List of Byzantine Emperors: Wikis

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Emperor of Eastern Roman Empire
Former Monarchy
Imperial
Palaiologos-Dynasty-Eagle.svg
Emblem of the Palaiologos Dynasty
Constantine XI Palaiologos.jpg
Last Monarch:
Constantine XI

Style His Imperial Majesty
Heir apparent Theodore
First monarch Constantine I
Last monarch Constantine XI
Monarchy started 330
Monarchy ended 1453
Current pretender None

This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians. This list does not include numerous co-emperors who never attained sole or senior status as rulers.

This list begins with Constantine I the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from Constantinople. Diocletian before him had ruled from Nicomedia and replaced the republican trappings of the office with a straightforward autocracy. All Byzantine Emperors regarded themselves as Roman Emperors.[1]

Although the Catholic West recognized the Eastern Empire's claim to the Roman legacy for several centuries, on 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned King of Franks Charlemagne as the "Roman Emperor (which eventually led to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire) due to uneasy relations with the Orthodox East, an act which was much resented by the Byzantines. This happened after the coronation of Empress Irene, who, as a woman, was not recognised by the Pope of Rome to have a right to the throne.

The title of all Emperors listed preceding Heraclius was officially Augustus, although various other titles such as Dominus were used as well. For official purposes, their names were preceded by Imperator Caesar and followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title commonly became the Greek Basileus (Gr. Βασιλεύς), which had formerly meant generally "king", "sovereign" but now was used in place of Imperator. Following the establishment of a rival Empire in Western Europe (the Holy Roman Empire), the title Autokrator (Gr. Αυτοκράτωρ) was also increasingly used. Foreign kings were now titled by the neologism Regas (Gr. Ρήγας, from the Lat. "Rex") or by another generic term Archon (Gr. Άρχων, "ruler"). In the later centuries of the Empire, the emperor could be often referred to by Western Christians as the "Emperor of the Greeks," though they still considered themselves "Roman" Emperors. Towards the end of the Empire, they referred to themselves as "[Emperor's name] in Christ, true Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans."

For previous Emperors, see List of Roman Emperors

Contents

Constantinian dynasty (306-363)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Constantine Musei Capitolini.jpg Constantine "the Great"
(Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus)
son of the Augustus Constantius Chlorus 27 February c.280 25 July 306
Proclaimed "Augustus" upon the death of Constantius Chlorus
22 May 337
ConstantiusII.JPG Constantius II
(Flavius Iulius Constantius)
second son of Constantine I 7 August 317 22 May 337
Inherited Eastern third of Roman Empire upon his father's death
5 October 361
died of illness on campaign
JulianusII-antioch(360-363)-CNG.jpg Julian "the Apostate"
(Flavius Claudius Iulianus)
grandson of Constantius Chlorus, cousin of Constantius II May 332 5 October 361
Proclaimed by his army in Gaul, became legitimate Emperor upon the death of Constantius
28 June 363
killed on campaign against Persians

Non-dynastic (363-364)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Jovian1.jpg Jovian
( Flavius Claudius Iovianus )
Guards' Captain amongst Julian's Eastern forces c.332 28 June 363
Elected by the army upon Julian's death
17 February 364
Died on journey back to Constantinople

Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty (364-457)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
ValentinianI.jpg Valentinian I
( Flavius Valentinianus )
Officer under Julian and Jovian 321 26 February 364
Elected by the army upon Jovian's death
17 November 375
Died of cerebral haemorrhage
Valens1.jpg Valens
( Flavius Iulius Valens )
Minor soldier of the Roman army, brother of Valentinian I 328 28 March 364
Appointed by his brother
9 August 378
Killed at the Battle of Adrianople
158 Gratianus.jpg Gratian
( Flavius Gratianus )
Son of Valentinian I, nephew of Valens 18 April/23 May 359 9 August 378
Inherited rule of the East upon the death of Valens
19 January 379
Appointed Theodosius I as Emperor of the East
25 August 383
Assassinated during the rebellion of Magnus Maximus
Theod1.jpg Theodosius I
"the Great"
( Flavius Theodosius )
Aristocrat and military leader, brother-in-law of Gratian 11 January 347 19 January 379
Appointed by Gratian
17 January 395
old age
Arcadius.jpg Arcadius
( Flavius Arcadius )
Son of Theodosius I 377/378 17 January 395
Upon the death of Theodosius I
1 May 408
Theodosius ii.jpg Theodosius II
( Flavius Theodosius )
Son of Arcadius 10 April 401 1 May 408
Upon the death of Arcadius
28 July 450
Riding accident
Pulcheria.JPG Pulcheria
( Aelia Pulcheria )
Daughter of Arcadius, sister of Theodosius II 19 January 399 28 July 450
Upon the death of Theodosius II
July 453
Marcian.JPG Marcian
( Flavius Valerius Marcianus )
Soldier, politician, husband of Pulcheria 396 450
Upon his marriage to Pulcheria
January 457
Gangrene contracted on a journey

