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The American Civil War was a civil war in the United States of America between 1861–1865. Eleven Southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America (the Confederacy). The Confederates, led by Jefferson Davis fought against the Union, which was supported by all the free states and the five border slave states.

Hostilities began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces attacked a US military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina. Lincoln responded by calling for a volunteer army from each state, leading to declarations of secession by four more Southern slave states. Both sides raised armies as the Union assumed control of the border states early in the war and established a naval blockade. In September 1862, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation made ending slavery in the South a war goal[1], and dissuaded the British from intervening.[2]

The American Civil War was the deadliest war in American history, resulting in the deaths of 620,000 soldiers and an undetermined number of civilian casualties.

A general officer is an officer of high military rank and in the uniformed services of the United States, general officers are commissioned officers above the field officer ranks, the highest of which is colonel in the Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force and captain, in the Navy, Coast Guard, Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps (NOAACC). During the Civil War both the Union and the Confederates required leadership in order to develop strategies and command troops through the various battles. A large number of Generals were promoted on both sides to facilitate the defeat of their rival.

In 1860, at the outbreak of the Civil War, there were only a select number of general officers serving in the United States Army. The following is a list of those officers who had been promoted to the rank of general prior to April 1, 1861 either by substantive rank or rank or brevet. Those officers with a brevet rank also held a lower substantive rank of an earlier date. The highest rank the officer received before the aforementioned date is shown, substantive or brevet. The allegiance of the officer during the Civil War is also shown.

Name[3] Rank Date of Appointment Allegiance
Winfield Scott Brevet Lieutenant General 29 March 1847 U.S.A.
David E. Twiggs Brevet Major General 23 September 1846 C.S.A.
John E. Wool Brevet Major General 23 February 1847 U.S.A.
George Gibson Brevet Major General 30 May 1847 U.S.A.
William S. Harney Brigadier General 14 June 1858 U.S.A.
Edwin V. Sumner Brigadier General 16 March 1861 U.S.A.
Joseph E. Johnston Brigadier General 28 June 1860 C.S.A.
Sylvester Churchill Brevet Brigadier General 23 February 1847 U.S.A.
Joseph G. Totten Brevet Brigadier General 29 March 1847 U.S.A.
John Garland Brevet Brigadier General 20 August 1847 U.S.A.
Timothy P. Andrews Brevet Brigadier General 13 September 1847 U.S.A.
Thomas Lawson Brevet Brigadier General 30 May 1848 U.S.A.
Albert S. Johnston Brevet Brigadier General 18 November 1857 C.S.A.

Following the attack on Fort Sumter the U.S. Army re-instituted the promotion of volunteer officers. On May 16, 1861 three appointments were made to Major General of U.S. Volunteers. These officers (in order they were appointed) were John A. Dix, Benjamin F. Butler and Nathaniel P. Banks.[4] These three officers thus outranked all other volunteer officers for the duration of the war. The following day 34 appointments were made to Brigadier General of U.S. Volunteers.[5] The first three names to appear on the appointment list were Samuel P. Heintzelman, David Hunter and Erasmus D. Keyes (Ulysses S. Grant's name appeared 18th on the list). By 1865 there were over 1,000 generals by substantive or brevet rank in the Regular Army, Volunteer Army or state militias.

Union generals: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Confederate generals: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Union generals

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A

Image Name Service Rank Notes
John Joseph Abercrombie - Brady-Handy.jpg Abercrombie, John Joseph Union Brigadier General son-in-law of Robert Patterson
RAllen.jpg Allen, Robert Union Brigadier General
Benjamin Alvord mathematician - Brady-Handy.jpg Alvord, Benjamin Union Brigadier General
Adelbert Ames.jpg Ames, Adelbert Union Brevet Major General Was a Medal of Honor recipient
post war Governor and U.S. Senator from Mississippi
JAmmen.jpg Ammen, Jacob Union Brigadier General
Major Robert Anderson.jpg Anderson, Robert Union Brevet Major General
Christopher Columbus Andrews - Brady-Handy.jpg Andrews, Christopher Columbus Union Brevet Major General
GLAndrews.jpg Andrews, George Leonard Union Brigadier General
Gen-LGrnold.jpg Arnold, Lewis Golding Union Brigadier General
Gen-RArnold.jpg Arnold, Richard Union Brevet Major General
ASAsboth.jpg Asboth, Alexander Sandor Union Brigadier General
Christopher C. Augur - Brady-Handy.jpg Augur, Christopher Columbus Union Major General
William W Averell.png Averell, William Woods Union Brevet Major General
Romeyn B. Ayres - Brady-Handy.jpg Ayres, Romeyn Beck Union Brevet Major General

B

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Josephbailey.jpg Bailey, Joseph Union Brigadier General
-
Absalom Baird.jpg Baird, Absalom Union Brevet Major General Was a Medal of Honor recipient
Edward Dickinson Baker.jpg Baker, Edward D. Union Major General U.S. Senator from Oregon
killed at the battle of Ball's Bluff
Lafayette Curry Baker.jpg Baker, Lafayette C. Union
GenNPBanks.jpg Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss Union Major General pre-war Governor of Massachusetts
second highest ranking volunteer officer
Francis C. Barlow photo.jpg Barlow, Francis Channing Union Brevet Major General
John G Barnard.jpg Barnard, John Gross Union
James Barnes.JPG Barnes, James Union Brevet Major General
Genjkbarnes.jpg Barnes, Joseph K. Union
Henry Alanson Barnum.jpg Barnum, Henry Alanson Union Brevet Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
William Farquhar Barry - LoC Civil War.jpg Barry, William Farquhar Union
Joseph J. Bartlett.jpg Bartlett, Joseph Jackson Union Brevet Major General
William F. Bartlett.jpg Bartlett, William Francis Union Brevet Major General
Gen-Hbaxter.jpg Baxter, Henry Union Brevet Major General
GDBayard.jpg Bayard, George Dashiell Union
Gen-GLBeal.jpg Beal, George Lafayette Union
John Beatty.jpg Beatty, John Union Brigadier General
SamuelBeatty.jpg Beatty, Samuel Union Brevet Major General
William Belknap, Brady-Handy bw photo portrait, ca1855-1865.jpg Belknap, William Worth Union Brevet Major General post war U.S. Secretary of War
Henry W Benham.jpg Benham, Henry Washington Union Brevet Major General
Gen-WPBenton.jpg Benton, William Plummer Union Brevet Major General
HGBerry.jpg Berry, Hiram George Union Major General
Daniel D. Bidwell.jpg Bidwell, Daniel Davidson Union Brigadier General
Henry W. Birge.jpg Birge, Henry Warner Union Brevet Major General
David B. Birney - Brady-Handy.jpg Birney, David Bell Union Major General
WBirney.jpg Birney, William Union Brevet Major General
FrancisPBlair-small.png Blair, Francis Preston Jr. Union Major General
Appleton's Blenker Louis.jpg Blenker, Ludwig Union
JasGBlunt.jpg Blunt, James Gillpatrick Union Major General
American Civil War Union Brigadier General - Henry Bohlen.jpg Bohlen, Heinrich Union Brigadier General
Bowen, James Union Brigadier General
Gen-jboyle.jpg Boyle, Jeremiah Tilford Union Brigadier General
L P Bradley ACW colonel.JPG Bradley, Luther Prentice Union Brigadier General
GenESBragg.jpg Bragg, Edward Stuyvesant Union Brigadier General
John M Brannan.jpg Brannan, John Milton Union Brevet Major General
Masonbrayman.jpg Brayman, Mason Union Brevet Major General
Henry Shaw Briggs.jpg Briggs, Henry Shaw Union Brigadier General
J S Brisbin ACW.JPG Brisbin, James Sanks Union
John R. Brooke.jpg Brooke, John Rutter Union Brevet Major General
WTHBrooks.jpg Brooks, William Thomas Harbaugh Union Major General
Egbertbrown.jpg Brown, Egbert Benson Union Brigadier General
Harvey Brown.jpg Brown, Harvey Union Brevet Brigadier General
RCBuchanan.jpg Buchanan, Robert Christie Union Brevet Major General
C.P. Buckingham.jpg Buckingham, Catharinus Putnam Union
Ralph Pomeroy Buckland.jpg Buckland, Ralph Pomeroy Union Brevet Major General
Don Carlos Buell.jpg Buell, Don Carlos Union Major General
John Buford.jpg Buford, John Union Brigadier General
NBBuford.jpg Buford, Napoleon Bonaparte Union Brevet Major General
StephenBurbridge.jpg Burbridge, Stephen Gano Union Brevet Major General
Hiram Burnham.jpg Burnham, Hiram Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Chaffin's Farm
W W Burns UA ACW.jpg Burns, William Wallace Union Brevet Major General
Ambrose Burnside2.jpg Burnside, Ambrose Everett Union Major General post war Governor of Rhode Island
Cyrus Bussey.jpg Bussey, Cyrus Union Brevet Major General
General-Richard-Busteed-001.jpg Busteed, Richard Union
BenFrankButler.jpg Butler, Benjamin Franklin Union Major General was the third highest ranking volunteer officer
post war Governor of Massachusetts
Daniel Butterfield.jpg Butterfield, Daniel Union Major General Was a Medal of Honor recipient

