisbon: Santa Apolónia and Gare do Oriente. However, if you are entering Lisbon from the south, you may want to get off at Entrecampos or Sete Rios: their metro stations are a few stops closer to the central and old town.

If arriving from the north (Porto, Gaia) and center (Aveiro, Coimbra) of Portugal use Santa Apolonia, close to Alfama/city centre.

Cais do Sodré is another important train station, connecting Lisbon to Cascais/Estoril coast.

Vasco da Gama Bridge
Vasco da Gama Bridge

Lisbon can be accessed from six main highways. Coming from the south (A2) or east (A6 - the main route from Madrid), there are the two bridges:

From/to south: The A2 goes all the way to the 25 de Abril bridge, which usually has lots of traffic getting into Lisbon, especially on weekday mornings. This is the best option if you want to go to the center of Lisbon or to the west (A5 - Estoril, Cascais, Sintra).

To north / to east: If you branch from the A2 into the A12, you'll get to the Vasco da Gama bridge, the longest bridge in Europe, it usually has less traffic than the older 25 de Abril bridge (but a more expensive toll). This is the best option to go to the eastern/northern section of Lisbon (to the airport and to the Parque das Nações - the former Expo 98 site), and also to take the A1 or A8 going north.

From/to north and the airport: Coming from the north, there is the A1, that connects Lisbon to Santarém, Fátima, Leiria, Coimbra, Aveiro, Porto. The A1 ends near the airport. There's also the A8, which goes to Torres Vedras, Caldas da Rainha, Alcobaça, Leiria.

From the west, there is the A5, which connects to Estoril, Cascais, and the IC19 that crosses all the suburbs and ends near Sintra.

Lisbon has three ring roads: The 2ª circular, which connects the A1 to the IC19; the CRIL IC17 (still incomplete), which connects the Vasco da Gama bridge with the A1 and A8; and the CREL A9, which connects the A1 with the A8, IC19, A5, and goes all the way to the Estoril coast.

By bus

All nearby cities and most major cities in Portugal have direct buses to Lisbon. The main bus terminal is at Sete Rios (metro: Jardim Zoológico).

By boat

You can get a boat to Lisbon from the following stations: Barreiro; Trafaria; Montijo; and Cacilhas. It's an excellent sightseeing opportunity crossing the river Tagus to Lisbon.

Many cruise ships dock at several places along the river, with variably good access to public transport throughout the city.

By bicycle

From airport: Due to the relative proximity of Lisbon's airport to the city center, it is quite easy to cycle from the airport to the center, and could be recommended if you arrive for a cycling trip.

After leaving the airport and negotiating a roundabout, merge onto the long and straight dual-carriageway Av. Almirante Gago Coutinho (you should be able just to follow the "Centro" ("Downtown") signs.) After merging, the route to Baixa is simple and straight. This street later turns into Av. Almirante Reis, and then Rua de Palma, at the end of which you will be right in Baixa.

Cycling outside Lisbon can be a challenge, as Lisbon offers far easier cycling than what you may find outside of the city. The further you get from Lisbon however, the easier the cycling gets. You may wish to take advantage of certain regional trains that take bicycles in a separate luggage carriage, allowing you to start your cycling some 50 or 100 kilometers outside of the city.

Cycling within the city is now much easier because of the work the municipality has been putting in with bike lanes, changing car traffic patterns and adding speed bumps etc but of course parts of the town will always be part of the surprisingly hilly outlet of Lisbon. Although better than in recent years there are still very few bike lanes in town the newest one stretches from Baixa to Belem along the beautiful river Tejo water front. Car drivers are now often weekend cyclists and way more careful with cyclists than in recent years. Good spots to cycle are along the EXPO coast, the waterfront between Cais Sodré and Belém.

Just outside of Lisbon -you can take for free a bike on trains or ferries- along the coast from Estoril towards the beautiful beach of Guincho, reach Sintra, Cascais or Costa da Caparica.

If you take a bicycle in public transportation beware of the following:

  • Metro: During working days you are allowed to carry bicycles in the metro only after 8:30PM. On weekends, it's allowed and it's free of charge.
  • Suburban trains: You are allowed to carry bicycles in the trains free of everyday of the week just be reasonable and avoid rush hour passenger patterns.
  • Ferries: Bicycles travel for free, you are allowed but there are strict limitations on the number of bikes allowed depending on ferry lines and ferry boat type, arrive early and you shall avoid disappointment.

Bike shops in Lisbon town center are rare. You can find a SportZone near Rossio or in Amoreiras shopping mall. Ask there for specialist shops, shop assistants are usually very helpful.

For bike the sights and bike rentals you can always check out Bike Iberia (Phone: +351 96 242 3455, [4]) located in Baixa-downtown , next to Cais Sodre and the Praca Comercio square; they are professional, friendly and very helpful on providing tours, bikes, touring equipment, mountain biking gear and native insider's knowledge.

Campo Grande Metro Station
Campo Grande Metro Station

Metro and Buses

Lisbon has a very efficient public transport network that covers the entire city plus the surrounding areas.

Lisbon's recently refurbished metro system [5] is quick and efficient.

Lisbon Metro Map
Lisbon Metro Map

Single trip tickets within Zone 1 (which covers most of the city) cost €1.35 (as of November 2009). You can acquire this in the ticket machines in every metro station across the city and you will be given a green card. Make sure you keep that card for future trips because it may save you a lot of money since a one way ticket once you already have the card only costs €0.80.

The extensive bus and electrico (tram) network is run by Carris [6]. There are many ticket outlets, but you can also buy the ticket from the driver or machines on board (the latest only available in some trams).

The best way to pay for city transport is buying a rechargeable card 7 Colinas (Viva Viagem) card. It is valid for metro, trams (electrico) and most buses. The only exception is buses run by not by Carris--other bus companies have their own tickets. The card itself can be purchased for as little as €0.50 (this price doesn't include any trips--add as many trips as you ask for), and remains valid for a year.

If you are going to move around heavily on a specific day, an economic choice can be the all-day pass which costs €4 (valid until 1AM). The all-day pass is also valid on city buses and tram lines.

Note that you can charge 7 Colinas only one type of ticket a day (e.g. you can't charge it with a single ticket and a day ticket at the same time, but you can use it with a day ticket and then charge a single ticket the next day).

If you will be traveling around a lot, you may wish to get a multiple-day ticket.