Leonid dynasty (457-518)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Leo I Louvre Ma1012.jpg Leo I "the Thracian"
(Flavius Valerius Leo )
Soldier 401 7 February 457
Chosen by Aspar, commander-in-chief of the army
18 January 474
Died of dysentery
Leo (474)-coin.jpg Leo II
( Flavius Leo )
Grandson of Leo I 467 18 January 474
Succeeded his grandfather Leo I
17 November 474
Died of an unknown disease, possibly poisoned
Zeno.PNG Zeno
( Flavius Zeno )
(Born Tarasicodissa)
Roman general of Isaurian origins; son-in-law of Leo I, father of Leo II c.425 Co-emperor: 9 February 474
Appointed by his son Leo II
Sole Emperor: 17 November 474
Succeeded upon the death of Leo II
9 January 475
Deposed by Basiliscus, brother-in-law of Leo I
9 April 491
Basiliscus.JPG Basiliscus
( Flavius Basiliscus )
Army General; brother-in-law of Leo I 9 January 475
Seized power from Zeno
August 476
Deposed by Zeno
476/477
Zeno.PNG Zeno, restored
( Flavius Zeno )
(Born Tarasicodissa)
Roman general of Isaurian origins; son-in-law of Leo I, father of Leo II c.425 restored August 476
Having deposed Basiliscus
9 April 491
Anastasius I.JPG Anastasius I
( Flavius Anastasius )
Palace official ("Silentiarius"); son-in-law of Leo I c.430 11 April 491
Chosen by Ariadne, widow of Zeno
9 July 518

Justinian dynasty (518-602)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
JustinI.JPG Justin I
(Flavius Iustinus )
General, commander of the City Guards under Anastasius I c.450 July 518
Elected by army and people upon the death of Anastasius I
1 August 527
Meister von San Vitale in Ravenna 004.jpg Justinian I the Great
(Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus)
Nephew and heir of Justin I 482/483 1 August 527
Inherited the throne on the death of Justin I
13/14 November 565
Justin II.JPG Justin II
(Flavius Iustinus Iunior)
Nephew and heir of Justinian I c.520 14 November 565
Inherited the throne on the death of Justinian I
5 October 578
Tiberius II.JPG Tiberius II Constantine
(Flavius Tiberius Constantinus)
"Comes" of the Excubitors, friend and adoptive son of Justin II c.520 5 October 578
Became full Emperor on the death of Justin II
14 August 582
possibly poisoned by Maurice
Emperor Maurice.JPG Maurice
(Flavius Mauricius Tiberius)
Commander-in-chief of Cappadocian origins; son-in-law of Tiberius II 539 14 August 582
Succeeded upon the death of his father-in-law Tiberius II
November 602
Forced to abdicate by Phocas
27 November 602
Executed by Phocas

Non-dynastic (602-610)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Phocas.JPG Phocas
(Flavius Phocas )
sub-altern in the Balkan army, leader of rebellion; deposed Maurice  ? November 602
Seized power in a rebellion against Maurice
610
Executed by Heraclius