C

Image Name Service Rank Notes
GCadwalader.jpg Cadwalader, George Union Major General
John C. Caldwell.jpg Caldwell, John Curtis Union Brevet Major General
R A Cameron ACW.jpg Cameron, Robert Alexander Union Brevet Major General
CharlesThomasCampbell.jpg Campbell, Charles Thomas Union Brigadier General
William B. campbell.jpg Campbell, William Bowen Union Brigadier General antebellum Governor of Tennessee
General Edward Canby 525.jpg Canby, Edward Richard Sprigg Union Major General brother-in-law of John P. Hawkins
Carleton, James Henry.jpg Carleton, James Henry Union Brevet Major General
William P Carlin.jpg Carlin, William Passmore Union Brevet Major General
EACarr.jpg Carr, Eugene Asa Union Brevet Major General Was a Medal of Honor recipient
Joseph Bradford Carr - Brady-Handy.jpg Carr, Joseph Bradford Union Brevet Major General
Hbcarrington-150.jpg Carrington, Henry Beebee Union Brigadier General
Samuel S Carroll.jpg Carroll, Samuel Sprigg Union Brevet Major General
SPCarter.jpg Carter, Samuel Powhatan Union Brevet Major General held a concurrent rank in the U.S. Navy
Silas Casey.jpg Casey, Silas Union Brevet Major General
RobertFrancisCatterson.jpg Catterson, Robert Francis Union Brigadier General
Joshua Chamberlain - Brady-Handy.jpg Chamberlain, Joshua Lawrence Union Brevet Major General Was a Medal of Honor recipient(Gettysburg, Day 2)
Chambers, Alexander Union
S G Champlin ACW.JPG Champlin, Stephen Gardner Union Brigadier General
E P Chapin UA ACW.JPG Chapin, Edward Payson Union Brigadier General promoted posthumously
G H Chapman UA BGen ACW.jpg Chapman, George Henry Union Brevet Major General
A L Chetlain UA ACW.JPG Chetlain, Augustus Louis Union Brevet Major General
Morgan H Chrysler.jpg Chrysler, Morgan Henry Union Brevet Major General
William T. Clark.jpg Clark, William Thomas Union Brevet Major General later U.S. Senator from Texas
Cassius Marcellus Clay abolitionist - Brady-Handy.jpg Clay, Cassius Marcellus Union Major General
AR Powell Clayton.jpg Clayton, Powell Union Brigadier General later Governor and U.S. Senator from Arkansas
Clitz, Henry Boynton Union
Gustave Paul Cluseret (U.S.).jpg Cluseret, Gustave Paul Union Brigadier General
John Cochrane.jpg Cochrane, John Union
GenPEConnor.jpg Connor, Patrick Edward Union Brevet Major General
Seldon Connor.gif Connor, Selden Union Brigadier General
JohnCook.jpg Cook, John Union Brevet Major General
Philip St. George Cooke.jpg Cooke, Philip St. George Union Brevet Major General father-in-law of J.E.B. Stuart
JamesCooper.jpg Cooper, James Union
later U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania
JosephAlexanderCooper.jpg Cooper, Joseph Alexander Union Brevet Major General
Joseph T. Copeland.jpg Copeland, Joseph Tarr Union
Michael Corcoran - Brady-Handy.jpg Corcoran, Michael Union Brigadier General
JMCorse.jpg Corse, John Murray Union Brevet Major General
Darius N. Couch - Brady-Handy.jpg Couch, Darius Nash Union Major General
Robert Cowdin.jpg Cowdin, Robert Union
Jacob Dolson Cox.jpg Cox, Jacob Dolson Union Major General later Governor of Ohio and Secretary of the Interior
James Craig (Missouri).jpg Craig, James Union Brigadier General
Samuel W. Crawford - Brady-Handy.jpg Crawford, Samuel Wylie Union Brevet Major General
Thomas Leonidas Crittenden - Brady-Handy.jpg Crittenden, Thomas Leonidas Union Major General cousin of Thomas Turpin Crittenden
TTCrittenden.jpg Crittenden, Thomas Turpin Union Brigadier General cousin of Thomas L. Crittenden
Marcellus-M-Crocker.jpg Crocker, Marcellus Monroe Union Brigadier General
George Crook - Brady-Handy.jpg Crook, George Union Brevet Major General
JohnTCroxton.jpg Croxton, John Thomas Union Brevet Major General
Charles Cruft.jpg Cruft, Charles Union Brevet Major General
George W Cullum.jpg Cullum, George Washington Union
Curtisnm1d.jpg Curtis, Newton Martin Union Brevet Major General Was a Medal of Honor recipient
SamuelCurtis01.jpg Curtis, Samuel Ryan Union Major General
G a custer.jpg Custer, George Armstrong Union Brevet Major General
Lysander Cutler.jpg Cutler, Lysander Union Brevet Major General

D

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Napoleon J T Dana.jpg Dana, Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Union Major General father-in-law of John C. Tidball
John W Davidson.jpg Davidson, John Wynn Union Brevet Major General
Henry Eugene Davies.jpg Davies, Henry Eugene Union Brevet Major General
T A Davies UA ACW.JPG Davies, Thomas Alfred Union Brevet Major General uncle of Henry E. Davies
Edmund Davis.jpg Davis, Edmund Jackson Union Brigadier General post war Governor of Texas
Jefferson C. Davis.jpg Davis, Jefferson Columbus Union Brevet Major General
Richard Delafield.jpg Delafield, Richard Union
Elias S. Dennis.jpg Dennis, Elias Smith Union Brevet Major General
Frederick Tracy Dent.jpg Dent, Frederick Tracy Union Brigadier General brother-in-law of Ulysses S. Grant
Pd james w denver.jpg Denver, James W. Union Brigadier General
De Russy, Gustavus Adolphus Union
General Régis de Trobriand.jpg De Trobriand, Régis Union Brevet Major General
GenChasDevens.jpg Devens, Charles Jr. Union Brevet Major General
Thomas C. Devin.jpg Devin, Thomas Casimer Union Brevet Major General
Joel A. Dewey.jpg Dewey, Joel A. Union Brigadier General
GWDeitzler.jpg Deitzler, George Washington Union Major General
General Dix.jpg Dix, John Adams Union Major General highest ranking volunteer officer
antebellum U.S. Senator from New York
U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
post war Governor of New York
Gen-cdodge.jpg Dodge, Charles Cleveland Union Brigadier General youngest general at the time of his appointment
Dobler, John Union
GMDodge.jpg Dodge, Grenville Mellen Union Major General
CDoolittle.jpg Doolittle, Charles C. Union Brevet Major General
Doubledayo.jpg Doubleday, Abner Union Major General fired the first shot from Fort Sumter
NSDow2.jpg Dow, Neal Union Brigadier General
AlfredNDuffie.jpg Duffié, Alfred N. Union
Ebenezerdumontindiana.jpg Dumont, Ebenezer Union Brigadier General
Duryee4s.jpg Duryée, Abram Union Brigadier General
Jacob Duryee.jpg Duryée, Jacob Eugene Union Brevet Brigadier General
Gen-duval.jpg Duval, Isaac Hardin Union Brevet Major General
WDwight.jpg Dwight, William Union Brigadier General
ABDyer.jpg Dyer, Alexander Brydie Union Brevet Major General

E

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Gen Amos B Eaton.jpg Eaton, Amos Beebe Union Brigadier General
Edwards, John Union Brigadier General
Edwards, Oliver Union Brigadier General
Thomas W Egan.jpg Egan, Thomas W. Union Brevet Major General
Alfred W Ellet.jpg Ellet, Alfred W. Union Brigadier General brother of Charles Ellet, Jr.; uncle of Charles Rivers Ellet
W L Elliott BGen ACW.JPG Elliott, Washington Lafayette Union Brevet Major General
William H. Emory - Brady-Handy.jpg Emory, William Hemsley Union Major General Emory Peak is named in his honor
Estey, George Peabody Union Brigadier General
Eustis, Henry Lawrence Union Brigadier General son of Abraham Eustis
Gen-ChasEwing.jpg Ewing, Charles Union Brigadier General brother of Thomas Ewing, Jr. and Hugh B. Ewing, brother-in-law of William T. Sherman
Gen-HughEwing.jpg Ewing, Hugh Boyle Union Brevet Major General brother of Thomas Ewing, Jr. and Charles Ewing, brother-in-law of William T. Sherman
Gen-TEwingJr.jpg Ewing, Thomas Jr. Union Brevet Major General brother of Hugh B. Ewing and Charles Ewing, brother-in-law of William T. Sherman

