List of Archbishops of Canterbury: Wikis

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Three plaques on a wall, inscribed with the lists of the archbishops. In front of the plaques is a table with two candlesticks flanking an upright cross.
List of the Archbishops of Canterbury in the Cathedral

The Archbishop of Canterbury is the head of the established Church of England and, symbolically, of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

From the time of St. Augustine until the 16th century, the Archbishops of Canterbury were Roman Catholic and in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, the pope. During the English Reformation the church broke away from the authority of the pope, at first temporarily and later more permanently. Since then they have been outside of the succession of the Roman Catholic Church's hierarchy and have led the independent national church.[1]

In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the nomination of the archbishop and other bishops—at various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the King of England, or the Pope.[2][3][4] Since the reformation, the church is explicitly a state church and the choice is legally that of the British crown; today it is made in the name of the Monarchy of the United Kingdom by the Prime Minister, from a shortlist of two selected by an ad hoc committee called the Crown Nominations Commission.[5]

Today, the archbishop fills four main roles:[6]

Contents

List of Archbishops

The abbreviations in the tables below are as follows:

  • bet. = between
  • c. = circa
  • dep. = deposed
  • depr. = deprived
  • nom. = nominated
  • pos. = postulated
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To the Norman conquest

Archbishops of Canterbury
No. Incumbent From [A] Until [B] Notes
1 Augustine 597 26 May 604 or 605 Canonised: St Augustine.[7]
2 Laurence
(Laurentius, Lawrence)
c. 604 2 Feb 619 Canonised: St Laurence of Canterbury.[8]
3 Mellitus
(Miletus)
619 24 Apr 624 Translated from London;[9] canonised: St Mellitus.[10]
4 Justus 624 10 Nov
bet. 627 and 631
Translated from Rochester;[9] canonised: St Justus.[11]
5 Honorius 627 30 Sep 653 Canonised: St Honorius.[12]
6 Deusdedit
(Deus-dedit, Adeodatus)
Mar 655 14 Jul 664 Canonised: St Deusdedit.[13]
Vacant 664 666
Wighard
(Wigard)
c. 666 668 Died of plague before consecration.[14]
7 Theodore 26 Mar 668 19 Sep 690 Canonised: St Theodore of Tarsus.[15]
8 Berhtwald
(Brihtwald, Bertwald)
29 Jun 693 13 Jan 731 Abbot of Reculver Abbey;[16] canonised: St Berhtwald.[16]
9 Tatwine
(Tatwin)
10 Jun 731 30 Jul 734 Canonised: St Tatwine.[17]
10 Nothelm
(Nothelmus)
735 17 Oct 739 Canonised: St Nothelm.[18]
11 Cuthbert c. 740 26 Oct 760 Possibly translated from Hereford.[19]
12 Bregowine
(Bregwin, Breguivine or Breguwine)
27 Sep 761 764 Canonised: St Bregwin.[20]
13 Jænberht
(Lambert, Genegberht, Jambert, Janbriht, Janibert, Lanbriht, etc.)
2 Feb 765 11/12 Aug 792 Abbot of St Augustine's, Canterbury.[21]
14 Æthelhard
(Ethelhard)
21 Jul 793 12 May 805
15 Wulfred c. Oct 805 21 Mar 832
16 Feologild
(Theolgild)
8 Jun 832 30 Aug 832 Abbot of an unknown monastery before election.[22]
17 Ceolnoth c. 27 Jul 833 4 Feb 870
18 Æthelred 870 30 Jun 888
19 Plegmund 890 2 Aug 923 Clerk to King Alfred.[23]
20 Athelm
(Adelmus)
bet. 923 and 925 8 Jan 926 Translated from Wells.[19]
21 Wulfhelm
(Wolfhelmus)
c. 926 12 Feb 941 Translated from Wells.[19]
22 Odo
(Odo Severus, Oda the Severe)
941 2 Jun 958 Translated from Ramsbury;[19] canonised: St Oda.[24]
23 Ælfsige
(Aelfsige)
958 959
24 Byrhthelm
(Birtthelm)
959 dep. 959 Translated from Wells, deposed & returned to Wells.[19]
25 Dunstan 959 19 May 988 Translated from London;[19] canonised: St Dunstan.[25]
26 Athelgar
(Ethelgarus)
988 Feb 990 Translated from Selsey.[19]
27 Sigeric
(Sigeric the Serious)
990 28 Oct 994 Translated from Ramsbury.[19]
28 Ælfric
(Elfric, Aluricius)
el. 21 Apr 995 16 Nov 1005 Translated from Winchester;[19] canonised: St Aelfric.[26]
29 Alphege
(Ælfheah, Elphege)
1006 19 Apr 1012 Translated from Winchester;[19] canonised: St Alphege.[27]
30 Lyfing
(Leovingus, Livingus, Elstan)
1013 12 Jun 1020 Translated from Wells.[19]
31 Æthelnoth
(Æthelnotus, Ethelnoth, Egelnodus, Ednodus)
13 Nov 1020 c. 29 Oct 1038 Formerly Dean of Canterbury.[28]
32 Eadsige
(Edsige; Eadsimus; Eadsin)
1038 29 Oct 1050
33 Robert of Jumièges
(Robert Champart)
Mar 1051 dep. Sep 1052 Deposed.[19]
34 Stigand 1052 depr. 11 Apr 1070 Concurrently Bishop of Winchester; deprived of both sees.[29]