If you plan to be in Lisbon for an extended time (1 week and more), you can purchase an unlimited pass that covers buses, metro, and funiculars at the Carris station in Santo Amaro. It's €10 for the Lisboa Viva card, plus €25 for a one-month unlimited pass. You can also get them in week-long or two-week unlimited denominations. Bring a photo ID (passport) and cash.

By Car

Think twice before using a car in the city unless you are prepared to spend hours in traffic jams. Parking in certain areas can also be a pain. The busy traffic and narrow streets with blind corners can be overwhelming to tourists as well.

If your accommodation is in the center of the city, walking is a great alternative. Many of the attractions of the city, such as the Castelo and the Alfama and Bairro Alto districts, are within easy walking distance of the Baixa.

If you become lost or cannot find the location you are looking for, try to locate the nearest Carris bus or tram stop. Most of these stops (not all) have a very good map of the city with your current location clearly marked on the map. All the prominent tourist sites in Lisbon are also shown along with an index at the bottom of the map. A quick consultation with one of these Carris maps should point you back in the right direction.

You may also use the funiculars and elevadores (Santa Justa's), refer to See:Exotic Transport for details. Day passes for public transportation are also valid for those.

Renting a car

With Budget: If you choose to return a car near your hotel, don't rely that an agent come right in the agreed-upon time: for an agreed 12pm return he can easily arrive at 9am (and will come again upon your call).

  • Cristo Rei, (Catch the ferry to Cacilhas from Cais do Sobre then grab Bus 101(€1.35 return)), [7]. 9AM - 6PM. Similar to the Christ statue in Rio de Janeiro, this statue stands over 100 meters tall on the opposite bank of the Tejo River from downtown Lisbon. Views from the top of the statue are breathtaking, although the elevator up will cost you €4.  edit
  • Tram 28. Instead of paying for a trip in one of the tourist trams, try tram line 28. It takes you by many of Lisbon's most famous sites, and although it is overrun with tourists, you still get a flavor of the locals. Ticket costs Euro 1.40 per journey and can be obtained from on-board vending machines. These machines do not accept notes so ensure you have sufficient change. This tram route winds its way from Campo Orique to Martim-Moniz through many neighbourhoods and past several interesting sights including churches and gardens. The trip is hilly, noisy and hectic but affords beautiful glimpses over the city. From start to finish the ride takes around half an hour and is the cost of a normal fare. Beware of pickpockets.  edit
  • Funiculars
  • Santa Justa's Elevator, Rua Aurea & Rua de Santa Justa, +351 (21) 361-3054. Located downtown, this elevator was designed by a follower of French engineer Gustav Eiffel and connects the downtown to the Trindade, located several meters uphill. 7 Colinas valid.  edit
  • Castelo de São Jorge (St. George's Castle), (Walk up the hill from Alfama or take bus 37), +351 218 800 620, [8]. 9AM - 9PM (March - Oct) and 9AM-6PM (Nov-Feb). Located up the hill, with a great view over the city and the river. If you have the energy, get there by walking from downtown, going through the fantastic old neighborhood of Alfama. €5 with student discount available.  edit
  • Ponte 25 de Abril. This sister bridge of the Golden Gate in San Francisco was designed by the same architect in 1966 to connect Lisbon with the Setubal peninsula across the Tagus (Tejo) River. Formerly known as the Salazar Bridge, it was renamed after the Carnation Revolution, which on April 25, 1974 ended the dictatorship.  edit
  • Ponte Vasco da Gama. It is the longest bridge in Europe (including viaducts), and ninth longest in the world, with a total length of 17.2 km (10.7 mi), including 0.829 km (0.5 mi) for the main bridge, 11.5 km (7.1 mi) in viaducts, and 4.8 km (3.0 mi) in dedicated access roads.  edit
  • Aqueduto das Aguas Livres. This is a historic aqueduct in the city of Lisbon, Portugal. It is one of the most remarkable examples of 18th-century Portuguese engineering. The main course of the aqueduct covers 18 km, but the whole network of canals extends through nearly 58 km. The Mãe d'Água (Mother of the Water) reservoir of the Amoreiras, the largest of the water reservoirs, was finished in 1834. This reservoir, with a capacity of 5,500 m³ of water, was designed by Carlos Mardel. It is now deactivated and can be visited as part of the Museu da Água (Water Museum).  edit
  • Chiado, [9]. Take a stroll along the historical streets of this elegant shopping district, stopping for a cup of coffee with the statue of Fernando Pessoa, Portugal's great Modernist poet. Head uphill to Bairro Alto, for stunning views of the city and some wild partying in Lisbon's most popular nightclub district.  edit
Downtown (Baixa)
Downtown (Baixa)
  • Downtown (Baixa). This part of the city was completely rebuilt after the 1755 earthquake by the Marquis de Pombal. The planned layout, greatly different from what you will see in the more ancient neighborhoods, is a testimony to the ideas of the Enlightenment.  edit
  • Alfama. This neighborhood is a sign of the Muslim presence in the city, with the buildings very close to each other, and very irregular streets. Its very atmospheric and a great spot in which to wander around.  edit
  • Praça do Comércio, (Take the metro to Terreiro do Paço Station), [10]. This magnificent plaza, facing the river, is the beginning of Lisboa's downtown. It is also known as 'Terreiro do Paço', meaning 'Grounds of the Palace', relating to its function before the Great Earthquake of 1755.  edit

Belém

This monument-packed neighborhood is a must-see place.

Take tram 15 to the west, which follows the coast line. Check the route map inside the tram: it helps to find a right station for most famous of Belém attractions.

The neighbourhood features:

Belem tower
Belem tower
  • Belem Tower (Torre de Belém). The likes of the tower. entry fee €4.  edit
Jeronimos Monastery
Jeronimos Monastery
  • Jerónimos Monastery, [11]. free entry.  edit
  • Monument to the Discoveries (Padrão dos Descobrimentos). entry fee €4.  edit
  • CCB (Belém Cultural Center), [12]. The modern CCB is holding a permanent contemporany art exhibition, from the Berardo Collection - it features works from Picasso, Dalí, Duchamp, Magritte, Andy Warhol, among others.  edit
  • Coach Museum (Museu dos Coches), [13]. Housed in the former ridding school of the palace, don't miss the world's largest collection of coaches and royal vehicles.  edit
  • statue to Afonso de Albuquerque. In front of the former Royal Palace of Belém, now the Presidential Palace, there is a massive statue looking out to sea, representing Afonso de Albuquerque, first Viceroy of Portuguese India at the early 16th century.  edit

A stroll around its many gardens enjoying the river's bright blue is also a must.

