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For lists of Canadian Prime Ministers ranked by different criteria, such as time in office and religion see the Links to related articles linked at the bottom of this page.
The Parliament of Canada

This is a list of Prime Ministers of Canada. The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary Minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Head of Government of Canada. The office is not outlined in any of the documents that constitute the written portion of the Constitution of Canada; executive authority is formally vested in the Canadian sovereign and exercised on his or her behalf by the Governor General. The prime ministership is part of Canada's constitutional convention tradition. The office was initially modelled after the job as it existed in Britain at time of Confederation in 1867. The British prime ministership, although fully developed by 1867, was not formally integrated into the British constitution until 1905—hence, its absence from Constitution Act, 1867. The Prime Minister is almost invariably the leader of the political party that holds the largest number of seats in the House of Commons.

Stephen Harper is the current Prime Minister, appointed by Governor General Michaëlle Jean as the 22nd Prime Minister of Canada on February 6, 2006. He is the leader of the Conservative Party, which won 143 of 308 seats in the last federal election. Of the total 308 seats, 143 is a plurality (a majority would be 155 seats) so Prime Minister Harper leads a minority government; that is, the total number of seats held by all the other political parties combined is greater than the number of seats held by the Conservatives.

Contents

Timeline

     Liberal Party of Canada      Historical conservative parties: Liberal-Conservative, Conservative (historical), Unionist, N.L.C., Progressive Conservative      Conservative Party of Canada