Heraclian dynasty (610-711)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Tiberius III.jpg Herakleios
(Ηράκλειος, Hērakleios) Heraclius (Flavius Heraclius)
son of Exarch of Africa Heraclius the Elder, who were of Armenian Origin. ; Deposed Phocas c.575 5 October 610
Seized power in a rebellion against Phocas
11 February 641
Heraclius and sons.JPG Constantine III
(Ηράκλειος (νέος) Κωνσταντίνος, Herakleios Novos Kōnstantinos) Constantine III ( Heraclius Novus Constantinus )
eldest son of Herakleios 3 May 612 11 February 641
Succeeded to throne with Heraklonas following death of Herakleios
24/26 May 641
Tuberculosis, allegedly poisoned by Martina
Heraclius and sons.JPG Heraklonas
(Κωνσταντίνος Ηράκλειος, Kōnstantinos Herakleios) Heraclianus (Constantinus Heraclius)
younger son of Herakleios 626 11 February 641
Succeeded to throne with Constantine III following death of Herakleios
September 641
Deposed by Senate
c.641
Presumed to have died in exile
Constans II
(Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II);
born Herakleios Constantine
(Ηράκλειος Κωνσταντίνος, Herakleios Kōnstantinos );
called "Constantine the Bearded" (Κωνσταντίνος Πωγωνάτος, Kōnstantinos Pogonatos) Constans II
(Constantus II);
born Heraclius Constantine
( Heraclius Constantinus );
called "Constantine the Bearded"
son of Constantine III 7 November 630 641
Made co-Emperor by Hereklonas, sole emperor in that same year
15 September 668
Assassinated, possibly on the orders of Mezezius
Mezezius Usurper Emperor Unknown 668 669
Constantine IV
(Κωνσταντίνος, Kōnstantinos) Constantine
(Constantinos)
son of Constans II 652 15 September 668
succeeded following murder of Constans II
September 685
Died of dysentery
Solidus-Justinian II-Christ b-sb1413.jpg Justinian II son of Constantine IV 669 Co-emperor in 681, sole emperor in 685. 695
Deposed by military revolt
December 711
Solidus-Leontinus-sb1330.jpg Leontios Usurper Emperor Unknown 695 698
Deposed by military revolt
705
Tiberios III Usurper Emperor Unknown 698 705
Deposed by a Bulgarian-supported revolt
705
Solidus-Justinian II-Christ b-sb1413.jpg Justinian II son of Constantine IV 669 705 711
Deposed by military revolt
December 711

Non-dynastic (711-717)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Solidus-Philippicus-sb1447.3.jpg Philippikos A general of Armenian origins; deposed Justinian II Unknown December, 711 3 June 713
Deposed by a military revolt
Later in the 8th century
Solidus-Anastasius II-sb1463.jpg Anastasios II a bureaucraut, imperial secretary for Philippikos Unknown June 713 November 715
Deposed by a military revolt
718
Theodosius iii coin.jpg Theodosios III a financial officer, tax collector in the Opsikian Theme Unknown May 715 25 March 717
Deposed by a military revolt
Later in the 8th century

Isaurian dynasty (717-802)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Solidus-Leo III and Constantine V-sb1504.jpg Leo III the Isaurian a general from Germanikeia, Commagene c. 685 25 March 717 18 June 741 18 June 741
Solidus-Leo III and Constantine V-sb1504.jpg Constantine V Son of Leo III July, 718 Co-ruler in 720, senior ruler in 741 14 September 775 14 September 775
Artabasdos Son-in-law of Leo III, brother-in-law of Constantine V Unknown Rival emperor from June 741/2 2 November 743 Later in the 8th century
Leo iv constantine vi coin.jpg Leo IV the Khazar Son of Constantine V 25 January 750 Co-ruler in 751, senior ruler in 775 8 September 780 8 September 780
Leo iv constantine vi coin.jpg Constantine VI Son of Leo IV and Irene 771 Co-ruler in 776, sole emperor in 780 August 797 c. 797, though sources are contradictory on the subject
Solidus-Irene-sb1599.jpg Irene of Athens Wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI c. 752 August 797 31 October 802 9 August 803

Nikephoros' dynasty (802-813)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Solidus-Nicephorus I and Staraucius-sb1604.jpg Nikephoros I logothetēs tou genikou (finance minister) Unknown 31 October 802 26 July 811 26 July 811
Solidus-Nicephorus I and Staraucius-sb1604.jpg Staurakios Son of Nikephoros I Unknown Co-ruler in 803, senior ruler in 811 2 October 811 11 January 812
Michael I (Byzantine Emperor).jpg Michael I Rangabe Son-in-law of Nikephoros I, brother-in-law of Staurakios Unknown 2 October 811 11 July 813 11 January 844

Non-dynastic (813-820)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Leo5.jpg Leo V the Armenian Strategos of the Anatolic theme c. 775 11 July 813 25 December 820 25 December 820

Phrygian dynasty (820-867)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Solidus-Michael II Theophilus-sb1640.jpg Michael II the Stammerer or the Amorian (Μιχαήλ Β' ο Τραυλός ή Ψελλός) Strategos, son-in-law of Constantine VI 770 25 December 820
2 October 829
Emperor Theophilos Chronicle of John Skylitzes.jpg Theophilus (Θεόφιλος) son of Michael II 813 2 October 829
20 January 842
Solidus-Michael III-sb1686.jpg Theodora (Θεοδώρα) wife of Theophilus c. 815 842
855 867
Solidus-Michael III-sb1686.jpg Michael III the Drunkard (Μιχαήλ Γ' ο Μέθυσος) son of Theophilos 19 January 840 842
23 September 867