Jeronimos Monastery
Jeronimos Monastery
  • The Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Avenida de Berna, 45A (take the metro to Sao Sebastiao or Praca de Espanha Sations), 21 7823000, [14]. 10AM-5:45PM; closed Mon. Created from the personal collection of Calouste Gulbenkian, an Armenian who longed to see all his treasures displayed in a museum. A nice assortment of Egyptian artifacts, along with paintings by masters such as Rembrandt, Manet, Monet, Renoir, and Cassat. The museum's gardens are worth a visit in and of themselves, as a little oasis in the middle of downtown Lisbon. 5EUR (permanent+temporary exhibition); half price for students under 25 with ID, holders of the European Youth Card (Euro26) and those aged 65 or over; free entry on Sunday and any other day for those under 12.  edit
  • Fundação Arpad Szenes / Vieira da Silva, Praça das Amoreiras, 56/58, +351 (21) 3880044/53 (, fax: 351 21 3880039), [15]. Mon-Sat 11AM-7PM, Sun 10AM-6PM. This museum is installed in the restored 18th-century former Royal Silk Factory. It permanent collection covers a wide time period of the works of 20th-century painters Arpad Szenes and Maria Helena Vieira da Silva, and regularly hosts exhibits by their contemporaries. Adults €2.50, students €1.25, kids under 14 free.  edit
  • Museu da Agua (Water Museum), [16]. Entrance fee of €1.5 to €2.5, depending on age or discount cards you may use.  edit
  • Lisbon metro, [17]. Most of the metro system is a free art gallery. You'll find art by contemporary artists inspired by the stations' surrounding area. Check the subway webpage for more details on this curiosity. The red line is the newest one and has the best pieces of art.  edit
  • Museu do Azulejo, [18]. Museu Nacional do Azulejo is one of the most important national museums, for its singular collection, Azulejo (Tile), an artistic expression which differentiates Portuguese culture, and for the unique building where its installed, former Madre de Deus Convent, founded in 1509 by Queen Dona Leonor.  edit
  • Museu Colecção Berardo, Centro Cultural de Belem, [19]. It is the Museum of Modern Art of Lisbon, with collection of international modern and contemporary art of the 20th and 21st century currently represents around 1000 works from more than 500 artists.  edit
CCB - Museu Colcçao Berardo
CCB - Museu Colcçao Berardo
  • Museu da Marinha, Centro Cultural de Belem, [20]. The interesting Maritime Museum is one of the most important in Europe, evoking Portugal's domination of the seas. Its colossal 17,000 items are installed in the west wing of Jeronimos Monastery, and include model ships from the Age of Discovery onward. The oldest exhibit is a wooden figure representing the Archangel Raphael that accompanied Vasco da Gama on his voyage to India.  edit
  • Pavilhao do Conhecimento, Centro Cultural de Belem, [21]. The Pavilion of Knowledge - Ciência Viva is an interactive science and technology museum that aims to make science accessible to all, stimulating experimentation and exploration of the physical world.  edit
  • Jardim Zoológico, Estrada De Benfiea 158-160 (Metro:Take the Blue Line to the Jardim Zooligico. Buses: A variety of buses stop here including 16, 31, 54, 58, 701 and 755), +351 (21) 7232-920, [22]. 10AM - 8PM (21st March - 30th Sept.) and 10AM - 6PM (1st Oct. - 20th March). A zoo that is fairly pricey, but has a variety of exotic animals featuring sea-lions and dolphins. €15.  edit
Parque das Nações
Parque das Nações
  • Parque das Nações, On Av. Dom Joao II (Metro: Oriente Station. Train: Gare Do Oriente Station.), +351 (21) 8919-898, [23]. Built for the 1998 World Expo, the eastern side of town (take the Metro to Oriente) is a change from downtown. It includes:  edit
    • Oceanarium, +351 218 917 002, [24]. One of the world's largest oceanariums. Admission 11.00EUR.  edit
    • Pavilhao do Conhecimento, +351 218 917 100, [25]. Admission €3.00-€7.00.  edit
  • Lisbon Botanical Garden, Rua da Escola Politécnica, 58 (Metro: Rato Sation), [26]. Daily 9AM - 8PM (Summer) 9AM - 6PM (Winter). The botanical garden of Ajuda is one of the oldest gardens in Europe and is considered the first in Portugal. After the earthquake that occurred in 1755, the homeless Portuguese royal family decided to build a new royal residence at Ajuda but also gardens around it. This 10 acre garden was laid out in from 1858-1873.  edit
  • Jardim Botanico (Botanic Gardens), (between the Avenida da Liberdade and Bairro Alto). A hidden gem. It was created several hundred years ago, by a King of Portugal at the time of the Discoveries. The story goes that this King wanted one of every type of plant in the world, and although that's unlikely, there is a huge collection dating back by three or four centuries which is worth checking out. Also some weird and wonderful bizarre grafted trees - the roots hang down like fingers and toes where one tree has been grafted onto another, sometimes completely different, species. And there's something quite eerie about seeing plants or huge trees from completely different climates growing next to each other in apparent harmony. A great place to take a picnic - this green oasis is completely surrounded by city but even the city sounds filter out. Entrance 1.80EUR adults, discounts for kids, OAPS and students.  edit
  • Armazéns do Chiado shopping mall (see details in Buy): top floor restaurants and cafes have fantastic city views.

Do

Go out at night to the central Bairro Alto, or 'High Neighborhood'. Just up the hill from Chiado, this is the place to go out in town. In the early evening, go to a fado-themed restaurant near the Praca Camoes, and head upwards as the evening goes on. If you're in Lisbon on the night preceding a Feriado or public holiday, you have to check this out. Tiny little streets which are empty in the daytime become crammed walkways which are difficult to get through.

  • Cine Theatro Gymnasium, Rua da Misericórdia nº 14, 2º Andar 1200-273 Lisboa, (+ 351) 210 121 000, [27]. Fado In Chiado - Daily show (except on Sundays) with a duration of 40 minutes. Voices that sing the Fado to the sound of Portuguese guitar. "Fado in Chiado 'encounter with the tradition in the historic Lisbon. A show that reveals the Fado as World Heritage, to hear and feel, the voice of the Portuguese soul.  edit
  • Have a picnic in Jardim Botanico (see details in "See" section).