F

Image Name Service Rank Notes
LFairchild.jpg Fairchild, Lucius Union Brigadier General
Elon John Farnsworth.jpg Farnsworth, Elon John Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Gettysburg
John F. Farnsworth - Brady-Handy.jpg Farnsworth, John F. Union Brigadier General
EFerrero.jpg Ferrero, Edward Union Brevet Major General
Orris S. Ferry - Brady-Handy.jpg Ferry, Orris S. Union Brigadier General post war U.S. Senator from Connecticut
Francis Fessenden.jpg Fessenden, Francis Union Major General brother of James D. Fessenden
James D Fessenden.jpg Fessenden, James Deering Union Brigadier General brother of Francis Fessenden
CBFisk.jpg Fisk, Clinton Bowen Union Brigadier General
Manning Force.jpg Force, Manning F. Union Brevet Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
James W. Forsyth.jpg Forsyth, James W. Union Brigadier General commanded the U.S. troops at the battle of Wounded Knee
John G. Foster - Brady-Handy.jpg Foster, John G. Union Major General
Robert S Foster.jpg Foster, Robert Sanford Union Brevet Major General
William B. Franklin enh.jpg Franklin, William Buel Union Major General general manager of Colt Firearms Manufacturing Co.
John C. Frémont - Brady-Handy.jpg Fremont, John Charles Union Major General antebellum U.S. Senator from California and Republican Party presidential candidate
post war Governor of Arizona Territory
WHFrench.jpg French, William H. Union Major General
James Barnet Fry - Brady-Handy.jpg Fry, James Barnet Union Brevet Major General
Speed Fry.jpg Fry, Speed S. Union Brigadier General
J W Fuller BGen.jpg Fuller, John Wallace Union Brevet Major General

G

Image Name Service Rank Notes
William Gamble USA.JPG Gamble, William Union Brigadier General
General James Garfield - Brady-Handy.jpg Garfield, James Abram Union Brigadier General 20th President of the United States
Kenner Garrard framed.jpg Garrard, Kenner Union Brevet Major General cousin of Theophilus T. Garrard
GarrardTT.JPG Garrard, Theophilus T. Union Brigadier General cousin of Kenner Garrard
John W. Geary - Brady-Handy.jpg Geary, John W. Union Brevet Major General pre-war Governor of Kansas Territory
post war Governor of Pennsylvania
Gettygw1m.jpg Getty, George W. Union Brevet Major General
John Gibbon.jpg Gibbon, John Union Major General
Alfred Gibbs.jpg Gibbs, Alfred Union Brigadier General
CCGilbert.jpg Gilbert, Charles Champion Union Major General appointed acting major general by orders of Horatio G. Wright
James I Gilbert.jpg Gilbert, James Isham Union Brevet Major General
ACGillem.jpg Gillem, Alvan Cullem Union Major General
Quincy Adams Gillmore.jpg Gillmore, Quincy Adams Union Major General
GHGordon.jpg Gordon, George Henry Union Brevet Major General
Willis Gorman and wife.jpg Gorman, Willis A. Union Brigadier General
Charles Kinnaird Graham.jpg Graham, Charles Kinnaird Union Brevet Major General
Graham, Lawrence Pike Union
Gordon Granger - Brady-Handy.jpg Granger, Gordon Union Major General
RSGranger.jpg Granger, Robert S. Union Brevet Major General
LAGrant.jpg Grant, Lewis A. Union Brigadier General was a Medal of Honor recipient
GenUSGrant.jpg Grant, Ulysses S. Union General received the Thanks of Congress
General-in-Chief of the U.S. Army (1864-1869)
18th President of the United States
George S. Greene.jpg Greene, George Sears Union Brevet Major General grandson of Nathaniel Greene
father of Francis V. Greene
David McMurtrie Gregg.jpg Gregg, David McMurtrie Union Brevet Major General cousin of Andrew G. Curtin
cousin of John Irvin Gregg
Walter Q. Gresham - Brady-Handy.jpg Gresham, Walter Q. Union Brevet Major General post war U.S. Postmaster General
post war U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
post war U.S. Secretary of State
Benjamin H Grierson.JPG Grierson, Benjamin H. Union Brevet Major General
CharlesGriffin.jpg Griffin, Charles Union Brevet Major General brother-in-law of Samuel S. Carroll
Griffin, Simon Goodell Union Brevet Major General
WGrose.jpg Grose, William Union Brevet Major General
Cuvier Grover.jpg Grover, Cuvier Union Brevet Major General

H

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Hackleman, Pleasant Adam Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Corinth
Henry Wager Halleck - Brady-Handy.jpg Halleck, Henry Wager Union Major General General-in-Chief of the U.S. Army (1862-1864)
Hamblin, Joseph Eldridge Union Brevet Major General
Governor Hamilton.jpg Hamilton, Andrew J. Union Brevet Major General post war Governor of Texas
CSHamiltonMGgen.jpg Hamilton, Charles Smith Union Major General
Hamilton, Schuyler Union Major General grandson of Alexander Hamilton
brother-in-law of Henry W. Halleck
Cyrus Hamlin.jpg Hamlin, Cyrus Union Brigadier General son of Hannibal Hamlin
GenWmAHammond.jpg Hammond, William Alexander Union Brigadier General Surgeon General of the United States Army (1862-1864)
WinfieldSHancock.png Hancock, Winfield Scott Union Major General received the Thanks of Congress
Hardie, James Allen Union Brigadier General
Hardin, Martin Davis Union Brigadier General
Harding, Abner Clark Union Brigadier General
ChasGHarker.jpg Harker, Charles Garrison Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Kennesaw Mountain
Harland, Edward Union Brigadier General
William Selby Harney 1.jpg Harney, William Selby Union Brevet Major General
ThomasMHarris.jpg Harris, Thomas Maley Union Brevet Major General
GenBenHarrison.jpg Harrison, Benjamin Union Brevet Brigadier General grandson of William Henry Harrison
post war U.S. Senator from Indiana
23rd President of the United States
WHarrow.jpg Harrow, William Union Brigadier General
JohnFHartranft.jpg Hartranft, John F. Union Brevet Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
post war Governor of Pennsylvania
George L Hartsuff.jpg Hartsuff, George Lucas Union Major General
MiloSHascall.jpg Hascall, Milo Smith Union Brigadier General
Haskin, Joseph Abel Union
Edward Hatch.jpg Hatch, Edward Union Brevet Major General
John P Hatch.jpg Hatch, John Porter Union Brevet Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
Herman Haupt.jpg Haupt, Herman Union Brigadier General
Genjphawkins.jpg Hawkins, John Parker Union Brevet Major General brother-in-law of Edward Canby
Joseph Roswell Hawley - Brady-Handy.jpg Hawley, Joseph Roswell Union Brigadier General post war Governor and U.S. Senator from Connecticut
Hayes, Joseph Union
President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg Hayes, Rutherford Birchard Union Brevet Major General post war Governor of Ohio
19th President of the United States
Haynie, Isham N. Union Brigadier General
Alexander Hays.jpg Hays, Alexander Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of the Wilderness
WilliamHays.jpg Hays, William Union Brigadier General
William Babcock Hazen - Brady-Handy.jpg Hazen, William Babcock Union Major General
Heckman, Charles Adam Union Brigadier General
Samuel P. Heintzelman - Brady-Handy.jpg Heintzelman, Samuel P. Union Major General
FJHerron.jpg Herron, Francis Jay Union Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
Hickman, Charles A. Union
Gen-EWHinks.jpg Hincks, Edward Winslow Union Brevet Major General
Gen Ethan Allen Hitchcock.jpg Hitchcock, Ethan A. Union Major General
EHHobson.jpg Hobson, Edward H. Union Brigadier General
Joseph Holt.jpg Holt, Joseph Union Brigadier General pre-war U.S. Postmaster General
U.S. Secretary of War
Judge Advocate General of the United States Army
Joseph Hooker - Brady-Handy--restored.jpg Hooker, Joseph Union Major General received the Thanks of Congress
Gen Alvin P Hovey 06985r.jpg Hovey, Alvin P. Union Brevet Major General post war Governor of Indiana
Hovey, Charles Edward Union Brevet Major General
Oliver Otis Howard.jpg Howard, Oliver Otis Union Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
received the Thanks of Congress
Albion P. Howe - Brady-Handy.jpg Howe, Albion Parris Union Brevet Major General
Howell, Joshua B. Union
Andrew A. Humphreys - Brady-Handy.jpg Humphreys, Andrew Atkinson Union Major General
HJHunt.jpg Hunt, Henry Jackson Union Brevet Major General brother of Lewis Cass Hunt
brother-in-law of John P. Hawkins
brother-in-law of Gustavus A. DeRussy
Hunt, Lewis Cass Union
David Hunter.jpg Hunter, David Union Major General
Stephen A. Hurlbut - Brady-Handy.jpg Hurlbut, Stephen A. Union Major General

I

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Rufus Ingalls.jpg Ingalls, Rufus Union Brevet Major General

J

Image Name Service Rank Notes
C F Jackson ACW.JPG Jackson, Conrad Feger Union Brigadier General Was killed in action during the Battle of Fredericksburg
JasSJackson.jpg Jackson, James Streshly Union Brigadier General Was killed at the Battle of Perryville
N J Jackson ACW.jpg Jackson, Nathaniel J. Union Brevet Major General
Jackson, Richard Henry Union
CharlesDJameson.jpg Jameson, Charles Davis Union Brigadier General
Andrew Johnson photo portrait head and shoulders, c1870-1880-Edit1.jpg Johnson, Andrew Union Brigadier General pre-war Governor and U.S. Senator from Tennessee,
17th President of the United States,
postwar U.S. Senator from Tennessee
Richard W. Johnson.jpg Johnson, Richard W. Union Brevet Major General
PHJones.jpg Jones, Patrick Henry Union brigadier general
HMJudah.jpg Judah, Henry M. Union brigadier general