Macedonian dynasty (867-1056)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Solidus-Basil I with Constantine and Eudoxia-sb1703.jpg Basil I the Macedonian (Βασίλειος Α' ο Μακεδών) Imperial officer of Armenian Origin born in Macedonia c. 811 867
2 August 886
Byzantinischer Mosaizist des 9. Jahrhunderts 002.jpg Leo VI the Wise (Λέων ΣΤ' ο Σοφός) likely either son of Basil I or Michael III 19 September 866 886
11 May 912
Alexanderemp.jpg Alexander (Αλέξανδρος Γ') son of Basil I; regent for nephew 870 912
913
Follis-Constantine VII and Zoe-sb1758.jpg Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos (Κωνσταντίνος Ζ' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) son of Leo VI 9 September 905 15 May 908
9 November 959
Romanus1.jpg Romanos I Lekapenos (Ρωμανός Α' ο Λεκαπηνός) father-in-law of Constantine VII c. 870 17 December 920
16 December 944 15 June 948
Death of romanus ii.jpg Romanos II Porphyrogennetos (Ρωμανός Β' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) son of Constantine VII 15 March 938 November 959
15 March 963
Nikiphoros Phokas.jpg Nikephoros II Phokas (Νικηφόρος Β' ο Φωκάς) married Theophano, Romanos II's widow, regent for Basil II c. 912 16 August 963
969
Histamenon nomisma-John I-sb1776.jpg John I Tzimiskes (Ιωάννης Α' Κουρκούας ο Τσιμισκής) brother-in-law of Romanus II c. 925 11 December 969
10 January 976
Basilios II.jpg Basil II the Bulgar-Slayer (Βασίλειος Β' ο Βουλγαροκτόνος) son of Romanos II 958 10 January 976
15 December 1025
Histamenon nomisma-Constantine VIII-sb1776.jpg Constantine VIII (Κωνσταντίνος Η' ο Πορφυρογέννητος) son of Romanos II 960 15 December 1025
15 November 1028
EmpZoe.jpg Zoe (Ζωή η Προφυρογέννητη) daughter of Constantine VIII c. 978 15 November 1028
June 1050
Miliaresion-Romanus III-sb1822.jpg Romanos III Argyros (Ρωμανός Γ' ο Αργυρός) Zoe's first husband 968 15 November 1028
11 April 1034
Michael IV the Paphlagonian (Μιχαήλ Δ' ο Παφλαγών) Zoe's second husband 1010 11 April 1034
10 December 1041
Histamenon nomisma-Micael V-sb1776.jpg Michael V the Caulker (Μιχαήλ Ε' ο Καλαφάτης) Michael IV's nephew 1015 10 December 1041
20 April 1042 24 August 1042
Tetarteron-Theodora-sb1838.jpg Theodora (Θεοδώρα) daughter of Constantine VIII 984 20 April 1042
1042 after 31 August 1056
Istanbul.Hagia Sophia072.Monomuhos.jpg Constantine IX Monomachos (Κωνσταντίνος Θ' ο Μονομάχος) Zoe's third husband c. 1000 11 June 1042
11 January 1055
Tetarteron-Theodora-sb1838.jpg Theodora (Θεοδώρα) daughter of Constantine VIII 984 11 January 1055
after 31 August 1056

Non-dynastic (1056-1057)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Michael VI Court bureaucrat, defence minister Unknown September, 1056 31 August 1057 c. 1059

Komnenid dynasty (1057-1059)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Histamenon nomisma-Isaac I-sb1776.jpg Isaac I Komnenos commander of the field army in Anatolia c. 1005 5 June 1057 as rival emperor, sole emperor since 31 August 1057 22 November 1059 c. 1061

Doukid dynasty (1059-1081)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Costantino X - histamenon - Sear 1847v.jpg Constantine X Doukas (Κωνσταντίνος Ι' ο Δούκας) 1006 24 November 1059
22 May 1067
NomismaMikaelVIIDoukas.jpg Michael VII Doukas Quarter-short (Μιχαήλ Ζ' Δούκας Παραπινάκης) son of Constantine X 1050 22 May 1067
24 March 1078 1090
Romanos et Eudoxie.JPG Romanos IV Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ' Διογένης) married Eudokia Makrembolitissa, Constantine X's widow 1032 1067
1071 1072
Meister der Predigtsammlung des Heiligen Johannes Chrysostomus 001.jpg Nikephoros III Botaneiates (Νικηφόρος Γ' Βοτανειάτης) Strategos claiming descent from the Fabii 1001 31 March 1078
10 December 1081