Work

Members of the EU can work in Lisbon (and the whole of Portugal) without a work visa. Citizens of non-EU countries must obtain a work visa.

Vasco Da Gama shopping mall
Vasco Da Gama shopping mall
Avenida da Liberdade
Avenida da Liberdade
Marques de Pombal roundabout, where Avenida da Liberdade starts
Marques de Pombal roundabout, where Avenida da Liberdade starts

Shops are open a little later than other places in Europe, usually around 9:30AM-10PM, and the lunch breaks can be quite long, usually from 1PM to 3PM.

You can buy a Lisbon Shopping Card [28], which gives you 5% to 20% discounts at about 200 major stores in Baixa, Chiado and Av. Liberdade for a period of 24 hours (card costs EUR3.70) or 72 hours (card costs EUR5.70).

  • Baixa: From Praça do Comércio (aka Terreiro do Paço) to the Restauradores, the Baixa is the old shopping district in the city. It includes pedestrian Rua Augusta which has the most boring and mass-visitor tourist stores, and several European chain clothing stores like Zara, H&M, Campers.
  • Chiado: a number of independent shops and services and well known brands such as Hugo Boss, Vista Alegre, Tony & Guy, Benetton, Sisley, Pepe Jeans, Levi's and Colcci, which makes Chiado, together with Avenida da Liberdade, one of the Top 10 places to shop in the world. Some informal brands like Crumpler are also there.
  • Avenida da Liberdade: Louis Vuitton, Calvin Klein, Timberland, Massimo Dutti, Armani, Burberrys and Adolfo Dominguez are just some of the shops you'll find across this avenue, which is not just one of the most beautiful and wide in the city, but also one of the fanciest with splurge hotels and restaurants.

Malls

While most stores are closed on Sundays, many malls are open 7 days a week. They usually open around 9:30AM and close by 11PM or midnight, although the film theaters within them usually run a late session starting after midnight.

  • Centro Comercial Colombo, Av. Colegio Militar (Metro: Take the Blue Line to Colegio Militar/Luz Station), +351 (21) 771 36 36, [29]. 9AM - Midnight. One of the largest malls in Europe, this shopping and leisure complex also houses dozens of restaurants, a bowling alley, health club, multiplex cinema, funfair with rides including a roller coaster, and a go-cart track.  edit
  • Armazéns do Chiado, Rua do Carmo 2 (Metro: Baixa-Chiado Station), [30]. A massive mall that draws a young hip crowd shopping for books, CDs, and DVD.  edit
  • Centro Comercial Vasco da Gama, (Metro: Oriente Station), [31]. A large mall and theme park in the Parque Expo.  edit
  • Centro Comercial Amoreiras, Av. Eng. Duarte Pacheco (Metro: Marquês de Pombal Station), [32]. The city's oldest mall in eye-catching post-modern towers housing international chains.  edit
  • El Corte Inglés, Av. António Augusto Aguiar, 413 (Metro: Sao Sebastiao Station), [33]. Big department store with cinema and supermarket, a bit pricey but with good quality items.  edit
  • Dolce Vita Tejo, Avenida Cruzeiro Seixas,Amadora (Metro: Take the Blue Line to Amadora Station, and take a bus from there as the mall is beyond walking distance.), [34]. The biggest Shopping Mall in Europe.  edit
  • Ramos & Silva / Optica do Chiado (André Ópticas chain), Rua Garrett 63/65, +351 213 264 000, [35]. 10-19 ?Mon-Sat. A good selection of designer eyewear from a dozen of brands (Lindberg, DSquareD etc).  edit
  • Feira da Ladra, Campo de Santa clara (Take Tram 28). 6AM-5PM Tuesday and Saturday. A lively out door market offering both new and used products. Markets of this type have pleased bargain hunters since the 12th century in Lisbon and the Feira da Ladra name has been around since the 17th century.  edit

Eat

Portuguese dining rituals tend to follow the Mediterranean siesta body clock.

Most restaurants are very small, family run and generally cheap. Some of them has a sheet on the door with the "pratos do dia" (dishes of the day) written on. These dishes are usually cheaper and fresher than the rest of menu there, and unless you're looking for something specific, they're the right choice.

During the dinner the waiter will probably bring you some unrequested starter dishes (called couvert): as those are not free, feel free not to touch them and they will not be charged on your bill (but check it!).

Choosing a neighbourhood

For Portuguese traditional cuisine at its finest, head to the area of Chiado.

Tourist traps with laminated menus and meal deals are mostly concentrated in the Baixa area.

It has an exception, however: Rua das Portas de Santo Antão (north-east from Praca dos Restauradores, parallel to it)--it's the seafood strip, and home to the best greasy spit-roasted chicken this side of Louisiana.

For a familiar taste at one of the many chain eateries, head to Doca de Santo Amaro (train/tram 15 station Alcantara-Mar) and Parque das Nações (metro Oriental).

All the culinary and clubbing kudos is right now concentrated in Doca de Jardim de Tabaco (piece of river waterfront right under Castelo de Sao Jorge).

Quality dishes for a high price are in well-to-do Lapa.

Tour groups primarily feel at home in Alfama.

Traditional Portugese restaurants are in Bairro Alto, scattered abundantly through its quirky narrow streets.

Fado

Make sure that you dine at a restaurant that plays traditional fado music. Beware that you'll pay more than in normal restaurants, and the food and drink quality may not be up to the price, you're paying for the music experience.

Pastelarias

Try the magnificent pastéis de nata at any pastelaria; or better yet, visit the Antiga Confeitaria de Belém (Casa Pasteis De Belem) [37] (Rue de belem 84; +351 21 363 74 23; take eléctrico #15 from Praça do Comércio, or the Cascais suburban train line from Cais do Sodré station, to Belém stop). They are served right out of the oven there, with the side of confectioner's sugar and cinnamon; as you navigate through the azulejo-decorated labyrinthine passages of the expansive shop, stop to look at the workers behind glass panels turning the endless stream of these delicacies, just baked, each in its own little ramekin, over onto the waiting trays. These are absolutely a must eat and you can't possibly regret it.

Budget

You will find traditional meals served in small coffeeshops/restaurants, especially in the old parts of town. Some will be better than others, just check if there are a lot of locals eating there! They will be very cheap (as low as €5 for a full meal) and home-style cooking. The owners probably wont speak english and the menu will probably be in portuguese only!

