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List of Chancellors of Germany: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Chancellor of Germany is the political leader of Germany and the head of the Federal Government. The office holder is responsible for selecting all other members of the government and chairing Cabinet meetings.

The office was created in the North German Confederation in 1867, when Otto von Bismarck became the first Chancellor. With the Unification of Germany in 1871, the Confederation evolved into a German nation-state and the office became known as the Chancellor of Germany. Bismarck, who was Chancellor until 1890, is the longest-serving Chancellor to this date.

Originally, the Chancellor was only responsible to the Emperor. This changed with the constitutional reform in 1918, when the Parliament was given the right to dismiss the Chancellor. Under the 1919 Weimar Constitution the Chancellors were to be appointed by the President, but were responsible to Parliament. The constitution was set aside during the 1933–1945 Nazi dictatorship. The 1949 German constitution made the Chancellor the most important office in the country, while diminishing the role of the President.

In German, the title was Bundeskanzler (literally, "Chancellor of the (Con)federation") in the North German Confederation and Reichskanzler (literally, "Chancellor of the Realm") from the Unification of Germany until the title Bundeskanzler was adopted again in 1949. The female form is Bundeskanzlerin. The title is often shortened to Kanzler ("Chancellor") or its female form, Kanzlerin.

Since 22 November 2005, the office has been held by Angela Merkel, the current Leader of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany.

Contents

North German Confederation (1867–1871)

Picture Name Born-Died Took Office Left Office Political Party
Bismarck44.jpg Count Otto von Bismarck 1815-1898 1 July 1867 16 April 1871 (considered a conservative)

German Empire (1871–1918)

Picture Name Born-Died Took Office Left Office Political Party
Bismarck44.jpg Prince Otto von Bismarck 1815-1898 21 March 1871 20 March 1890 (considered a conservative)
Graf Leopold von Caprivi cropped2.jpg Count Leo von Caprivi 1831-1899 20 March 1890 26 October 1894 (considered a liberal)
Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst.png Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst 1819-1901 29 October 1894 17 October 1900 (considered a liberal conservative)
Bernhard von Bülow.jpg Prince Bernhard von Bülow 1849-1929 17 October 1900 14 July 1909 (considered a conservative)
Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg.jpg Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg 1856-1921 14 July 1909 13 July 1917 (considered a liberal)
Michaelis.jpg Georg Michaelis 1857-1936 14 July 1917 1 November 1917
Georg von Hertling.jpeg Count Georg von Hertling 1843-1919 1 November 1917 30 September 1918 Centre
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R04103, Prinz Max von Baden.jpg Prince Maximilian of Baden 1867-1929 3 October 1918 9 November 1918 (considered a liberal)
Friedrich Ebert.jpg Friedrich Ebert 1871-1925 9 November 1918 11 February 1919 Social Democrats

Revolutionary period (1918–1919)

On 9 November 1918, Chancellor Max von Baden handed over his office to Friedrich Ebert. Ebert continued to serve as Head of Government during the three months between the end of the German Empire in November 1918 and the first gathering of the National Assembly in February 1919, but did not use the title of Chancellor.

During that time, Ebert also served as Chairman of the Council of the People's Delegates, until 29 December 1918 together with the Independent Social Democrat Hugo Haase.

Weimar Republic (1919–1933)