Komnenid dynasty (1081-1185)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Alexius I.jpg Alexios I Komnenos (Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός) Nephew of Isaac I, military commander 1048 4 April 1081
15 August 1118
JohnIIcomnenus.jpg John II Komnenos (Ιωάννης Β' Κομνηνός o Καλός) son of Alexios I 13 September 1087 1118 8 April 1143
Manuelcomnenus.jpg Manuel I Komnenos (Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός ο Μέγας) son of John II 28 November 1118 1143 24 September 1180
Alexios II Komnenos (Αλέξιος B' Κομνηνός) son of Manuel I 14 September 1169 1180 October 1183
ByzantineBillonTrachy.jpg Andronikos I Komnenos (Ανδρόνικος Α' Κομνηνός) nephew of John II c. 1118 1183 2 September 1185

Angelid dynasty (1185-1204)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
IsaacIIAnge.jpg Isaac II Angelos (Ισαάκιος Β' Άγγελος) great-grandson of Alexios I September 1156 1185
1195 January 1205
Alexios III Angelos (Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος) brother of Isaac II 1153 1195
1203 1211
IsaacIIAnge.jpg Isaac II Angelos (Ισαάκιος Β' Άγγελος) great-grandson of Alexios I September 1156 1203
1204 January 1205
Alexius4.jpg Alexios IV Angelos (Αλέξιος Δ' Άγγελος) son of Isaac II 1182 1203 1204
Nikolaos Kanabos (Νικόλαος Καναβός) 25 January 1204 5 February 1204
Alexius V.JPG Alexios V Doukas (Αλέξιος Ε' Δούκας) son-in-law of Alexios III 1140 5 February 1204 12 April 1204 December 1205

Laskarid dynasty (Empire of Nicaea, 1204-1261)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Constantine Laskaris Defender of Constantinople Unknown Claimant emperor in 1204 c. 1205 c. 1205
Theodore I Laskaris Brother of Constantine Laskaris, son-in-law of Alexios III c. 1174 proclaimed 1205, crowned 1208 1221 1221
JohnIIIVatatzesGoldHyperpyronMagnesia.jpg John III Doukas Vatatzes son-in-law of Theodore I c. 1192 December, 1221 3 November 1254 3 November 1254
Theodore II Laskaris son of John III, grandson of Theodore I 1221/1222 proclaimed 4 November 1254 crowned 1255 18 August 1258 18 August 1258
John IV Laskaris son of Theodore II 25 December 1250 18 August 1258 25 December 1261 c. 1305

Palaiologan Dynasty (restored to Constantinople, 1261-1453)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
MichaelVIIIPaleologusGoldHyperpyron.jpg Michael VIII Palaiologos Great-grandson of Alexios III, grandnephew of John III by marriage 1223 1 January 1259 as co-emperor, senior emperor since 25 December 1261 11 December 1282 11 December 1282
Serres IM Prodromou Andronicos.jpg Andronikos II Palaiologos Son of Michael VIII 25 March 1259 nominal co-emperor in September, 1261, crowned in 1272. Senior emperor on 11 December 1282 24 May 1328 13 February 1332
AndronikosIIandMichaelIXPalaeologusSilverBasilikon.jpg Michael IX Palaiologos Son of Andronikos II 17 April 1277 co-emperor in 1281, crowned in 1294/1295. 12 October 1320 12 October 1320
Андроник III Палеолог.jpg Andronikos III Palaiologos Son of Michael IX 25 March 1297 co-emperor in 1316, rival emperor since July, 1321. Senior emperor on 24 May 1328. 15 June 1341 15 June 1341
John V Palaiologos.jpg John V Palaiologos Son of Andronikos III 18 June 1332 Emperor in 15 June 1341 8 February 1347 16 February 1391
John VI Kantakouzenos.jpg John VI Kantakouzenos A maternal relative of the Palaiologoi c. 1292 rival emperor on 26 October 1341, senior emperor on 8 February 1347. 4 December 1354 15 June 1383
Matthew Kantakouzenos Son of John VI, brother-in-law of John V c. 1325 co-emperor on 15 April 1353, rival emperor since 4 December 1354. December, 1357 between 1383 and 1391
John V Palaiologos.jpg John V Palaiologos Son of Andronikos III, son-in-law of John VI 18 June 1332 co-emperor in 1347, rival emperor in 1352. Senior Emperor on 4 December 1354 12 August 1376 16 February 1391
Andronikos IV Palaiologos Son of John V, grandson of John VI 2 April 1348 co-emperor c. 1352, Senior Emperor on 12 August 1376 1 July 1379 28 June 1385
John V Palaiologos.jpg John V Palaiologos Son of Andronikos III, son-in-law of John VI 18 June 1332 Senior Emperor on 1 July 1379 14 April 1390 16 February 1391
John VII Palaiologos Son of Andronikos IV 1370 Co-emperor from 1376 to 1379, senior emperor on 14 April 1390. 17 September 1390 22 September 1408
John V Palaiologos.jpg John V Palaiologos Son of Andronikos III, son-in-law of John VI 18 June 1332 Senior Emperor on 17 September 1390 16 February 1391 16 February 1391
Manuel II Paleologus.jpg Manuel II Palaiologos Son of John V, grandson of John VI, brother of Andronikos IV 27 June 1350 Co-emperor in 1373, Senior Emperor on 16 February 1391 21 July 1425 21 July 1425
Andronikos V Palaiologos Son of John VII c. 1400 co-emperor c. 1403 c. 1407 c. 1407
Palaio.jpg John VIII Palaiologos Son of Manuel II 18 December 1392 Co-emperor c. 1416, sole emperor on 21 July 1425 31 October 1448 31 October 1448
ConstantinoXI.jpg Constantine XI Son of Manuel II, brother of John VIII 8 February 1405 6 January 1449 29 May 1453 29 May 1453