  • Café Buenos Aires, Calçada Escadinhas do Duque No. 31, +351 21 3420739. A good and selected combination of cheap and mid range dishes. The owners are very friendly and speak English, as well as Portuguese. (This restaurant would not be described as budget by any Lisboeta that I know or have known! It is a good restaurant if you want to eat south american grilled meat in Lisbon.)  edit
  • Gurkha, Arco das Portas do Mar, 9 (Near Casa dos Bicos). Among Lisbon's many curry houses, this Nepalese restaurant is a little hidden, but offers good value Asian food (tandoori, curries) for a total of about about 8-12 euros per person.  edit
  • Mercado da Ribeira, Cais do Sodre (Opposite the train station, on the Marginal). Lunchtime all-you-can-eat buffet (soup, main course, dessert). Unlike much of Lisbon's restaurants, offers a good selection of salads. A bargain at 7.50.  edit

Groceries and markets

Grocery stores are closed on Sundays after 1PM, except (a) those smaller than 2000m2 or (b) from November 1st to December 31st.

  • Mercado da Ribeira, Avenida 24 de Julho (Cais do Sodré). 7AM-1PM except Sunday. A massive farmers market open in the mornings. This is a great place to buy snacks for the day while traveling on a budget. Pick up nuts, fruit, veggies, cheese, bread or meat or delight your travel mate with some beautiful flowers.  edit

Mid-range

Alfama

  • A Tasquinha (from donwtown, turn left near Igreja de Santa Luzia to Rua do Limoeiro; then turn right to Rua de Santiago. Pass Camidas de Santiago. Look for outdoor red chairs and tables, white umbrellas), Largo Contador Mor 5/7. Great food; owner and guest signers perform fado on Fri evenings without charging extra for it; many outdoor tables; great red Sangria. Try bacalau with potatoes and onion in cream sauce--excellent change from ubiquitous "rice/chips with grilled everything".  edit
  • Chapito. Dinner: from 7:30pm.. Great views are the main feature if you reserve terrace seat in advance. Good atmosphere; international-menu food is tasty but nothing special.  edit
  • DeliDelux‎, Avenida Infante D. Henrique Armazém B - Loja 8, +351 218 862 070 (), [38]. Tue-Fri: 12pm-12am; Sat 10am-12am; Sun 10am-8pm. Breakfasts in a contemporary setting; pleasant views. Average bill: 20eur.  edit
  • Malmequer Bemmequer, Rua de Sao Miguel 23-25, 351 21 887 65 35, [39]. Closed on Mon.. Friendly and inexpensive; long menu of traditional Portugese dishes.  edit
  • Pois Cafe, Rua S. João da Praça N. 93-95 (on the side street of cathedral Sé), +351 (21) 886-2497 (), [40]. 11am-8pm, Tue-Sun. It's a place to relax, read a book, drink a coffee and plan you way around Lisbon. Also offers toasts, pastas, quiches and salads; features (late) breakfasts.  edit

Downtown

  • Néctar WineBar, R. dos Douradores, 33 (Baixa Pombalina neighbourhood), 912633368 (), [41]. Lunch: Mon-Sat 12:30pm-3pm; Dinner: Mon-Thu 6pm-11pm; Fri-Sat: 6pm-12am. Features daily lunch menu; portuguese and mediterrenean cuisine. A place dedicated to the promotion of Portugal's wine and gastronomic culture. The wine list comprises - in its vast majority - a selection of Portuguese wines which best represent the country. Wine can be bought by the glass, and it is served at the appropriate temperatures and in suitable glasses. Dishes - served in portions for 2 - easily replace a main course meal. Homemade-style desserts, for which sweet wines can be suggested. A modern and cosy atmosphere. €25-35.  edit
  • Tamarind, Rua da Gloria 43-45 (near Elevador da Glória), 213 466-080. Small Indian restaurant. Avg bill per person: 30EUR.  edit

Docas

  • Arroz Maria, Doca de Sto Amaro (take train from Cais do Sodre, ride to Alcântara-Mar station), +351 (21) 395-4677. Spanish food restaurant with fabulous seafood with a great view of the Tejo river and the Ponte de 25 Abril. Excellent service and really fresh food. Don't miss the tamboril (monkfish) with the tomato and asparagus sauce. Really worth the effort to get there, the Docas area is fairly newly developed, and the railway line makes it hard to find a way across the main road, but with determination it's a great spot to go to. It's one of a number of restaurants of varying types along this stretch of the quayside, but it stands out for quality and value. Check it out before it gets 'trendy'. €25 (two courses with wine and port).  edit

Bairro Alto

  • Terra, Rua da Palmeira 15 (near Jardim do Príncipe Real, www.terra.vg), +351 707 108 108, [42]. Probably the best vegetarian restaurant in Lisbon and also the nicest in terms of ambience and service. They have a menu in English and will help with vegan choices or people with other dietary restrictions. Reservations are recommended, especially on weekends but you will always be served even if you arrive with the place full and have to wait for a while. Weather permitting try to get a table "outside", which means a wonderful and secluded back terrace. €15-20 (Vegetarian Buffet plus drink and/or dessert).  edit
  • Sul, Rua do Norte 13, +351 21 346 24 49. Delicious Mediterranean and South American food. Good wine and drinks list. Helpful staff will translate the menu, which is written on the blackboard, and happily cater for vegetarians. Gets packed in the evenings so bookings recommended if you're eating from 9PM onwards. No outdoor tables. €30 (''2 courses with wine and cocktail'').  edit
  • Brasuca, Rua Joao Pereira da Rosa 7, +351 (21) 322-07 40. Great Brazilian food served by friendly staff.  edit
  • Lisboa à Noite, Rua as Gaveas, 69, 21 346 85 57 (fax: 213 460 222), [43]. A restaurant with a variety of traditional Portuguese dishes very appreciated by the tourists. Friendly environment, great service. Make sure you try the appetizers.  edit
  • Ali a Papa, Rua da Atalaia 95, +351 (21) 347-4143, [44]. Dinner only: 7pm-4am. Couscous heaven in a tiny and friendly room. Highly recommended, and good veggie options too. €20 (two courses with house wine).  edit
  • Calcutá, Rua da Atalaia 28, +351 (21) 346 -8165, [45]. Best Indian food. Ask for the shoot drinks! €25 (two courses with house wine).  edit
  • Eleven, Rua Marquês da Fronteira, +351 (21) 386-211, [46]. If you really feel like splurging, this is the place. The restaurant was recently awarded a Michelin Star, although the basis on which the award was made are disputable.  edit
  • Il Gatopardo, Av. Eng. Duarte Pacheco, 24 (3rd Floor of the Dom Pedro Palace hotel). Lunch: 12:20PM - 3:30PM, Dinner: 7:30PM-11:30PM. An elegant restaurant serving fashionable gourmet Italian with a big price tag.  edit
  • Panorama, Rua Latino Coelho 1, +351 (21) 312-0000. Superb views over Lisbon and food with a good quality/price ratio.  edit
  • Bica do Sapato, Avenida Infante Dom Henrique Armazém B, Cais da Pedra à Bica do Sapato, +351(21)8810320, [47]. Superb views over Lisbon and food with a good quality/price ratio.  edit