K

Image Name Service Rank Notes
TLKane.jpg Kane, Thomas Leiper Union Brevet Major General
August Kautz - Brady-Handy.jpg Kautz, August Valentin Union Brevet Major General
Philip Kearny,jr.jpg Kearny, Philip Union Major General killed at the battle of Chantilly
WHKeim.jpg Keim, William High Union Brigadier General died of typhoid fever in 1862
Benjamin Franklin Kelley - Brady-Handy.jpg Kelley, Benjamin Franklin Union Brevet Major General
Kenly, John Reese Union Brigadier General
Ketcham, John H. Union
William Scott Ketchum.jpg Ketchum, William Scott Union
Erasmus D. Keyes - Brady-Handy.jpg Keyes, Erasmus Darwin Union Major General
Kiernan, James Lawlor Union
HughJudsonKilpatrick.jpg Kilpatrick, Hugh Judson Union Major General
NKimball.jpg Kimball, Nathan Union Brevet Major General
King, John Haskell Union
Rufus King Civil War General - Brady-Handy.jpg King, Rufus Union Brigadier General first commander of the Iron Brigade
Kirby, Edmund Union
Kirk, Edward Needles Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Stones River
Joseph F Knipe.jpg Knipe, Joseph Farmer Union Brigadier General
Wlodzimierz Krzyzanowski.jpg Krzyzanowski, Wladimir Union cousin of Frédéric Chopin

L

Image Name Service Rank Notes
FWLander.jpg Lander, Frederick West Union Brigadier General
James Henry Lane.jpg Lane, James H. Union Brigadier General concurrent U.S. Senator from Kansas
JGLauman1.JPG Lauman, Jacob G. Union Brevet Major General
Lawler, Michael Kelly Union Brevet Major General
James Ledlie.jpg Ledlie, James H. Union Brigadier General
Albert L Lee.jpg Lee, Albert Lindley Union Brigadier General
Mortimer Dormer Leggett - Brady-Handy.jpg Leggett, Mortimer Dormer Union Brevet Major General
Lightburn, Joseph A. J. Union Brigadier General
Lockwood, Henry Hayes Union Brigadier General
John Alexander Logan.jpg Logan, John A. Union Major General post war U.S. Senator from Illinois
ELong.jpg Long, Eli Union Brigadier General
CRLowell.jpg Lowell, Charles Russell Union Brigadier General
Lucas, Thomas John Union Brigadier General
Nathaniel lyon small.jpg Lyon, Nathaniel Union Brigadier General received the Thanks of Congress
WHLytle.jpg Lytle, William Haines Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Chickamauga

M

Image Name Service Rank Notes
RSMackenzie.jpg Mackenzie, Ranald Slidell Union Brevet Major General
Maltby, Jasper Adalmorn Union Brigadier General
Joseph K. Mansfield.jpg Mansfield, Joseph King Fenno Union Major General killed at the battle of Antietam
MDManson.jpg Manson, Mahlon Dickerson Union Brigadier General
Randolph B. Marcy - Brady-Handy.jpg Marcy, Randolph B. Union Brigadier General father-in-law of George B. McClellan
Gilman Marston - Brady-Handy.jpg Marston, Gilman Union Brigadier General post war U.S. Senator from New Hampshire
Martindale.jpg Martindale, John Henry Union Brevet Major General
Pennsylvania-Sweitzer.jpg Mason, John Sanford Union Brigadier General
Matthies, Karl Leopold Union Brigadier General
JMcArthur.jpg McArthur, John Union Brevet Major General
GAMcCall.jpg McCall, George Archibald Union Brigadier General
GeorgeMcClellan.jpeg McClellan, George Brinton Union Major General received the Thanks of Congress
General-in-Chief of the U.S. Army (1861-1862)
post war Governor of New Jersey
John Alexander McClernand.jpg McClernand, John Alexander Union Major General
Alexander McDowell McCook.jpg McCook, Alexander McDowell Union Major General brother of Robert L. McCook
brother of Daniel McCook, Jr.
McCook, Daniel Jr. Union Brigadier General mortally wounded at the battle of Kennesaw Mountain
brother of Robert L. McCook
brother of Alexander McCook
Edward M. McCook - Brady-Handy.jpg McCook, Edward Moody Union Major General cousin of Robert L. McCook
cousin of Alexander McCook
cousin of Daniel McCook, Jr.
RLMcCook.jpg McCook, Robert Latimer Union Brevet Major General brother of Alexander McCook
brother of Daniel McCook, Jr.
mortally wounded in 1862 by bushwahckers
Irv mcdowell.jpg McDowell, Irvin Union Major General
George Francis McGinnis.jpg McGinnis, George Francis Union Brigadier General
McIntosh, John Baillie Union Brevet Major General
T J McKean BGen ACW.JPG McKean, Thomas Jefferson Union Brevet Major General
McKinstry, Justus Union
Gen-nmclean.jpg McLean, Nathaniel Collins Union Brigadier General
J W McMillan ACW.jpg McMillan, James Winning Union Brevet Major General
JohnMcNeil.jpg McNeil, John Union Major General
Brady-GeneralMcPherson.jpg McPherson, James Birdseye Union Major General killed at the battle of Atlanta
George G. Meade Standing.jpg Meade, George Gordon Union Major General received the Thanks of Congress
Meagher4s.jpg Meagher, Thomas Francis Union Brigadier General
New-Meigs.jpg Meigs, Montgomery Cunningham Union Brevet Major General
Solomon Meredith - Brady-Handy.jpg Meredith, Solomon Union Brigadier General
Meredith, Sullivan Amory Union
Wesley Merritt.jpg Merritt, Wesley Union Major General post war Military Governor of the Philippines
Nelson Appleton Miles.jpg Miles, Nelson Appleton Union Major General received the Medal of Honor
General-in-Chief of the U.S. Army
post war Military Governor of Puerto Rico
John Franklin Miller.jpg Miller, John Franklin Union Brevet Major General post war U.S. Senator from California
SMiller1863.jpg Miller, Stephen Union Brigadier General Governor of Minnesota
Robert H. Milroy - Brady-Handy.jpg Milroy, Robert H. Union Major General
Ormsby Mitchel.jpg Mitchel, Ormsby MacKnight Union Major General died of typhoid fever in 1862
Mitchell, John Grant Union Brevet Major General
Robert Byington Mitchell.jpg Mitchell, Robert Byington Union Major General post war Governor of New Mexico Territory
Montgomery, William Reading Union
Thomas Moonlight.jpg Moonlight, Thomas Union Brevet Brigadier General post war Governor of Wyoming Territory
GWMorell.jpg Morell, George W. Union Major General
Morgan, Charles Hale Union
EDMorgan.jpg Morgan, Edwin Denison Union Major General pre-war Governor of New York
post war U.S. Senator from New York
George W. Morgan.jpg Morgan, George W. Union Brigadier General
Morgan, James Dada Union Brigadier General
Morris, William Hopkins Union Brevet Major General
Morton, James St. Clair Union
Gershom Mott - Brady-Handy.jpg Mott, Gershom Union Major General
J A Mower.jpg Mower, Joseph A. Union Major General

N

Image Name Service Rank Notes
JNagleACW.jpg Nagle, James Union Brigadier General
HMNaglee.jpg Naglee, Henry Morris Union Brigadier General
James Scott Negley.jpg Negley, James S. Union Major General
Neill, Thomas Hewson Union Brevet Major General
GenWNelson.jpg Nelson, William Union Major General murdered by Jefferson C. Davis in 1862
John Newton (ACW).jpg Newton, John Union Brevet Major General
Nickerson, Franklin Stillman Union Brigadier General

O

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Richard James Oglesby.jpg Oglesby, Richard James Union Major General post war Governor and U.S. Senator from Illinois
Oliver, John Morrison Union Brigadier General
Emerson Opdycke - Brady-Handy.jpg Opdycke, Emerson Union Brevet Major General
Eord.jpg Ord, Edward O.C. Union Major General
Orme, William Ward Union Brigadier General
T O Osborn ACW.jpg Osborn, Thomas Ogden Union Brevet Major General
Peter J Osterhaus.jpg Osterhaus, Peter Joseph Union Major General
Joshua T Owen.jpg Owen, Joshua Thomas Union Brigadier General