Palaiologan Dynasty (claimants in exile)

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Demetrios Palaiologos Son of Manuel II, brother of John VIII and Constantine XI c. 1407 1453 1460 1470
Thomas Palaiologos.jpg Thomas Palaiologos Son of Manuel II, brother of John VIII and Constantine XI c. 1409 1453 12 May 1465 12 May 1465
Andreas Palaiologos Son of Thomas c. 1453 12 May 1465 1502 1502

See also

References

  1. ^ Hooker, Richard. "The Byzantine Empire." Middle Ages. World Cultures. 4 June 2007 [1].

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Simple English

This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. This list does not include many of the emperors that rules with someone else.

The title of all Emperors before Heraclius was Augustus, but other titles such as Dominus were also used. After Heraclius, the title was changed to the Greek Basileus. This title used to mean "king", "sovereign" but now was used in place of Augustus. The emperors of the 15th century called themselves "Basileus ton Hellinon" ("Emperor of the Greeks") but they were still "Roman" Emperors.

This list begins with Constantine I the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from Constantinople.

Contents

Constantinian dynasty (306-363)

1. St. Constantine I (Constantinus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae Proconsul; 272 - 337; ruled 306 - 337) – son of Constantius Chlorus
2. Constantius II (Flavius Iulius Constantius; 317 - 361; ruled 337 - 361) – son of Constantine I
3. Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus; 331 - 363; ruled 361 - 363) –son-in-law of Constantine I, brother-in-law and first cousin of Constantius II, grandson of Constantius I

Non-dynastic

4. Jovian (Iovianus; 332 - 364; ruled 363 - 364) – soldier, restored Christianity

Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty (364-457)

5. Valentinian I (Flavius Valentinianus; 321 - 375; ruled 364) – soldier
6. Valens (Flavius Iulius Valens; 328 - 378; ruled 364 - 378) – brother of Valentinian I
7. Gratian (Flavius Gratianus; 359 - 383; ruled 378 - 379) – son of Valentinian I
8. Theodosius I (Flavius Gratianus; 346 - 395; ruled 379 - 395) – soldier
9. Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius; 377 - 408; ruled 395 - 408) – son of Theodosius I, brother of Honorius
10. Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius; 401 - 450; ruled 408 - 450) – son of Arcadius
11. Pulcheria (Aelia Purcheria; 399 – 453; ruled 408 - 441, 450) – sister of Theodosius II
12. Marcian (Flavius Marcianus; 392 - 457; ruled 450 - 457) – soldier; married Pulcheria after Theodosius's death

Leonid dynasty (457-518)

13. Leo I the Thracian (Valerius Leo) (401-474, ruled 457 - 474) – soldier
14. Leo II (467 - 474, ruled 474) – grandson of Leo I, son of Zeno
15. Zeno (425 - 491, ruled 474 - 475) – son-in-law of Leo I
16. Basiliscus ( ? - c. 477, ruled 475 - 476) – usurper; brother-in-law of Leo I
  • Zeno (ruled 476 - 491) – restored
17. Anastasius I (430 - 518, ruled 491 - 518) – son-in-law of Leo I

Justinian dynasty (518-602)

18. Justin I (Flavius Iustinius; 450 - 527; ruled 518 - 527)
19. Justinian I the Great (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; 482 - 565; ruled 527 - 565) – nephew and adoptive son of Justin I
20. Justin II (Flavius Iustinius Iunior; 520 - 578; ruled 565 - 578) – nephew of Justinian I
21. Tiberius II Constantine (Flavius Tiberius Constantinus; 540 - 582, ruled 574, 578 - 582) – adopted by Justin II
22. Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius; 539 - 602, ruled 582 - 602) – son-in-law of Tiberius II