Downtown

  • Gambrinus (restaurant / bar / brewery), Rua das Portas de Santo Antao, 23 (Four Seasons Hotel Ritz), +351 21 342 14 66 (), [48]. 12:30pm-1:30am. One of the most chic places in the city. Highly recognized in Lisbon as something of an institution, it attracts an eclectic crowd where the appeal is food and a great selection of beers, wines and spirits. Features smoking room, private parking with a doorman.  edit

Drink

Lisbon is known for its lively nightlife. For going out, stroll around the old neighborhood of Bairro Alto ('high neighborhood') for an after-dinner caipirinha or ginjinha and people-watching. Its small streets, full of people, are packed with high variety of bars. Friday and Saturday nights are the busiest, but the Bairro is rocking every night until dawn.

Alcântara, Santos, Parque das Nações, and the castle area are all neighborhoods with a thriving nightlife. The whole area near the river/Atlantic, known as the docas, is a huge hub for nightlife, as Lisbon has never lost its ties to the sea.

  • Garrafeira Alfaia, Rua Diário de Notícias 125, +351 (21) 343-30 79 (). Nice wine bar with an impressive selection of good wines and appetizers. Good place to spend the late afternoon, before going out to dinner.  edit
  • Chafariz do Vinho, Rua da Mae d'Agua., 21 342 20 79. Perfect place to linger over a glass of wine at this wine bar that is under the arches of the city's former acquaducts. With a great selection of appetizers that are matched perfectly with the wine, it's a pleasant way to spend an evening.  edit
  • Ritz Bar, Four Seasons Hotel, Rua Rodrigo da Fonseca, 88, 21 381 14 00. Designed by Pierre Yves-Rochon, you'll enjoy deep, sumptous sofas and an impressive collection of contemporary art displayed on the walls. And with decorated bartender Paulo Costa serving you drinks, its a great place to peruse a crowd of sophisticated clientele.  edit

Sleep

Choosing location: If you are in Lisbon for sightseeing (especially for your first visit), the best location is along the route of tram #28 (see official map of the route [49]). This especially works if you are with a baby stroller, as it will save from huge part of hill-climbing.

Finding accommodation when you arrive: Finding a decent sleeping place in the center should not be a big problem. There are many small, unlisted hostels that will offer you enough comfort, and offer a fair price. Expect to pay between €45 and €60 for a double room.

There is a tourist service center in the airport, where the nice ladies will book a room for you.

Budget

Chiado

  • Lisbon Old Town Hostel, Rua do Ataíde, 26A (5 minutes from Bairro Alto. Metro: Baixa/Chiado or Caiso do Sobre), +351 21 3465248 (, fax: +351 (21)346-5248), [50]. A new hostel, opened in 2007, catering to the young hip crowd with event listings on their website, free computer and internet access in the lobby and WiFi through out the hostel. 15€-22€.  edit
  • Shiado Hostel, Rua Anchieta 5 - 3º - 1200-023 Lisboa (2 mins walking from Baixa-Chiado Metro station), +351 213429227 (), [51]. Located in the Chiado area, the very heart of Lisbon, a charming and relaxing hostel. Opened in march 2009! 15€-30€.  edit

Alfama

Bairro Alto

  • Bed&Breakfast Lisboa, Travessa do Alcaide, nº7 (atached at Adamastor), +351 (9) 1699 3798 (), [52]. Good rooms in a very central bed-and-breakfast with views all over Lisbon and the river. 30€ - €40.  edit
  • Camões, Travessa do Poço da Cidade 38 1E, +351 (21) 346 40 48. Basic, clean and affordable. Single €20, Triple €60.  edit
  • Hotel Borges, Rua Garret, 108, +351 (21) 346 19 51, [53]. Clean, spacious rooms with satellite TV. Rooms starting at €84.  edit
  • Kitsch Hostel, Praça dos Restauradores 65, 2° esq (Aerobus stop and metro stop restauradores), +351 213467332 (), [54]. checkin: 14.00; checkout: 11.00. brand new hostel in central Lisbon. 10-minute walk from Bairro Alto. from €14.  edit
  • Oasis Backpackers' Mansion, Rua de Santa Catarina 24, +351 (21) 347 80 44 (), [55]. Backpackers rave about this hotel, often noting the friendly staff, large clean rooms, fun atmosphere and great dinners. It is a great place for a budget traveler to meet up with other travelers and feel safe when they go to bed at night - if they go to bed.  edit
  • Pousada da Juventude - Youth Hostel, R. Andrade Corvo, 46, +351 (21) 353 26 96 (, fax: +351 (21) 353 75 41), [56]. (Marquês de Pombal,) edit
  • Suiço Atlântico, Rua da Gloria 3-19, +351 (21) 346 17 13. checkin: 2PM; checkout: 12PM. A comfortable, non-smoking, hotel on Restauradores Square with WiFi available in public areas. Starting at €40.  edit