P

Image Name Service Rank Notes
General Charles Paine.jpg Paine, Charles Jackson Union Brevet Major General
Paine, Eleazar Arthur Union Brigadier General cousin of Halbert E. Paine
Halbert Eleazer Paine.jpg Paine, Halbert E. Union Brevet Major General cousin of Eleazar A. Paine
Innis N. Palmer - Brady-Handy.jpg Palmer, Innis Newton Union Brevet Major General
JohnMPalmer.png Palmer, John M. Union Brigadier General post war Governor and U.S. Senator from Illinois
John Parke - Brady-Handy.jpg Parke, John G. Union Major General
Parsons, Lewis Baldwin Union Brigadier General
MRPatrick.jpg Patrick, Marsena Rudolph Union Brevet Major General
Patterson, Francis Engle Union Brigadier General son of Robert Patterson; shot himself in 1862
Robert Patterson.jpg Patterson, Robert Union Major General father of Francis E. Patterson
Paul, Gabriel René Union Brigadier General blinded at Gettysburg
JJPeck.jpg Peck, John J. Union Major General
Galusha Pennypacker.jpg Pennypacker, Galusha Union Major General Was a Medal of Honor recipient; youngest person to hold the rank of brigadier general in the U.S. Army, at the age of 20
Penrose, William Henry Union Brigadier General
John smith phelps.jpg Phelps, John S. Union Brigadier General post war Governor of Missouri
John wolcott phelps.jpg Phelps, John Wolcott Union Brigadier General half brother to Charles E. Phelps
A S Piatt ACW.JPG Piatt, Abram Sanders Union Brigadier General
Pierce, Byron Root Union Brevet Major General
WAPile.jpg Pile, William A. Union Brigadier General Governor of New Mexico Territory
Pitcher, Thomas Gamble Union Brigadier General
Alfred Pleasonton.jpg Pleasonton, Alfred Union Major General
Plummer, Joseph Bennett Union Brigadier General died of exposure near Corinth, MS
OrlandoPoe.jpg Poe, Orlando Metcalfe Union Brigadier General
George Pomutz.JPG Pomutz, George Union Brevet Brigadier General
GenJohnPope.jpeg Pope, John Union Major General brother-in-law of Manning F. Force
Andrew Porter.jpg Porter, Andrew Union Brigadier General
Fitz John Porter.jpg Porter, Fitz-John Union Major General cousin of David D. Porter, William D. Porter and David G. Farragut
Potter, Edward Elmer Union Brevet Brigadier General
Joseph H Potter.jpg Potter, Joseph Haydn Union

Brigadier General

RBPotter.jpg Potter, Robert Brown Union Major General
Benjamin F Potts.jpg Potts, Benjamin Franklin Union Brevet Major General post war Governor of Montana Territory
Powell, William Henry Union Brevet Major General Was a Medal of Honor recipient
Pratt, Calvin Edward Union

Brigadier General

General Benjamin Prentiss.jpg Prentiss, Benjamin Mayberry Union Major General
SamuelWPrice.jpg Price, Samuel Woodson Union Brevet Brigadier General
Prince, Henry Union

Q

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Quinby, Isaac Ferdinand Union Brigadier General of Volunteers

R

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Ramsay, George Douglas Union
TEGRansom.jpg Ransom, Thomas E.G. Union Major General posthumously promoted to major general
died of typhoid fever in 1864[6]
GBRaum.jpg Raum, Green Berry Union Brigadier General
General-JARawlins.jpg Rawlins, John Aaron Union Major General post war U.S. Secretary of War
Reid, Hugh Thompson Union Brigadier General
Reilly, James William Union Brigadier General
JLReno.jpg Reno, Jesse L. Union Major General posthumously promoted to major general
killed at the battle of South Mountain
Reno, NV is named in his honor
Joseph Warren Revere.jpg Revere, Joseph Warren Union Brigadier General grandson of Paul Revere
J Renyolds.jpg Reynolds, John Fulton Union Major General killed at the battle of Gettysburg
Joseph J Reynolds.jpg Reynolds, Joseph J. Union Major General
GenAVRice.jpg Rice, Americus V. Union Brigadier General
Elliotwarrenrice.jpg Rice, Elliott Warren Union Brevet Major General brother of Samuel A. Rice
JamesCRice-1864.jpg Rice, James Clay Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Spotsylvania
Samuelallenrice.jpg Rice, Samuel Allen Union Brigadier General mortally wounded at the battle of Jenkins Ferry
brother of Elliott W. Rice
IBRichardson.jpg Richardson, Israel Bush Union Major General mortally wounded at the battle of Antietam
James B. Ricketts - Brady-Handy.jpg Ricketts, James Brewerton Union Brevet Major General
JWRipley.jpg Ripley, James Wolfe Union Brigadier General uncle of Roswell S. Ripley, C.S.A.
Benjamin S. Roberts - Brady-Handy.jpg Roberts, Benjamin Sands Union Brigadier General
Robinson, James S. Union Brevet Major General
John Cleveland Robinson.jpg Robinson, John C. Union Brevet Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
IPRodman.jpg Rodman, Isaac Peace Union Brigadier General mortally wounded at the battle of Antietam
GenWmSRosecrans.jpg Rosecrans, William Starke Union Major General
Ross, Leonard Fulton Union Brigadier General
GenLHRousseau.jpg Rousseau, Lovell H. Union Major General father-in-law of Louis D. Watkins
Rowley, Thomas Algeo Union Brigadier General
Rucker, Daniel Henry Union
Thomas H. Ruger.jpg Ruger, Thomas H. Union Brevet Major General
DARussel.jpg Russell, David Allen Union Brevet Major General killed at the battle of Opequon
posthumously brevetted to major general

S

Image Name Service Rank Notes
FCSalomon.jpg Salomon, Friedrich K. Union Brevet Major General brother of Edward Salomon
John B Sanborn.jpg Sanborn, John Benjamin Union Brigadier General
Sanders, William Price Union Brigadier General mortally wounded at the battle of Campbell's Station
RSaxton.jpg Saxton, Rufus Union Brigadier General was a Medal of Honor recipient
EPScammon.jpg Scammon, Eliakim Parker Union Brigadier General
Robert C. Schenck - Brady-Handy.jpg Schenck, Robert Cumming Union Major General
Alexander Schimmelfennig.jpg Schimmelfennig, Alexander Union Brigadier General
AlbinFSchoepf.jpg Schoepf, Albin F. Union Brigadier General
John Schofield.jpg Schofield, John McAllister Union Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
post war Secretary of War
General-in-Chief of the U.S. Army (1888-1895)
Carl-Schurz.jpg Schurz, Carl Union Major General post war U.S. Senator from Missouri
post war U.S. Secretary of the Interior
Robert Kingston Scott - Brady-Handy.jpg Scott, Robert Kingston Union Brevet Major General post war Governor of South Carolina
WinfieldScott.jpg Scott, Winfield Union Brevet Lieutenant General General-in-Chief of the U.S. Army (1841-1861)
John Sedgwick.png Sedgwick, John Union Major General killed at the battle of Spotsylvania
Seward, William Henry, Jr..jpg Seward, William Henry Jr. Union Brigadier General son of William H. Seward
TSeymour.jpg Seymour, Truman Union Brevet Major General present at both Fort Sumter and Appomattox
JamesMShackelford.jpg Shackelford, James M. Union Brigadier General
Alexander Shaler standing.gif Shaler, Alexander Union Brevet Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
Shepard, Isaac Fitzgerald Union Brigadier General
George F Shepley.jpg Shepley, George F. Union Brigadier General Military Governor of Louisiana
Philip Sheridan - Brady-Handy.jpg Sheridan, Philip Henry Union Major General received the Thanks of Congress
General-in-Chief of the U.S. Army (1883-1888)
Sherman, Francis Trowbridge Union Brigadier General
TWSherman.jpg Sherman, Thomas W. Union Brevet Major General
William-Tecumseh-Sherman.jpg Sherman, William Tecumseh Union General received the Thanks of Congress
post war U.S. Secretary of War
General-in-Chief of the U.S. Army (1869-1883)
James Shields - Brady-Handy.jpg Shields, James Union Major General pre-war U.S. Senator from Illinois
pre-war U.S. Senator from Minnesota
post war U.S. Senator from Missouri
Henry Hastings Sibley.jpg Sibley, Henry Hastings Union Brevet Major General pre-war Governor of Minnesota
DanielEdgarSickles.jpg Sickles, Daniel Edgar Union Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
Franz Sigel.jpg Sigel, Franz Union Major General
Gen-Sill.jpg Sill, Joshua W. Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Stone's River
Slack, James Richard Union Brevet Major General
Lieutenant-slemmer.jpg Slemmer, Adam Jacoby Union Brigadier General
Henry Warner Slocum.jpg Slocum, Henry Warner Union Major General
John potts slough.jpg Slough, John P. Union Brigadier General
AJSmith.jpg Smith, Andrew Jackson Union Major General
CFSmith.jpg Smith, Charles Ferguson Union Major General died of an infection in 1862
Giles Alexander Smith - Brady-Handy.jpg Smith, Giles A. Union Major General brother of Morgan L. Smith
Green Clay Smith - Brady-Handy.jpg Smith, Green Clay Union Brevet Major General post war Governor of Montana Territory
son of John Speed Smith
Smith, Gustavus A. Union
John E Smith.jpg Smith, John Eugene Union Brevet Major General
MLSmith.jpg Smith, Morgan Lewis Union Brigadier General brother of Giles A. Smith
Smith, Thomas Church Haskell Union
TKSmith.jpg Smith, Thomas Kilby Union Brevet Major General
WFSmith MGEN.JPG Smith, William Farrar Union Major General
William Sooy Smith.jpg Smith, William Sooy Union Brigadier General
TASmyth.jpg Smyth, Thomas Alfred Union Brigadier General mortally wounded at the battle of Farmville
Spears, James Gallant Union
Francis Barreto Spinola.jpg Spinola, Francis Barretto Union Brigadier General
John W Sprague.jpg Sprague, John Wilson Union Brevet Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
Julius Stahel.jpg Stahel, Julius Union Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
David Sloane Stanley head.jpg Stanley, David Sloane Union Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
G J Stannard UA ACW.JPG Stannard, George Jerrison Union Brevet Major General
JohnConverseStarkweatherThu.jpg Starkweather, John Converse Union Brigadier General
JBSteedmanMGenright.jpg Steedman, James Blair Union Major General
FSteele.jpg Steele, Frederick Union Major General
Isaacstevens.jpg Stevens, Isaac Ingalls Union Major General killed at the battle of Chantilly
Stevenson, John Dunlap Union Brevet Major General
Stevenson, Thomas Greely Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Spotsylvania
Stokes, James Hughes Union
Stolbrand, Carl Johan Union
C P Stone UA ACW.jpg Stone, Charles Pomeroy Union Brigadier General post war Lt. Gen. in the Egyptian Army
General George Stoneman.jpg Stoneman, George Union Major General post war Governor of California
Stoughton.jpg Stoughton, Edwin H. Union Brigadier General
GCStrong.jpg Strong, George Crockett Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Fort Wagner
Strong, William Kerley Union
Stuart, David Union Brigadier General appointment was negated by the Senate
Stumbaugh, Frederick Shearer Union
Samuel D. Sturgis - Brady-Handy.jpg Sturgis, Samuel Davis Union Brevet Major General
Sullivan, Jeremiah Cutler Union Brigadier General
BG Alfred Sully.jpg Sully, Alfred Union Brevet Major General
Edwin Vose Sumner.png Sumner, Edwin Vose Union Major General died of pneumonia in 1863
father of Samuel S. Sumner
WSwayne.jpg Swayne, Wager Union Brevet Major General
TWSweeney.jpg Sweeny, Thomas William Union Brigadier General
GenGS.jpg Sykes, George Union Major General