  Portrait Name Time in office Electoral mandates Political party Parliaments Ministry
1st Sir John A. Macdonald square.png Sir John A. Macdonald
(1st time of 2)
1 July 1867
5 November 1873
1867, 1872 Conservative 1st
2nd
1st
Integration of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory into Canada; Manitoba Act; Red River Rebellion; Confederation of British Columbia; Creation of the North-West Mounted Police; Pacific Scandal.
2nd Alexander mackenzie.jpg Alexander Mackenzie
7 November 1873
8 October 1878
1874 Liberal 2nd
3rd
2nd
Pacific Scandal; Creation of the Supreme Court; Establishment of the Royal Military College; Created the office of the Auditor General.
1st Sir John A. Macdonald square.png Sir John A. Macdonald
(2nd time of 2)
17 October 1878
6 June 1891
1878, 1882, 1887, 1891 Conservative 4th, 5th
6th, 7th
3rd
National Policy; North-West Rebellion; Hanging of Louis Riel.
3rd Sir John Abbott square.png Sir John Abbott 16 June 1891
24 November 1892
- Conservative 7th 4th
-
4th John Thompson.jpg Sir John Thompson 5 December 1892
12 December 1894
- Conservative 7th 5th
Manitoba Schools Question.
5th Sir Mackenzie Bowell square.png Sir Mackenzie Bowell 21 December 1894
27 April 1896
- Conservative 7th 6th
Manitoba Schools Question.
6th Charles Tupper face.JPG Sir Charles Tupper 1 May 1896
8 July 1896
- Conservative - 7th
Manitoba Schools Question.
7th WilfriedLauriersmall.jpg Sir Wilfrid Laurier 11 July 1896
6 October 1911
1896, 1900, 1904, 1908 Liberal 8th, 9th
10th, 11th
8th
Manitoba Schools Question; Boer War; Confederation of Alberta and Saskatchewan; Creation of the Royal Canadian Navy; Reciprocity with the US.
8th RobertLBorden.jpg Sir Robert Borden 10 October 1911
10 July 1920
1911, 1917 Conservative; Unionist 12th
13th
9th
10th
First World War; Military Service Act; Conscription Crisis of 1917; Unionist Party (Canada); Creation of the National Research Council; Introduction of income tax; Winnipeg General Strike; Nickle Resolution.
9th ArthurMeighenheadshot.jpg Arthur Meighen
(1st time of 2)
10 July 1920
29 December 1921
- N.L.C. 13th 11th
-
10th WilliamLyonMackenzieKingsmall.jpg William Lyon Mackenzie King
(1st time of 3)
29 December 1921
29 June 1926
1921, 1925 Liberal 14th
15th
12th
King-Byng Affair.
9th ArthurMeighenheadshot.jpg Arthur Meighen
(2nd time of 2)
29 June 1926
25 September 1926
- Conservative 15th 13th
King-Byng Affair.
10th WilliamLyonMackenzieKingsmall.jpg William Lyon Mackenzie King
(2nd time of 3)
25 September 1926
6 August 1930
1926 Liberal 16th 14th
Introduction of old age pensions; Great Depression.
11th Richard Bedford Bennett.jpg Richard Bedford Bennett 7 August 1930
23 October 1935
1930 Conservative 17th 15th
Great Depression.
10th WilliamLyonMackenzieKingsmall.jpg William Lyon Mackenzie King
(3rd time of 3)
23 October 1935
15 November 1948
1935, 1940, 1945 Liberal 18th, 19th
20th
16th
Creation of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation; National Film Board of Canada; Nationalization of the Bank of Canada; World War 2; Trans-Canada Airlines.
12th
Louisstlaurent.jpg
Louis St. Laurent 15 November 1948
21 June 1957
1949, 1953 Liberal 20th, 21st
22nd
17th
Canada's entrance into NATO and the UN; Suez Crisis; Creation of the United Nations Emergency Force; London Declaration; Newfoundland Act; Equalization; Trans-Canada Highway; St. Lawrence Seaway; Trans-Canada Pipeline; Pipeline Debate.
13th
DiefYoung.jpg
John Diefenbaker 21 June 1957
22 April 1963
1957, 1958, 1962 Progressive Conservative 23rd, 24th
25th
18th
Avro Arrow cancellation; Coyne Affair; Cuban Missile Crisis; Canadian Bill of Rights.
14th
Lester B. Pearson with a pencil.jpg
Lester B. Pearson 22 April 1963
20 April 1968
1963, 1965 Liberal 26th
27th
19th
Bomarc missile program; Introduction of Canadian universal healthcare; Canada Pension Plan; Canada Student Loans; Creation of a new Canadian flag; Auto Pact; Rejection of troop deployment to Vietnam; Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism; Creation of the Canadian Forces; 1967 Canadian Centennial celebrations.
15th
Pierre Elliot Trudeau-2.jpg
Pierre Trudeau
(1st time of 2)
20 April 1968
4 June 1979
1968, 1972, 1974 Liberal 27th, 28th
29th, 30th
20th
"Trudeaumania"; "Just Society"; October Crisis; Use of the War Measures Act; Official Languages Act; Establishment of relations with China; Creation of Petro-Canada; Membership in the G7.
16th
JoeClark.jpg
Joe Clark 4 June 1979
3 March 1980
1979 Progressive Conservative 31st 21st
Youngest Canadian PM.
15th
Pierre Elliot Trudeau-2.jpg
Pierre Trudeau
(2nd time of 2)
3 March 1980
30 June 1984
1980 Liberal 32nd 22nd
Introduction of the NEP; 1980 Referendum; Access to Information Act; Repatriation of the Canadian Constitution; Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; Western alienation.
17th Fmr CDN PM John Turner.jpg John Turner 30 June 1984
17 September 1984
- Liberal 32nd 23rd
Trudeau Patronage Appointments
18th
Mulroney.jpg
Brian Mulroney 17 September 1984
25 June 1993
1984, 1988 Progressive Conservative 33rd
34th
24th
Cancellation of the NEP; Meech Lake Accord; Air India bombing; Canada-US Free Trade Agreement; Introduction of the GST; Charlottetown Accord; Good relations with Ronald Reagan; Petro-Canada privatization; Gulf War; École Polytechnique massacre; Oka Crisis; Environmental Protection Act; NAFTA; Airbus affair.
19th Kim Campbell head shot.jpg Kim Campbell 25 June 1993
4 November 1993
- Progressive Conservative 34th 25th
First female Prime Minister of Canada
20th Jean Chretien 2008.jpg Jean Chrétien 4 November 1993
12 December 2003
1993, 1997, 2000 Liberal 35th, 36th
37th
26th
Red Book; HST; 1995 Referendum; Clarity Act; Assassination attempt; Kosovo War; 1997 Red River Flood; Social Union Framework Agreement; Creation of Nunavut Territory; Youth Criminal Justice Act; Shawinigan Handshake; Invasion of Afghanistan; Opposition to the Invasion of Iraq; Sponsorship scandal; Kyoto Protocol; Gomery Inquiry.
21st Paul martin 2004.jpg Paul Martin 12 December 2003
6 February 2006
2004 Liberal 37th
38th
27th
Sponsorship scandal; Gomery inquiry; Civil Marriage Act; Kelowna Accord; Rejection of US Anti-Missile Treaty; G20; Atlantic Accord.
22nd
Stephen Harper G8 2007.jpg
Stephen Harper 6 February 2006
Incumbent
  2006, 2008 Conservative 39th
40th
28th
Federal Accountability Act; GST Reduction; Afghan Mission Extension; Chuck Cadman Affair; Québécois nation motion; Apology for Chinese Head Tax; Israel-Lebanon Conflict; Veterans' Bill of Rights; Residential Schools Apology; Financial crisis of 2007-2009; 2008 Canadian parliamentary dispute; 2009 Budget; Abousfian Abdelrazik; 2009 flu pandemic; Canadian Afghan detainee issue.

Living former Prime Ministers

As of March 2010, there are six living former Prime Ministers of Canada. The most recent Prime Minister to die was Pierre Trudeau (1968–1979, 1980–1984), on September 28, 2000.

Name Term of office Date of birth
Joe Clark 1979–1980 June 5, 1939 (1939-06-05) (age 70)
John Turner 1984 June 7, 1929 (1929-06-07) (age 80)
Brian Mulroney 1984–1993 March 20, 1939 (1939-03-20) (age 70)
Kim Campbell 1993 March 10, 1947 (1947-03-10) (age 63)
Jean Chrétien 1993–2003 January 11, 1934 (1934-01-11) (age 76)
Paul Martin 2003–2006 August 28, 1938 (1938-08-28) (age 71)

References

External links

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