To the Reformation

Archbishops of Canterbury
No. Incumbent From [A] Until [B] Notes
35 Lanfranc 29 Aug 1070 28 May 1089 Abbot of St. Étienne, Caen.[4]
36 Anselm 4 Dec 1093 21 Apr 1109 Abbot of Bec;[4] Canonised: St Anselm.[30]
Vacant 1109 1114
37 Ralph
(Ralph d'Escures; Rodolphus; Ralph de Turbine)
el. 26 Apr 1114 2 Oct 1122 Translated from Rochester.[31]
38 William de Corbeil
(William Corbois; William Corbyl)
18 Feb 1123 21 Nov 1136 Prior of St Osyth.[4]
Vacant 1136 1139
39 Theobald of Bec 8 Jan 1139 18 Apr 1161 Abbot of Bec.[4]
Vacant 1161 1162
40 Thomas Becket
(Thomas à Becket)
3 Jun 1162 29 Dec 1170 Previously Archdeacon of Canterbury[4] and Lord Chancellor;[32] canonised: St Thomas of Canterbury.[33]
Roger de Bailleul 1173 [4] Abbot of Le Bec-Hellouin; elected but declined the see.[4]
41 Richard
(Richard of Dover)
7 Apr 1174 16 Feb 1184 Prior of Dover.[4]
42 Baldwin
(Baldwin of Exeter)
tr. Dec 1184 Nov 1190 Translated from Worcester.[4]
Reginald Fitz Jocelin el. 27 Nov 1191 26 Dec 1191 [4] Translated from Wells; elected, however, appeals against it were sent to Pope Celestine III, but Reginald died before they were heard.[4]
Vacant 1191 1193
43 Hubert Walter tr. 29 May 1193 13 Jul 1205 Translated from Salisbury;[4] Lord Chancellor;[32] Chief Justiciar.[34]
Reginald el. bet. Jul
and Oct 1205
bet. Oct
and Dec 1206 [4]
Sub-prior, elected but set aside by King John.[4]
John de Gray
(John Grey, John de Grey)
pos. 11 Dec 1205 c. 30 Mar 1206 [4] Bishop of Norwich; chosen by the monks but set aside by the pope.[4]
44 Cardinal Stephen Langton 17 Jun 1207 9 Jul 1228 Created a cardinal in 1205.[35]
Walter d'Eynsham
(Walter de Hempsham)
el. 3 Aug 1228 Jan 1229 [4] Elected but set aside by King Henry III of England and Pope Gregory IX.[4]
45 Richard le Grant
(Richard Weathershed)
10 Jun 1229 3 Aug 1231 Formerly Chancellor of the see of Lincoln.
Ralph Neville pos. 22 Sep 1231 20 Dec 1231 Bishop of Chichester, election quashed by Pope Gregory XI.[4]
John of Sittingbourne el. 16 Mar 1232 12 Jun 1232 [4] election quashed by Pope Gregory XI.[4]
John Blund el. 26 Aug 1232 1 Jun 1233 [4] election quashed by Pope Gregory XI.[4]
46 Edmund Rich 2 Apr 1234 16 Nov 1240 Prebendary of Salisbury;[4] canonised: St Edmund of Abingdon.[36]
47 Boniface
(Boniface of Savoy)
el. 1 Feb 1241 [C] 14 Jul 1270 Translated from Belley in France
William Chillenden
(Adam of Chillenden)
el. 9 Sep 1270 summer 1272 [4] Prior of Christ Church, Canterbury; elected but set aside by Pope Gregory X.[4]
48 Cardinal Robert Kilwardby 26 Feb 1273 res. 5 Jun 1278 Created a cardinal in 1278;[37] and resigned.[4]
Robert Burnell pos. Jun or Jul 1278 [4] Jan 1279 [4] Bishop of Bath & Wells; elected but set aside by Pope Nicholas III.[4]
49 John Peckham
(John Pecham)
19 Feb 1279 8 Dec 1292 English Provincial of the Franciscan Order.[4]
50 Robert Winchelsey 12 Sep 1294 11 May 1313 Formerly Archdeacon of Essex;[4] Chancellor of Oxford
Thomas Cobham el. 28 May 1313 1 Oct 1313 [38] Election quashed.[38]