T

Image Name Service Rank Notes
GeneralGeorgeWTaylor.jpg Taylor, George William Union Brigadier General mortally wounded at the battle of Manassas Station
Taylor, Joseph Pannell Union Brigadier General brother of Zachary Taylor
uncle of Richard Taylor
Taylor, Nelson Union Brigadier General appointment as brigadier general was withdrawn in 1863
WRTerrill.jpg Terrill, William R. Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Perryville
Gen Alfred Terry.jpg Terry, Alfred Howe Union Major General received the Thanks of Congress
Terry, Henry Dwight Union
John Milton Thayer - Brady-Handy.jpg Thayer, John Milton Union Brevet Major General post war Governor of Wyoming Territory
post war Governor of Nebraska
George Henry Thomas - Brady-Handy.jpg Thomas, George Henry Union Major General received the Thanks of Congress
Thomas, Henry Goddard Union
GenLThomas.jpg Thomas, Lorenzo Union Brevet Major General
StephenThomas.jpg Thomas, Stephen Union Brigadier General Was a Medal of Honor recipient
CMThruston.jpg Thruston, Charles Mynn Union Brigadier General
Tibbits, William B. Union
Tillson, Davis Union
JBSTodd.jpg Todd, John Blair Smith Union Brigadier General
A T A Torbert.jpg Torbert, Alfred Thomas Archimedes Union Brevet Major General
Joseph Gilbert Totten.jpg Totten, Joseph Gilbert Union Brevet Major General died of pneumonia in 1864
ZBTower.jpg Tower, Zealous Bates Union Brevet Major General
Turchin.jpg Turchaninov, Ivan V. Union Brigadier General a.k.a. John Basil Turchin
Turner, John Wesley Union Brevet Major General
James M Tuttle.jpg Tuttle, James Madison Union Brigadier General
GenDTyler.jpg Tyler, Daniel Union Brigadier General uncle of Robert O. Tyler
Gen-ebtyler.jpg Tyler, Erastus B. Union Brevet Major General
Robert O Tyler.jpg Tyler, Robert Ogden Union Brevet Major General nephew of Daniel Tyler
Tyndale, Hector Union Brevet Major General

U

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Ullmann, Daniel Union
Underwood, Adin Ballou Union
EmoryUpton.jpg Upton, Emory Union Brevet Major General

V

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Van Alen, James Henry Union
HoratioPVanCleve.jpg Van Cleve, Horatio Phillips Union Brevet Major General
Ferdinand Van Derveer.jpg Van Derveer, Ferdinand Union Brigadier General
William Vandever - Brady-Handy.jpg Vandever, William Union Brevet Major General
Stewart Van Vliet - Brady-Handy.jpg Van Vliet, Stewart Union Major General
VAN WYCK, Charles Henry.jpg Van Wyck, Charles H. Union Brigadier general
Veatch, James C. Union Brevet Major General of Volunteers
Viele1v.JPG.jpg Viele, Egbert Ludovicus Union Brigadier General
Strong Vincent.jpg Vincent, Strong Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Gettysburg
Vinton, Francis Laurens Union
Israel Vogdes.jpg Vogdes, Israel Union Brigadier General
Adolph von Steinwehr.JPG Von Steinwehr, Adolph W. Union Brigadier General
Voris, Alvin Coe Union

W

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Wade, Melancthon S. Union
JSWadsworth civ.JPG Wadsworth, James S. Union Brevet Major General killed at the battle of the Wilderness
GeorgeDWagner.jpg Wagner, George Day Union Brigadier General
C C Walcutt BGen ACW.jpg Walcutt, Charles C. Union Brevet Major General
Lew Wallace - Brady-Handy.jpg Wallace, Lewis Union Major General post war Governor of New Mexico Territory
WHL Wallace.jpg Wallace, William Harvey Lamb Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Shiloh
JHHWard-ACWstanding.jpg Ward, John Henry Hobart Union Brigadier General
Ward, William Thomas Union
Warner, James M. Union
Warren, Fitz-Henry Union
GKWarren.jpg Warren, Gouverneur Kemble Union Major General
Cadwallader Colden Washburn.jpg Washburn, Cadwallader Colden Union Major General post war Governor of Wisconsin; co-founder of what eventually became General Mills
Watkins, Louis Douglass Union
son-in-law of Lovell H. Rousseau
Alexander S. Webb.jpg Webb, Alexander S. Union Brevet Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
Weber, Max Union Brigadier General
Webster, Joseph Dana Union Brevet Major General
Stephen Weed.jpg Weed, Stephen Hinsdale Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Gettysburg
Godfrey Weitzel - Brady-Handy.jpg Weitzel, Godfrey Union Major General built ship locks at Falls of the Ohio and Sault Saint Marie
Wells, William Union Brigadier General
ColThosWelsh.jpg Welsh, Thomas Union Brigadier General succumbed to malaria in 1863
Wessells, Henry Walton Union Brigadier General
Joseph R. West - cwpbh 03614.jpg West, Joseph R. Union Brigadier General post war U.S. Senator from Louisiana
FrankWheaton.jpg Wheaton, Frank Union Major General son-in-law of Samuel Cooper, C.S.A.
Amiel Weeks Whipple.jpg Whipple, Amiel Weeks Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Chancellorsville
Whipple, William Denison Union Brigadier General
WCWhitakerACWseatedclose.jpg Whitaker, Walter Chiles Union Brevet Major General
White, Julius Union Brevet Major General
Brig General Edward A. Wild.png Wild, Edward A. Union Brigadier General
Orlando B. Willcox - Brady-Handy.jpg Willcox, Orlando Bolivar Union Major General appointment as Maj. Gen. was withdrawn and later reappointed as Brevet Maj. Gen.
Alpheus S. Williams.jpg Williams, Alpheus Starkey Union Brevet Major General
Williams, David Henry Union Brigadier General
Williams, Nelson Grosvenor Union Brigadier General appointment as brigadier general was negated by the Senate
Williams, Seth Union Brigadier General
Williams, Thomas Union Brigadier General killed at the battle of Baton Rouge
James Alexander Williamson.jpg Williamson, James Alexander Union Brevet Major General was a Medal of Honor recipient
Willich, August Union Brevet Major General
James Wilson (soldier).jpg Wilson, James H. Union Major General
I J Wistar BGEN UA ACW.JPG Wistar, Isaac J. Union Brigadier General
Thomas J Wood.jpg Wood, Thomas J. Union Major General
DanielPhineasWoodbury.jpg Woodbury, Daniel Phineas Union Brevet Major General promoted posthumously
CRWoodsBrigGen.jpg Woods, Charles Robert Union Brevet Major General brother of William B. Woods
William Burnham Woods (engraving).jpg Woods, William Burnham Union Brigadier General brother of Charles R. Woods
John E. Wool.jpg Wool, John Ellis Union Major General oldest officer to exercise active command during the war
Wright, George Union Brigadier General
HGWright.jpg Wright, Horatio Gouverneur Union Major General

Z

Image Name Service Rank Notes
GenSamKZook.jpg Zook, Samuel Kosciuszko Union Brevet Major General killed at the battle of Gettysburg