Baixa

  • Beira Minho, Praça da Figueira, 6, +351 (21) 346 18 46. A great location at a good price, but with few amenities.  edit
  • Goodnight Backpackers Hostel, Rua dos Correeiros 113, 2nd, +351 (21) 343-0139 (), [57]. The interior design looks a bit like IKEA show-room, the staff know where the good places to go out dancing and drinking are and the location works for a budget traveler. €18-20.  edit
  • Ibis Lisboa Saldanha, Avenida Casal Ribeiro 23, +351 (21) 319 1690, [58]. Travelers give this Ibis so-so reviews noting on the plus side the location only 5 min walk to the metro, and a good breakfast and on the minus side small rooms.  edit
  • Lisbon Story Guesthouse, Largo S. Domingos, 18 S/L (on the right hand-side of Teatro Nacional D. Maria II), (+351) 211529313 (), [59]. A cozy Guesthouse with welcoming common areas and well-decorated small rooms at a budget price. Rooms Starting at €50.  edit
  • Pensão Alegria, Praça de Alegria 12, +351 (21) 322 0670. Small cosy pension on a beautiful small square. €43,00 (Doubles).  edit
  • Pensão Londrina, Rua Castilho, 61 First Floor (5 minutes walk from Marquês de Pombal underground station), +351.21.3863624, [60].  edit
  • Pensão Norte, Rua dos Douradores, 159, +351 (21) 887 89 41. B&B style pension with friendly and accommodating staff in a quiet area.  edit
  • Pensão Residencial Portuense, Rua das Portas de Santo Antao, 149-157, 1150-267 Lisboa (near Restauradores behind the Hard Rock Cafe), +351 (21) 346 41 97 (, fax: +351 (21) 342 42 39), [61]. Varies from €35 to €85.  edit
  • Restauradores, Praça dos Restauradores, 13, +351 (21) 347 56 60.  edit
  • Travellers House, Rua Augusta, 89, +351 (21) 0115 922 (), [62]. Nice hostel with lots of extras. Free WiFi, breakfast, coffee and tea, maps and city advice, lots of guide books to look at and a book exchange for travelers who are tired of reading the same book over and over again. Beds starting at $25.  edit
  • Yes Hostel, Rua de São Julião 148, +351 213 427 171 (). Relaxed and comfortable hostel with an excellent location. One of the largest hostels in Lisbon; opened in July 2009. Comfortable beds in large dorms, key operated lockers, free computer access as well as WiFi in every room, free breakfast, complimentary coffee and tea, 24 hour bar, access to their professional kitchen. Very friendly and accomodating staff. 3-course Portuguese dinners for €8 by their in-house chef. 4 person dorms starting at €15.  edit
  • Next Hostel, Avenida Almirante Reis n.4 - 5, +351 211 927 746 (). Comfortable hostel with an central location. Comfortable beds in large dorms, key lockers, free computer access as well as WiFi, free breakfast, 24 hour reception, well equipped kitchen. Very friendly and helpful staff. Opened in July 2009. 4 person dorms starting at €12.  edit
  • NH Liberdade Avda. da Liberdade, 180 B, 1250-146 Lisbon, Tel: +351 (21) 351 4060 Fax: +351 (21) 314 3674, [63]. Nice hotel located right in the center of the city.
  • Travelpark hotel, Avenida Almirante Reis nº 64, 1150-020 Lisboa, +351 (21) 810 2100 (), [64]. A brand new hotel that sits in the heart of Av. Almirante Reis. Just five minutes away from Lisbon International Airport and with underground station at doorstep. Online booking  edit
  • Vila Galé Ópera, Tvª Conde da Ponte, 1300-141, +351 (21)360 5400 (, fax: +351 (21) 360 5450), [65]. The hotel basically stands right by the Tagus River. Adjoins Lisbon’s Congress Centre and the lively nightlife of Lisbon’s Docas area. Online booking  edit
  • Lapa Palace, Rua do Pau de Bandeira, 4, (+351) 21 394 94 94 (, fax: +(351) 21 395 0665), [66]. Property of Orient-Express Hotels, Trains & Cruises. A luxury palace hotel in one of Lisbon's seven hills, with gardens and pools, heated all year long. Member of The Leading Hotels of the World. With one of the best spas in Lisbon, gourmet food (its restaurant is considered by the Zagat Guide as one of the best in Lisbon) and one of best Concierge services in the country.  edit
  • Pestana Palace, Rua Jau, nº 54, (+351) 21 361 56 00, [67]. Located in an old Palace, has a wonderful garden and luxury spa. Extremely comfortable, and well worth the €220 per night if you book in advance and online.  edit
  • Eurostars Das Letras, Rua Castilho, 6-12. 1250 - 069. Lisboa. Portugal (Five minutes walk from Avenida metro station, ten minutes walk from the AirportBus stop at Marques de Pombal), +351 21 357 3094 (). checkin: 10:00H. A new, modern hotel situated in the central Rato district. Despite its five-star rating, double rooms can be had for a very reasonable rate if booked in advanced. The hotel offers free wireless internet for guests along with two laptops with internet access. The hotel is very well situated - one street away from Avenida de Liberdad, a few minutes from the Avenida metro station and a short walk from Baixa / Chiado.  edit
  • Tiara Park Atlantic Lisboa, Rua Castilho, 149. 1099 - 034. Lisboa. Portugal, +351 21 381 87 00 (), [68]. checkin: 15:00H. Luxury hotel with 331 rooms each decorated as one of the four elements. Glass-and-concrete building, but great for travelling with children if you don't mind 10 minutes walk to the downtown. Private parking; close to park and a large public playground (Parque Eduardo VII). Double: rack rate start at $150; special offers from online aggregators can be as low as $90.  edit
  • Casa na Bica, Largo de Santo Antoninho, (), [69]. Located in Largo de Santo Antoninho, right next to Bica's funicular. 68 €.  edit
  • Expo House, Parque das Nações, (). 100 m2 flat with a large bedroom with a dressing closet, a full bathroom with Jacuzzi bath, a fully equipped kitchen, a comfortable dining room & a very nice living room all with plenty of natural light and a view of the River Tejo. Private parking space  edit
  • VisitingPortugal, Rua Joaquina 9, +351 91 3464517 (), [70]. Four lovely apartments in the heart of Lisbon. Each beautifully restored home or apartment is in an historically-protected building, all located in one very quiet, residential (non-touristy) neighborhood, just 3-8 minutes walk from the Rossio, the main plaza.  edit

Stay safe

Lisbon is generally safe but use common sense precautions, especially at train stations and on public transport.

Some areas are best avoided late at night because of the risk of mugging: Bairro Alto, the alleys, Cais do Sodre. Some night clubs in Lisboa have a poor reputation.