Non-dynastic

23. Phocas (Flavius Phocas; ? - 610; ruled 602 - 610)

Heraclian dynasty (610-695)

24. Heraclius (575 - 641, ruled 610 - 641)
25. Constantine III (Heraclius Constantine) (612 - 641, ruled 641) – son of Heraclius; coemperor with Heraklonas
26. Heraklonas (Constantine Heraclius)(626 - 641?, ruled 641) – son of Herakleios
27. Constans II (Herakleios, later Constantine, called the Bearded) (630 - 668, ruled 641 - 668) – son of Constantine III
28. Mezezius (668 - 669)
29. Constantine IV (649 - 685, ruled 668 - 685) – son of Constans II
30. Justinian II the Slit-nosed (668 - 711, ruled 685 - 695) – son of Constantine IV

Non-dynastic (695-705)

31. Leontios (ruled 695 - 698)
32. Tiberios III (ruled 698 - 705)

Heraclian dynasty (705-711)

  • Justinian II the Slit-nosed (ruled 705 - 711)

Non-dynastic (711-717)

33. Philippikos Bardanes (ruled 711 - 713) – Armenian soldier
34. Anastasios II ( ? - 721, ruled 713 - 715)
35. Theodosios III (ruled 715 - 717)

Isaurian dynasty (717-802)

36. Leo III the Isaurian (675 - 741, ruled 717 - 741)
37. Constantine V Kopronymos (the Dung-named) (718 - 775, ruled 741) – son of Leo III
38. Artabasdus the Icon-lover (ruled 741 - 743) – Leo III's son-in-law
  • Constantine V Kopronymos (the Dung-named)(ruled 743 - 775)
39. Leo IV the Khazar (750 - 780, ruled 775 - 780) – son of Constantine V
40. Constantine VI the Blinded (771 - 797 or 805, ruled 780 - 797) – son of Leo IV
41. Irene the Athenian (755 - 803, ruled 797 - 802) – wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI

Nikephoros' dynasty (802-813)

42. Nikephoros I ( ? - 811, ruled 802 - 811)
43. Staurakios ( ? - 812, ruled 811) – son of Nikephoros I
44. Michael I Rangabe (ruled 811 - 813) – son-in-law of Nikephoros I

Non-dynastic

45. Leo V the Armenian (775 - 820, ruled 813 - 820)

Phrygian dynasty (820-867)

46. Michael II the Stammerer or the Amorian (770 - 829, ruled 820 - 829) – son-in-law of Constantine VI
47. Theophilos (813 - 842, ruled 829 - 842) – son of Michael II
48. Theodora (ruled 842 - 855) – wife of Theophilus
49. Michael III the Drunkard (840 - 867, ruled 842 - 867) – son of Theophilos

Macedonian dynasty (867-1056)

50. Basil I the Macedonian (811 - 886, ruled 867 - 886) - married Michael III's widow
51. Leo VI the Wise (866 - 912, ruled 886 - 912)
52. Alexander (870 - 913, ruled 912 - 913) – son of Basil I
53. Constantine VII the Purple-born (905-959, ruled 913 - 959) – son of Leo VI
54. Romanos I Lekapenos (870 - 948, ruled 919 - 944) – father-in-law of Constantine VII
55. Romanos II the Purple-born (939 - 963, ruled 959 - 963) – son of Constantine VII
56. Nikephoros II Phokas (912 - 969, ruled 963 - 969) – married Romanos II's widow
57. John I Tzimiskes (925 - 976, ruled 969 - 976) – brother-in-law of Romanus II
58. Basil II the Bulgar-slayer (958 - 1025, ruled 976 - 1025) – son of Romanos II
59. Constantine VIII (960-1028, ruled 1025 - 1028) – son of Romanos II
60. Zoe (c. 978 - 1050, ruled 1028 - 1050) – daughter of Constantine VIII
61. Romanos III Argyros (968 - 1034, ruled 1028 - 1034) – Zoe's first husband
62. Michael IV the Paphlagonian (1010 - 1041, ruled 1034 - 1041) – Zoe's second husband
63. Michael V the Caulker (1015 - 1042, ruled 1041 - 1042) – Michael IV's nephew, Zoe's adopted son
64. Theodora (980 - 1056, ruled 1042) – daughter of Constantine VIII, coempress with Zoe
65. Constantine IX Monomachos (1000 - 1055, ruled 1042 - 1055) – Zoe's third husband
  • Theodora (ruled 1055 - 1056)