Confederate generals

A

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Daniel W. Adams.jpg
Adams, Daniel Weisiger Confederate
JAdams.jpg
Adams, John Confederate
DanielWAdams.jpg
Adams, William Wirt Confederate
JLAlcorn.jpg
Alcorn, James Lusk Confederate
Edward Porter Alexander.jpg
Alexander, Edward Porter Confederate
HWAllen.jpg
Allen, Henry Watkins Confederate
Allen, William W. Confederate
Anderson, Charles David Confederate
Anderson, George Burgwyn Confederate
GTAnderson.jpg
Anderson, George T. Confederate
JPAnderson.jpg
Anderson, James Patton Confederate
Genanderson.jpg
Anderson, Joseph R. Confederate
Richard H. Anderson.jpg
Anderson, Richard Heron Confederate
Anderson, Robert H. Confederate
Anderson, Samuel Read Confederate
JJArcherACW.jpg
Archer, James J. Confederate
Lewis A. Armistead.jpg
Armistead, Lewis Addison Confederate
FCArmstrong.jpg
Armstrong, Frank Crawford Confederate
Ashby2p.jpg
Ashby, Turner Confederate

B

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Bagby, Arthur Pendleton Jr. Confederate
Baker, Alpheus Confederate
Baker, Laurence S. Confederate
Baldwin, Jacob Confederate
Baldwin, William Edwin Confederate
Barksdale, William Confederate
Barringer, Rufus Confederate
Barry, John D. Confederate
Barton, Seth M. Confederate
Bartow, Francis Stebbins Confederate
Bate, William Brimage Confederate
Battle, Cullen A. Confederate
Beale, Richard Lee Turberville Confederate
Beall, William N.R. Confederate
Beauregard, Pierre G.T. Confederate
Bee, Barnard E. Jr. Confederate
Bee, Hamilton Prioleau Confederate
Bell, Tyree H. Confederate
Benning, Henry L. Confederate
Benton, Samuel Confederate
Blanchard, Albert G. Confederate
Boggs, William R. Confederate
Bonham, Milledge Luke Confederate
Bowen, John Stevens Confederate
Bowles, Pinckney Downie Confederate
Bragg, Braxton Confederate
Branch, Lawrence O'Bryan Confederate
Brandon, William L. Confederate
Brantley, William F. Confederate
Bratton, John Confederate
Breckinridge, John C. Confederate
Brevard, Theodore W. Confederate
Brown, John Calvin Confederate
Browne, William Montague Confederate
Bryan, Goode Confederate
Buckner, Simon Bolivar Confederate
Buford, Abraham Confederate
Bullock, Robert Confederate
Butler, Matthew Calbraith Confederate

C

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Cabell, William L. Confederate
Campbell, Alexander W. Confederate
Cantey, James Confederate
Capers, Ellison Confederate
Carroll, William Henry Confederate
Carter, John C. Confederate
Chalmers, James R. Confederate
Chambliss, John R. Confederate
Chapman, Augustus A. Confederate
Cheatham, Benjamin F. Confederate
Chesnut, James Jr. Confederate
Chilton, Robert H. Confederate
Churchill, Thomas J. Confederate
Clanton, James H. Confederate
Clark, Charles Confederate
Clark, Edward Confederate
Clark, John Bullock Confederate
Clark, John Bullock Jr. Confederate
Clark, Meriwether Lewis Sr. Confederate
Clayton, Henry DeLamar Confederate
Cleburne, Patrick R. Confederate
Clingman, Thomas Lanier Confederate
Cobb, Howell Confederate
Cobb, Thomas Reade Rootes Confederate
Cocke, Philip St. George Confederate
Cockrell, Francis M. Confederate
Colquitt, Alfred Holt Confederate
Colston, Raleigh E. Confederate
Conner, James Confederate
Cook, Philip Confederate
Cooke, John Rogers Confederate
Cooper, Douglas H. Confederate
Cooper, Samuel Confederate
Corse, Montgomery Dent Confederate
Cosby, George B. Confederate
Cox, William Ruffin Confederate
Crittenden, George Bibb Confederate
Cumming, Alfred Confederate

D

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Daniel, Junius Confederate
Davidson, Henry B. Confederate
Davis, Joseph R. Confederate
Davis, William G.M. Confederate
Dearing, James Confederate
Deas, Zachariah Cantey Confederate
De Lagnel, Julius A. Confederate
Deshler, James Confederate
Dibrell, George Gibbs Confederate
Dockery, Thomas P. Confederate
Doles, George Pierce Confederate
Donelson, Daniel Smith Confederate
Drayton, Thomas F. Confederate
Du Bose, Dudley M. Confederate
Duke, Basil W. Confederate
Duncan, Johnson K. Confederate
Dunovant, John Confederate

E

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Early, Jubal Anderson Confederate
Echols, John Confederate
Ector, Mathew D. Confederate
Elliott, Stephen Jr. Confederate
Elzey, Arnold Confederate
Evans, Clement A. Confederate
Evans, Nathan G. Confederate
Ewell, Richard Stoddert Confederate

F

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Fagan, James F. Confederate
Featherston, Winfield Scott Confederate
Ferguson, Samuel W. Confederate
Field, Charles W. Confederate
Finegan, Joseph Confederate
Finley, Jesse Johnson Confederate
Fiser, John Calvin Confederate
Floyd, John Buchanan Confederate
Forney, John H. Confederate
Forney, William Henry Confederate
Forrest, Nathan Bedford Confederate
Frazer, John W. Confederate
French, Samuel Gibbs Confederate
Frost, Daniel M. Confederate
Fry, Birkett Davenport Confederate

G

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Gano, Richard Montgomery Confederate
Gardner, Franklin Confederate
Gardner, William M. Confederate
Garland, Samuel Jr. Confederate
Garnett, Richard B. Confederate
Garnett, Robert S. Confederate
Garrott, Isham Warren Confederate
Gartrell, Lucius Jeremiah Confederate
Gary, Martin Witherspoon Confederate
Gatlin, Richard C. Confederate
Gholson, Samuel J. Confederate
Gibson, Randall Lee Confederate
Gilmer, Jeremy Francis Confederate
Girardey, Victor J. B. Confederate
Gist, States Rights Confederate
Gladden, Adley H. Confederate
Godwin, Archibald C. Confederate
Goggin, James M. Confederate
Gordon, George Washington Confederate
Gordon, James Byron Confederate
Gordon, John Brown Confederate
Gorgas, Josiah Confederate
Govan, Daniel C. Confederate
Gracie, Archibald Jr. Confederate
Granbury, Hiram B. Confederate
Gray, Henry Confederate
Grayson, John B. Confederate
Green, Martin E. Confederate
Green, Thomas Confederate
Greer, Elkanah Confederate
Gregg, John Confederate
Gregg, Maxcy Confederate
Griffith, Richard Confederate
Grimes, Bryan Confederate

H

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Hagood, Johnson Confederate
Hampton, Wade Confederate
Hanson, Roger W. Confederate
Hardee, William Joseph Confederate
Hardeman, William Polk Confederate
Harris, Nathaniel H. Confederate
Harrison, James E. Confederate
Harrison, Thomas Confederate
Hatton, Robert Hopkins Confederate
Hawes, James Morrison Confederate
Hawthorn, Alexander T. Confederate
Hays, Harry T. Confederate
Hébert, Louis Confederate
Hébert, Paul Octave Confederate
Helm, Benjamin Hardin Confederate
Heth, Henry Confederate
Higgins, Edward Confederate
Hill, Ambrose Powell Confederate
Hill, Benjamin J. Confederate
Hill, Daniel Harvey Confederate
Hindman, Thomas Carmichael Confederate
Hodge, George B. Confederate
Hogg, Joseph L. Confederate
Hoke, Robert F. Confederate
Holmes, Theophilus Hunter Confederate
Holtzclaw, James T. Confederate
Hood, John Bell Confederate
Huger, Benjamin Confederate
Humes, William Y.C. Confederate
Humphreys, Benjamin Grubb Confederate
Hunton, Eppa Confederate

I

Image Name Service Rank Notes
John D. Imboden.jpg Imboden, John Daniel Confederate Brigadier General
AlfredIverson.jpg Iverson, Alfred Jr. Confederate Brigadier General

J

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Jackson, Alfred E. Confederate
Jackson, Henry R. Confederate
Jackson, John K. Confederate
Jackson, Thomas Jonathan Confederate
Jackson, William Hicks Confederate
Jackson, William Lowther Confederate
Jenkins, Albert Gallatin Confederate
Jenkins, Micah Confederate
Johnson, Adam Rankin Confederate
Johnson, Bradley Tyler Confederate
Johnson, Bushrod Rust Confederate
Johnson, Edward Confederate
Johnston, Albert Sidney Confederate
Johnston, George Doherty Confederate
Johnston, Joseph E. Confederate
Johnston, Robert D. Confederate
Jones, David Rumph Confederate
Jones, John Marshall Confederate
Jones, John R. Confederate
Jones, Samuel Confederate
Jones, William E. Confederate
Jordan, Thomas Confederate

K

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Kelly, John Herbert Confederate
Kemper, James Lawson Confederate
Kennedy, John Doby Confederate
Kershaw, Joseph Brevard Confederate
Kirkland, William W. Confederate