Crime

According to Eurostat [71], the overall crime rate and in particular robberies are on the rise in Portugal. Some areas on the outskirts of Lisbon are becoming more dangerous, but it is unlikely the average tourist will visit these areas. The most common crime against tourists is pickpocketing and theft from rental cars or on public transport. The metro carriages can become crowded and opportune for pickpockets but simple precautions are enough to maintain your safety while travelling on them. There are some episodes of violent crimes (i.e. robberies) and some drug related crimes in places such as Bairro Alto and Santos, especially at night. Chances are you'll be approached at least a few times by certain types offering 'hash' or 'chocolate', especially in the downtown area on and around Rua Augusta. If you are of fair complexion or obviously a tourist you are more likely to be approached. Many of the people selling hash, cocaine, or marijuana are actually not offering that at all but rather a mixture of herbs they try to pass off to you as a drug. Oregano, or different types of tea can look similar to marijuana and a mixture of ginger and other ingredients are used to make an ºuvaº or an egg of what appears to be hashish. Cocaine is also occasionally offered by these people, but it is almost certain you will be buying a bag of baking soda if you choose to purchase. Don't let this completely discourage you but just remember that the cops in Lisbon largely do not care about the non-violent drug trade and trafficking. If possible go in a group, be patient, take your time and examine the product well, and you should be alright. Remember its OK to walk away from someone trying to sell you a false or bad product. It's also encouraged to be wary of the Intendente-Martim Moniz area. Intendente is a well known area for prostitution, and even though it has changed in the past couple of years (there's always police nearby, whereas before you couldn't say the same), it's still a problematic area. Martim Moniz is also notorious, at night the area occupied by shifty crowds that more often that not will cause some trouble. During the day Martim-Moniz is quite a safe and pleasant area.

Criminals in Lisbon are very quick and witty and think of scams about how to get money from you (i.e. they canºt exchange their money and will pay you back in a few hours). Just remember that Lisbon is a big city and is very different from the rest of Portugal. Young tourists should be especially advised as they will likely be approached by many people especially near the Chiado Plaza. A firm 'no thank-you' or "não, obrigado", if you're a male; "não, obrigada", if you're female should be enough to deter them. Also be careful with bank machines in the city center. Groups of gypsies or adolescents occasionally stay close to the multibanco and wait until you have entered your pin. They then force you away from the machine and withdraw the maximum amount from the machine (500 or 600€). Try to withdraw money earlier in the day and try to avoid some of the train stations late at night, especially Cais do Sodre station.

Walking and Driving

Lisbon has one of the highest rates of car accidents on the European Union, so be extra careful when crossing the streets. Drivers don't usually respect pedestrian crossings unless there there is a red light for them to stop. Driving can be tricky without a GPS system as there is a poor signalization in the streets. Drivers overall are not too aggressive compared to other European capitals, although this is disputed by (mostly Spanish) tourists.

In case of Emergency

Ambulance, fire brigade, police: call 112.

Same number is used with both land line and mobile phone. The number works on any mobile phone, whether it is keylocked or not and with or without SIM card.

Contact

Private international call centers and public telephone booths are common throughout Lisbon. Be warned, however, public phones can be less generous than slot machines: many times they'll swallow your change and give you no credit. You're better off purchasing a Portugal Telecom pre-paid card you can insert into the phone, or even a discount calling card which connects you via a toll-free number. These can be purchased from street kiosks and convenience stores. Most payphones also allow you to pay by credit card, although support for this feature is somewhat expensive.

Internet cafes are also abundant in the Rossio and Restauradores districts as well as in the Bairro Alto (opening late there). Expect to pay between €2 - €3 per hour.

  • Canada, Avenida da Liberdade, 198-200, 3rd Floor 1269-121 Lisbon, Portugal, 21-316-4600 (, fax: 21-316-4693), [72]. Monday to Friday: 08:30 - 12:30 to 13:30 - 17:00.  edit
  • United Kingdom, Rua de São Bernardo 33 1249-082, (351) 21 392 4000 (, fax: (351) (21) 392 41 53), [73].  edit
  • United States, United States Embassy Avenida das Forças Armadas 1600-081 Lisboa, 351-21-727-3300 (, fax: 351-21-726-9109), [74]. Monday thru Friday 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m.  edit
  • Mafra— A charming town with a monastery.
  • Ericeira— A gorgeous seaside resort near Mafra, well-known to surfers worldwide.
  • Sintra is a beautiful UNESCO World Heritage site town 30 minutes by car/train from Lisbon.
  • Sintra and Linha (Estoril and Cascais). It is mandatory to take a daytrip to Sintra and Estoril/Cascais. There are several companies that operate the tours. Ask for information in yout hotel or in a kiosk in Marques de Pombal roundabout, near the Fenix Hotel.  edit
  • Cascais— A town on the bay of the same name,on the Estoril coast.
  • Praia das Maçãs is a small and surprisingly calm seaside resort about 30km to the west of Lisbon,near the towns of Colares & Sintra.

South of Lisbon(south of the Tagus river/rio Tejo):

  • Almada, a city connected to/from Lisbon via ferry boats at Cacilhas and connected by train at Pragal and roadway via 25 Abril bridge/ponte 25 de Abril.

Monument of Christ-King(Cristo-Rei)is located in Pragal, Almada.

  • Setúbal— Capital of the district, and starting point for visits to Arrabida mountain, Troia, and the Sado river. Dolphins can be spotted on the bay.
  • Palmela— A hill town with a castle, with amazing views, near the city of Setúbal.
  • Sesimbra— A fisherman's village near the Arrábida mountain, good for scuba diving and fresh seafood, and starting point to visit the Espichel cape and sancturary.
  • Azeitão,near Setubal, some 30km South of Lisbon, this small region consists of a series of lovely villages, of which Vila Nogueira de Azeitão and Vila Fresca de Azeitão are the most well known. Azeitão stands between the Arrábida Nature Park and the coast. In the park you'll meet the last remains of the original Mediterranean flora. Also, there is the famous Convent of Arrábida to visit and the stunning views from its hills and at its peak.
  • Vila Nogueira de Azeitão— Visit the beautiful Winery and palace "Quinta da Bacalhoa". Also check out the grand estate and winery of "José Maria da Fonseca". Igreja de São Lorenço with hand painted tile panels, gilded wood chapels and a Lucca Della Robbia medallion. Convent of S. Domingos.
  • Tróia— A lovely peninsula gifted with kms of wild unexplored beaches, and with a tourist resort being developed on one of its edges.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Proper noun

Singular
Lisbon

Plural
-

Lisbon

  1. The capital of Portugal and of the district of Lisbon.
  2. A district of Portugal.

Derived terms

Translations

See also


Simple English

Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal. The city has a population of about two million people. Lisbon is on the River Tagus. It has a pleasant climate and has about 220 days of sunshine each year. There are many beautiful beaches close to the city. There are also many seafood restaurants, historical sites and monuments.

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