51 Walter Reynolds tr. 1 Oct 1313 16 Nov 1327 Translated from Worcester;[38] Lord Chancellor;[39] Lord Treasurer.[40]
52 Simon Mepeham
(Simon Meopham)
5 Jun 1328 12 Oct 1333 Prebendary of Chichester Cathedral;[41] excommunicated.[41]
53 John de Stratford pos. 3 Nov 1333 23 Aug 1348 Translated from Winchester;[38] Lord Chancellor.[39]
John de Ufford nom. 24 Sep 1348 20 May 1349 [42] Dean of Lincoln;[42] Lord Chancellor;[39] died of plague before consecration.[38][42]
54 Thomas Bradwardine 19 Jul 1349 26 Aug 1349 Died of plague[38]
55 Simon Islip 20 Dec 1349 26 Apr 1366 Prebendary of St Paul's;[43] secretary to the king and keeper of the Privy Seal.[44]
William Edington
(William Edendon)
1366 Bishop of Winchester;[45] elected but refused the see.[3]
56 Cardinal Simon Langham tr. 24 Jul 1366 res. 28 Nov 1368 Translated from Ely;[38] created a cardinal in 1368;[46] and resigned the see. He was elected a second time in 1374, but Pope Gregory XI refused to confirm the election.[46][47]
57 William Whittlesey
(William Wittlesey)
tr. 11 Oct 1368 Jun 1374 Translated from Worcester.[38]
58 Simon Sudbury
(Simon de Sudbury; Simon Tibold; Simon Theobold)
tr. 4 May 1375 14 Jun 1381 Translated from London;[38] Lord Chancellor;[39] beheaded during the Peasants' Revolt.[48]
59 William Courtenay tr. 31 Jul 1381 31 Jul 1396 Translated from London;[38] Lord Chancellor.[49]
60 Thomas Arundel
(Thomas Fitz-Alan)
tr. 25 Sep 1396 dep. 1397 Translated from York;[38] Lord Chancellor;[49] charged with high treason under Richard II, fled but restored later.[50]
61 Roger Walden nom. 8 Nov 1397 depr. 19 Oct 1399 Deprived.[38]
(60) Thomas Arundel
(Thomas Fitz-Alan)
restored
19 Oct 1399
19 Feb 1414 Restored by Henry IV.[50]
62 Henry Chichele
(Henry Chicheley; Henry Checheley)
tr. 12 Mar 1414 12 Apr 1443 Translated from St David's.[38]
63 John Stafford tr. 13 May 1443 25 May 1452 Translated from Bath & Wells;[38] Lord Chancellor;[49] Lord Treasurer.[51]
64 Cardinal John Kempe tr. 21 Jul 1452 22 Mar 1454 Created a cardinal in 1439;[52] Translated from York;[53] Lord Chancellor;[49]
65 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier tr. 23 Apr 1454 30 Mar 1486 Translated from Ely;[53] Lord Chancellor;[49] created a cardinal in 1467.[54]
66 Cardinal John Morton tr. 6 Oct 1486 15 Sep 1500 Translated from Ely;[53] Lord Chancellor.[55] created a cardinal in 1493.[56]
Thomas Langton 22 Jan 1501 27 Jan 1501 Bishop of Winchester;[53] died 5 days after being chosen.[3]
67 Henry Deane
(Henry Dean; Henry Dene)
tr. 26 Apr 1501 15/17 Feb 1503 Translated from Salisbury.[53]
68 William Warham tr. 29 Nov 1503 22 Aug 1532 Translated from London;[53] Lord Chancellor until 1515.[55]
69 Thomas Cranmer 30 Mar 1533 depr. 13 Nov 1555 Archdeacon of Taunton;[57] excommunicated by Rome and deprived for heresy 1553;[57] put to death by burning, 21 March 1556.[57]
70 Cardinal Reginald Pole 22 Mar 1556 18/19 Nov 1558 Dean of Exeter;[58] created a cardinal in 1536.[59]