L

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Lane, James H. Confederate
Lane, Walter P. Confederate
Law, Evander M. Confederate
Lawton, Alexander R. Confederate
Leadbetter, Danville Confederate
Lee, Edwin Gray Confederate
Lee, Fitzhugh Confederate
Lee, George Washington Custis Confederate
Lee, Robert E. Confederate
Lee, Stephen Dill Confederate
Lee, William Henry Fitzhugh Confederate
Leventhorpe, Collett Confederate
Lewis, Joseph Horace Confederate
Lewis, William Gaston Confederate
Liddell, St. John Richardson Confederate
Lilley, Robert Doak Confederate
Little, Lewis Henry Confederate
Logan, Thomas Muldrup Confederate
Lomax, Lunsford L. Confederate
Long, Armistead L. Confederate
Longstreet, James Confederate
Loring, William Wing Confederate
Lovell, Mansfield Confederate
Lowrey, Mark Perrin Confederate
Lowry, Robert Confederate
Lyon, Hylan B. Confederate

M

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Mackall, William W. Confederate
MacRae, William Confederate
Magruder, John Bankhead Confederate
Mahone, William Confederate
Major, James Patrick Confederate
Maney, George Earl Confederate
Manigault, Arthur Middleton Confederate
Marmaduke, John Sappington Confederate
Marshall, Humphrey Confederate
Martin, James Green Confederate
Martin, William T. Confederate
Maury, Dabney Herndon Confederate
Maxey, Samuel Bell Confederate
McCausland, John Confederate
McComb, William Confederate
McCown, John P. Confederate
McCulloch, Ben Confederate
McCulloch, Henry Eustace Confederate
McGowan, Samuel Confederate
McIntosh, James M. Confederate
McLaws, Lafayette Confederate
McNair, Evander Confederate
McRae, Dandridge Confederate
Mercer, Hugh Weedon Confederate
Miller, William Confederate
Moody, Young Marshall Confederate
Moore, John Creed Confederate
Moore, Patrick T. Confederate
Morgan, John Hunt Confederate
Morgan, John Tyler Confederate
Mouton, Jean J.A.A. Confederate

N

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Allison-nelson.png Nelson, Allison Confederate brigadier general
Francis T. Nicholls.jpg Nicholls, Francis Redding Tillou Confederate brigadier general
Northrop, Lucius B. Confederate

O

Image Name Service Rank Notes
EAO'Neal.jpg O'Neal, Edward Asbury Confederate brigadier general

P

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Page, Richard Lucian Confederate
Palmer, Joseph B. Confederate
Parsons, Mosby M. Confederate
Paxton, Elisha F. Confederate
William Henry Fitzhugh Payne.jpg
Payne, William H.F. Confederate
Peck, William R. Confederate
Pegram, John Confederate
JCPembertonBLY.jpg
Pemberton, John Clifford Confederate
William Dorsey Pender.jpg
Pender, William Dorsey Confederate
WNPendelton.jpg
Pendleton, William N. Confederate
Perrin, Abner Monroe Confederate
Perry, Edward Aylesworth Confederate
Perry, William F. Confederate
James Johnston Pettigrew.jpg
Pettigrew, James Johnston Confederate
Pettus, Edmund Winston Confederate
GeorgePickett.jpeg
Confederate
Pike, Albert Confederate
Pillow, Gideon J. Confederate
De Polignac, Camille A.J.M. Confederate
Leonidas Polk.jpg
Polk, Leonidas Confederate
Polk, Lucius E. Confederate
Posey, Carnot Confederate
Preston, John S. Confederate
Preston, William Confederate
Sterling Price-1.jpg
Price, Sterling Confederate
Proskauer, Adolph Confederate
Pryor, Roger Atkinson Confederate

Q

Image Name Service Rank Notes
WAQuarles.jpg Quarles, William Andrew Confederate Brigadier General

R

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Rains, Gabriel J. Confederate
Rains, James Edward Confederate
Ramseur, Stephen Dodson Confederate
Randolph, George Wythe Confederate
Ransom, Matt Whitaker Confederate
Ransom, Robert Jr. Confederate
Reynolds, Alexander Welch Confederate
Reynolds, Daniel H. Confederate
Richardson, Robert Vinkler Confederate
Ripley, Roswell Sabine Confederate
Roane, John Selden Confederate
Roberts, William Paul Confederate
Robertson, Beverly Holcombe Confederate
Robertson, Felix Huston Confederate
Robertson, Jerome Bonaparte Confederate
Roddey, Philip D. Confederate
Robert E. Rodes.jpg
Rodes, Robert E. Confederate
Ross, Lawrence Sullivan Confederate
Rosser, Thomas L. Confederate
Ruggles, Daniel Confederate
Rust, Albert Confederate

S

Image Name Service Rank Notes
St. John, Isaac M. Confederate
Sanders, John C.C. Confederate
Scales, Alfred Moore Confederate
Scott, Thomas M. Confederate
Scurry, William Read Confederate
Sears, Claudius Wistar Confederate
Semmes, Paul Jones Confederate
Sharp, Jacob H. Confederate
Shelby, Joseph Orville Confederate
Shelley, Charles M. Confederate
Shoup, Francis A. Confederate
Sibley, Henry Hopkins Confederate Template:Brigadier General Template:1816 LA - 1886 VA
Simms, James P. Confederate
Slack, William Yarney Confederate
Slaughter, James E. Confederate
Smith, Edmund Kirby Confederate
Smith, Francis Henney Confederate
Smith, Gustavus Woodson Confederate
Smith, James A. Confederate
Smith, Martin Luther Confederate
Smith, Preston Confederate
Smith, Thomas Benton Confederate
Smith, William Confederate
Smith, William Duncan Confederate
Sorrel, Gilbert Moxley Confederate
Stafford, Leroy A. Confederate
Starke, Peter Burwell Confederate
Starke, William E. Confederate
Steele, William Confederate
Steuart, George H. Confederate
Stevens, Clement H. Confederate
Stevens, Walter H. Confederate
Stevenson, Carter Littlepage Confederate
Stewart, Alexander P. Confederate
Stovall, Marcellus A. Confederate
Strahl, Otho French Confederate
Stuart, James Ewell Brown Confederate

T

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Taliaferro, William Booth Confederate
Tappan, James C. Confederate
Taylor, Richard Confederate
Taylor, Thomas H. Confederate
Terrill, James Barbour Confederate
Terry, William Confederate
Terry, William R. Confederate
Thomas, Allen Confederate
Thomas, Bryan Morel Confederate
Thomas, Edward Lloyd Confederate
Tilghman, Lloyd Confederate
Toombs, Robert A. Confederate
Toon, Thomas F. Confederate
Tracy, Edward D. Confederate
Trapier, James H. Confederate
Trimble, Isaac Ridgeway Confederate
Tucker, William F. Confederate
Twiggs, David Emanuel Confederate
Tyler, Robert C. Confederate

V

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Robert B. Vance.jpg Vance, Robert Brank Confederate Brigadier General
Earl Van Dorn.jpg Van Dorn, Earl Confederate Major General
A J Vaughan, Jr. CSA ACW.jpg Vaughan, Alfred Jefferson Jr. Confederate Brigadier General
Vaughn, John C. Confederate
Image Villepigue.JPG Villepigue, John Bordenave Confederate brigadier general Ancestor of World War I Medal of Honor recipient John Canty Villepigue.

W

Image Name Service Rank Notes
Walker, Henry H. Confederate
Walker, James Alexander Confederate
Walker, John George Confederate
Walker, Leroy Pope Confederate
Walker, Lucius M. Confederate
Walker, Reuben Lindsay Confederate
Walker, William H.T. Confederate
Walker, William Stephen Confederate
Wallace, William Henry Confederate
Walthall, Edward Cary Confederate
Waterhouse, Richard Confederate
Watie, Stand Confederate
Waul, Thomas N. Confederate
Wayne, Henry C. Confederate
Weisiger, David A. Confederate
Wharton, Gabriel Colvin Confederate
Wharton, John A. Confederate
Wheeler, Joseph Confederate
Whitfield, John Wilkins Confederate
Whiting, William Henry Chase Confederate
Wickham, Williams Carter Confederate
Wigfall, Louis Trezevant Confederate
Wilcox, Cadmus Marcellus Confederate
Williams, John Stuart Confederate
Wilson, Claudius C. Confederate
Winder, Charles Sidney Confederate
Winder, John H. Confederate
Wise, Henry A. Confederate
Withers, Jones M. Confederate
Wofford, William T. Confederate
Wood, Sterling A.M. Confederate
Wright, Ambrose Ransom Confederate
Wright, Marcus Joseph Confederate

Y

Image Name Service Rank Notes
ZYork.jpg York, Zebulon Confederate Brigadier General
PMBYoung.jpg Young, Pierce Manning Butler Confederate Major General
Young, William Hugh Confederate

Z

Image Name Service Rank Notes
FZollicoffer.jpg Zollicoffer, Felix Kirk Confederate Brigadier General

See also

References

  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
Citations
  1. ^ Frank J. Williams, "Doing Less and Doing More: The President and the Proclamation—Legally, Militarily and Politically," in Harold Holzer, ed. The Emancipation Proclamation (2006) pp 74–5.
  2. ^ Howard Jones, Abraham Lincoln and a New Birth of Freedom: The Union and Slavery in the Diplomacy of the Civil War (1999) p. 154
  3. ^ Eicher p.39
  4. ^ Eicher p.776
  5. ^ Eicher p.776
  6. ^ Eicher p.446
References

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