Non-dynastic

66. Michael VI the General (ruled 1056 - 1057) – chosen by Theodora

Komnenid dynasty

67. Isaac I Komnenos (c. 1007 - 1060, ruled 1057 - 1059) – soldier

Doukid dynasty (1059-1081)

68. Constantine X Doukas (1006 - 1067, ruled 1059 - 1067)
69. Michael VII Doukas Quarter-short (1050 - 1090, ruled 1067 - 1078) – son of Constantine X
70. Romanos IV Diogenes (1032 - 1072, ruled 1068 - 1071) – married Constantine X's widow
71. Nikephoros III Botaneiates (1001 - 1081, ruled 1078 - 1081)

Comnenid dynasty (restored, 1081-1185)

72. Alexios I Komnenos (1057 - 1118, ruled 1081 - 1118) – nephew of Isaac I, married Constantine X's grandniece
73. John II Komnenos the Handsome (1087 - 1143, ruled 1118 - 1143) – son of Alexios I
74. Manuel I Komnenos the Great (1118 - 1180, ruled 1143 - 1180) – son of John II
75. Alexios II Komnenos (1169 - 1183, ruled 1180 - 1183) – son of Manuel I
76. Andronikos I Komnenos (1118 - 1185, ruled 1183 - 1185) – nephew of John II; married Alexios II's widow

Angelid dynasty (1185-1204)

77. Isaac II Angelos (1156 - 1204, ruled 1185 - 1195) – great-grandson of Alexios I
78. Alexios III Angelos (1153 - 1211, ruled 1195 - 1203) – brother of Isaac II
  • Isaac II Angelos (ruled 1203 - 1204)
79. Alexios IV Angelos (1182 - 1204, ruled 1203 - 1204) – son of Isaac II
80. Nikolaos Kanabos (ruled 1204)
81. Alexios V Doukas the Bushy-eyebrowed ( (1140 - 1204, ruled 1204) – son-in-law of Alexios III

Laskarid dynasty (in exile, Empire of Nicaea, 1204-1261)

82. Constantine Laskaris (ruled 1204) – not officially crowned
83. Theodore I Laskaris (1174 - 1222, ruled 1204 - 1222) – son-in-law of Alexios III
84. John III Doukas Vatatzes (1192 - 1254, ruled 1222 - 1254) – son-in-law of Theodore I
85. Theodore II Doukas Laskaris (1221 - 1258, ruled 1254 - 1258) – son of John III
86. John IV Doukas Laskaris (1250 - 1305, ruled 1258 - 1261) – son of Theodore II

Palaiologan Dynasty (restored to Constantinople, 1259-1453)

At around this time the emperors began using the title Βασιλευς Βασιλεων Βασιλευων Βασιλευσιν, that is, King of Kings, ruling over Kings.[1]

87. Michael VIII Palaiologos (1224 - 1282, ruled 1259 - 1282) – great-grandson of Alexios III Angelos
88. Andronikos II Palaiologos the Elder (1258 - 1332, ruled 1282 - 1328) – son of Michael VIII
89. Andronikos III Palaiologos the Younger (1297 - 1341, ruled 1328 - 1341) – grandson of Andronikos II
90. John V Palaiologos (1332 - 1391, ruled 1341 - 1347) – son of Andronikos III
91. John VI Kantakouzenos (1295 - 1383, ruled outright 1347 - 1354) – father-in-law of John V
  • John V Palaiologos (ruled 1354 - 1376)
92. Andronikos IV Palaiologos (1348 - 1385, ruled 1376 - 1379) – son of John V
  • John V Palaiologos (ruled 1379 - 1390)
93. John VII Palaiologos (1370 - 1408, ruled 1390) – son of Andronikos IV
  • John V Palaiologos (ruled 1390 - 1391)
94. Manuel II Palaiologos (1350 - 1425, ruled 1391 - 1425) – son of John V
  • John VII Palaiologos (ruled 1399 - 1402)
95. John VIII Palaiologos (1392 - 1448, ruled 1425 - 1448) – son of Manuel II
96. Constantine XI Palaiologos Dragases (1405 - 1453, ruled 1449 - 1453) – son of Manuel II, not crowned in Constantinople

Ottomans

In 1453 Mehmed II overthrew the Byzantine Empire and claimed the title of Kaisar; his successors continued this claim. See Ottomans for the complete list of Ottoman sultans.

Pszoniaks

97. Marian Joniak (1633-1699)

Palaiologan Dynasty (in exile)

  • Thomas Palaiologos (1409 or 10 - 1465) – brother of Constantine XI
  • Andrew Palaiologos (1453 - 1502) – son of Thomas; sold titles to Charles VIII in 1494 and granted the remainder to King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castille in his will.

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