Since the Reformation

Archbishops of Canterbury
No. Incumbent From [A] Until [B] Notes
71 Matthew Parker 17 Dec 1559 17 May 1575 Dean of Lincoln.[60]
72 Edmund Grindal tr. 29 Dec 1575 6 Jul 1583 Translated from York.[53]
73 John Whitgift nom. 14 Aug 1583 29 Feb 1604 Translated from Worcester.[53]
74 Richard Bancroft nom. 9 Oct 1604 2 Nov 1610 Translated from London.[53]
75 George Abbot nom. 4 Mar 1611 4 Aug 1633 Translated from London.[53]
76 William Laud nom. 6 Aug 1633 10 Jan 1645 Translated from London;[53] executed in office;[2] commemorated in the Church of England,[61] and the Episcopal Church in the U.S.A.[62][63]
Vacant 1645 1660
77 William Juxon nom. 2 Sep 1660 4 Jun 1663 Translated from London.[53]
78 Gilbert Sheldon nom. 16 June 1663 9 Nov 1677 Translated from London.[53]
79 William Sancroft 27 Jan 1678 depr. 1 Feb 1690 Dean of St Paul's;[2] deprived for not taking oaths to William and Mary.[2] died 24 Nov 1693.[53]
80 John Tillotson 31 May 1691 22 Nov 1694 Dean of St Paul's.[2]
81 Thomas Tenison nom. 6 Dec 1694 14 Dec 1715 Translated from Lincoln.[53]
82 William Wake nom. 17 Dec 1715 24 Jan 1737 Translated from Lincoln.[53]
83 John Potter nom. 9 Feb 1737 10 Oct 1747 Translated from Oxford.[53]
84 Thomas Herring nom. 21 Oct 1747 13 Mar 1757 Translated from York.[53]
85 Matthew Hutton nom. 29 Mar 1757 19 Mar 1758 Translated from York.[53]
86 Thomas Secker nom. 8 Mar 1758 3 Aug 1768 Translated from Oxford.[53]
87 Frederick Cornwallis nom. 12 Aug 1768 19 Mar 1783 Translated from Lichfield & Coventry.[53]
88 John Moore nom. 31 Mar 1783 18 Jan 1805 Translated from Bangor.[53]
89 Charles Manners-Sutton nom. 1 Feb 1805 21 Jul 1828 Translated from Norwich.[53]
90 William Howley nom. 6 Aug 1828 11 Feb 1848 Translated from London.[53]
91 John Bird Sumner nom. 17 Feb 1848 6 Sep 1862 Translated from Chester.[53]
92 Charles Thomas Longley nom. 20 Oct 1862 28 Oct 1868 Translated from York.[53]
93 Archibald Campbell Tait nom. 28 Nov 1868 1 Dec 1882 Translated from London.[53]
94 Edward White Benson nom. 13 Jan 1883 11 Oct 1896 Translated from Truro.[64]
95 Frederick Temple nom. 9 Nov 1896 22 Dec 1902 Translated from London.[64]
96 Randall Thomas Davidson nom. 14 Jan 1903 res. 12 Nov 1928 Translated from Winchester;[64] retired;[64] died 25 May 1930.[64]
97 William Cosmo Gordon Lang nom. 13 Nov 1928 res. 31 Mar 1942 Translated from York;[64] retired.[64] died 5 December 1945.[64]
98 William Temple nom. 1 Apr 1942 26 Oct 1944 Translated from York.[64] Died in office.
99 Geoffrey Francis Fisher nom. 12 Jan 1945 res. 31 May 1961 Translated from London;[64] retired;[64] died 1972.[65]
100 Arthur Michael Ramsey nom. 1 Jun 1961 res. 15 Nov 1974 Translated from York; retired; died 23 April 1988.[66]
101 Frederick Donald Coggan nom. 18 Nov 1974 res. 25 Jan 1980 Translated from York; retired; died 17 May 2000.[67]
102 Robert Alexander Kennedy Runcie nom. 1 Feb 1980 res. 1991. Translated from St Albans; retired; died 11 Jul 2000.[68]
103 George Leonard Carey [69] enth. 19 April 1991 res. 31 Oct 2002. Translated from Bath & Wells; retired.[69]
104 Rowan Douglas Williams, FBA enth. 27 Feb 2003 present Translated from Monmouth. He was also Archbishop of Wales.[70]

Notes

  • A  All start dates are consecration dates, unless otherwise noted
  • B  All end dates are death dates, unless otherwise noted
  • C  He was not consecrated until 15 January 1245[71]

References

General

Specific

  1. ^ The Archbishops' Council of the Church of England (2004). "History of the Church of England". The Church of England. http://www.cofe.anglican.org/about/history/. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  2. ^ a b c d e Horn Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541–1857: volume 3: Canterbury, Rochester and Winchester dioceses: Archbishops of Canterbury
  3. ^ a b c Jones Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1300–1541: volume 4: Monastic cathedrals (southern province): Archbishops of Canterbury
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Greenway Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae: Archbishops of Canterbury
  5. ^ "Organization of the Church of England". The Church of England. http://www.cofe.anglican.org/about/cofeorg/. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  6. ^ Archbishop's Roles and Responsibilities, Archbishop of Canterbury website (accessed 8 February 2008)
  7. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 73
  8. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 357
  9. ^ a b Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 213
  10. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 420
  11. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 73
  12. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 268
  13. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 154
  14. ^ Bateson, Mary; revised by Marios Costambeys (2004). "Wigheard (d. 664x7) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/29369. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  15. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 581
  16. ^ a b Delaney Dictionary of Saints p. 90
  17. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 571
  18. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 453
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 214
  20. ^ Williams, Ann (2004). "Bregowine (d. 764) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/3310. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  21. ^ Costambeys, Mario (2004). "Jænberht (d. 792) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/14581. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  22. ^ Hunt, William; revised by Marios Costambeys (2004). "Feologeld (d. 832) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/9307. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  23. ^ Brooks, N. (2004). "Plegemund (d. 914) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/22378. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  24. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints pp. 454–455
  25. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 164
  26. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 12
  27. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 28
  28. ^ Mason, Emma (2004). "Æthelnoth (d. 1038) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/8912. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  29. ^ Cowdrey, H. E. J. (2004). "Stigand (d. 1072) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/26523. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  30. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints pp. 48–49
  31. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 232
  32. ^ a b Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 84
  33. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 595
  34. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 71
  35. ^ Stephen Langton.The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  36. ^ Walsh Dictionary of Saints p. 169
  37. ^ Robert Kilwardby. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 233
  39. ^ a b c d Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 86
  40. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 104
  41. ^ a b "Mepham, Simon (c.1275–1333) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. January 2008. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/18568.  
  42. ^ a b c "Offord, John (c.1290–1349) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. 2004. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/20571.  
  43. ^ Swanson, R. N. (2004). "Islep , Simon (c.1300–1366) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/14493.  
  44. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 94
  45. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 277
  46. ^ a b Simon Langham. The Cardinal s of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  47. ^ Simon Langham. Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 23 November 2008.
  48. ^ Walker, Simon (January 2008). "Sudbury, Simon (c.1316–1381) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/26759.  
  49. ^ a b c d e Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 87
  50. ^ a b Hughes, Jonathan (May 2007). "Arundel , Thomas (1353–1414) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/713.  
  51. ^ Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 106
  52. ^ John Cardinal Kempe. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 234
  54. ^ Thomas Bourchier. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  55. ^ a b Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 88
  56. ^ John Morton. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  57. ^ a b c MacCulloch, Diarmaid (January 2008). "Cranmer, Thomas (1489–1556) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/6615.  
  58. ^ Mayer, T. F. (January 2008). "Pole, Reginald (1500–1558) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/22456.  
  59. ^ Reginald Pole. The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  60. ^ Crankshaw, David J. and Alexandra Gillespie (January 2008). "Parker, Matthew (1504–1575) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/21327.  
  61. ^ Holy Days Common Worship Calendar of the Church of England. Retrieved on 5 November 2008.
  62. ^ Calendar of the Church Year. The Episcopal Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  63. ^ William Laud, Arcbishop and Martyr. The Episcopal Church. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 234
  65. ^ Webster, Alan (2004). "Fisher, Geoffrey Francis, Baron Fisher of Lambeth (1887–1972) (subscription required)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/31108.  
  66. ^ "Michael Ramsey, 100th Archbishop of Canterbury". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. http://www.archbishopofcanterbury.org/887. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  67. ^ "Donald Coggan, 101st Archbishop of Canterbury". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. http://www.archbishopofcanterbury.org/1235. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  68. ^ "Robert Alexander Kennedy Runcie, 102nd Archbishop of Canterbury". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. http://www.archbishopofcanterbury.org/1239. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  69. ^ a b "George Carey – 103rd Archbishop of Canterbury". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. http://www.archbishopofcanterbury.org/919. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  70. ^ "Rowan Williams – Biography". Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury. http://www.archbishopofcanterbury.org/73. Retrieved 2008-11-04.  
  71. ^ Fryde, E. B.; Greenway, D. E.; Porter, S.; Roy, I. (1996). Handbook of British Chronology (Third Edition, revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 233. ISBN 0-521-56350-X.  

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