Picture Name Born-Died Took Office Left Office Days in office Political Party
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1979-122-29A, Philipp Scheidemann.jpg Philipp Scheidemann (Prime Minister (Reichsministerpräsident)) 1865-1939 13 February 1919 20 June 1919 127 Social Democrats
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-J0113-0500-001, Gustav Bauer.jpg Gustav Bauer (Chancellor since 14 August) 1870-1944 21 June 1919 26 March 1920 279 Social Democrats
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1979-122-28A, Hermann Müller.jpg Hermann Müller (1st term) 1876-1931 27 March 1920 8 June 1920 73 Social Democrats
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R18733, Konstantin Fehrenbach.jpg Konstantin Fehrenbach 1852-1926 25 June 1920 4 May 1921 313 Centre
Bundesarchiv Bild 146III-105, Joseph Wirth.jpg Joseph Wirth 1879-1956 10 May 1921 14 November 1922 553 Centre
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2002-0625-505, Dr. Wilhelm Cuno.jpg Wilhelm Cuno 1876-1933 22 November 1922 12 August 1923 263
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1982-092-11, Gustav Stresemann.jpg Gustav Stresemann 1878-1929 13 August 1923 30 November 1923 109 German People's Party
Reichskanzler Wilhelm Marx.jpg Wilhelm Marx (1st term) 1863-1946 30 November 1923 15 January 1925 412 Centre
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1969-008A-07, Hans Luther.jpg Hans Luther 1879-1962 15 January 1925 12 May 1926 482
Reichskanzler Wilhelm Marx.jpg Wilhelm Marx (2nd term) 1863-1946 17 May 1926 12 June 1928 757 Centre
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1979-122-28A, Hermann Müller.jpg Hermann Müller (2nd term) 1876-1931 28 June 1928 27 March 1930 637 Social Democrats
Bundesarchiv Bild 119-2600, Heinrich Brüning.jpg Heinrich Brüning 1885-1970 30 March 1930 30 May 1932 792 Centre
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S00017, Franz von Papen crop.jpg Franz von Papen 1879-1969 1 June 1932 17 November 1932 169 Centre until 3 June 1932
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B0527-0001-020, Kurt von Schleicher.jpg Kurt von Schleicher 1882-1934 2 December 1932 28 January 1933 57

Third Reich (1933–1945)

Picture Name Born-Died Took Office Left Office Days in office Political Party
Adolf hitler portrait.jpg Adolf Hitler 1889-1945 30 January 1933 30 April 1945 4473 National Socialist
German Workers' Party
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1989-0821-502, Joseph Goebbels.jpg Joseph Goebbels 1897-1945 30 April 1945 1 May 1945 1 National Socialist
German Workers' Party
JohannLudwigGrafSchwerinvonKrosigk26zl.jpg Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk (leading minister) 1887-1977 2 May 1945 23 May 1945 21 None
(non-partisan conservative)

Federal Republic (since 1949)

# Picture Name
(Born-Died)
Term of office
(Days in office)
Political Party Cabinet Diet
# Term Ruling coalition
1 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F078072-0004, Konrad Adenauer.jpg Konrad Adenauer
(1876-1967)
15 September 1949
- 16 October 1963
(5144 days)
Christian Democrats
(CDU)
1st 20 September 1949
- 20 October 1953
Christian Social
Free Democrats
German
1
2nd 20 October 1953
- 29 October 1957
2
3rd 29 October 1957
- 14 November 1961
Christian Social
German
3
4th 14 November 1961
- 13 December 1962
Christian Social
Free Democrats
4
5th 14 December 1962
- 11 October 1963
2 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F041449-0007, Hamburg, CDU-Bundesparteitag, Ludwig Erhard.jpg Ludwig Erhard
(1897-1977)
16 October 1963
- 1 December 1966
(1142 days)
Christian Democrats
(CDU)
1st 17 October 1963
- 26 December 1965
Christian Social
Free Democrats
2nd 26 October 1965
- 30 November 1966
5
3 Foto KGKiesinger.jpg Kurt Georg Kiesinger
(1904-1988)
1 December 1966
- 21 October 1969
(1055 days)
Christian Democrats
(CDU)
1st 1 December 1966
- 21 October 1969
Social Democrats
Christian Social
(Grand coalition)
4 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpg Willy Brandt
(1913-1992)
21 October 1969
- 7 May 1974
(1659 days)
Social Democrats
(SPD)
1st 22 October 1969
- 15 December 1972
Free Democrats 6
2nd 15 December 1972
- 7 May 1974
7
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-047-20, Walter Scheel.jpg Walter Scheel
(1919-)
(Acting Chancellor)
7 May 1974
– 16 May 1974
(9 days)
Free Democrats
(FDP)
7 May 1974
– 16 May 1974
Social Democrats
5 Schmidt.JPG Helmut Schmidt
(1918-)
16 May 1974
– 1 October 1982
(3060 days)
Social Democrats
(SPD)
1st 16 May 1974
- 14 December 1976
Free Democrats
2nd 16 December 1976
- 4 November 1980
8
3rd 6 November 1980
- 1 October 1982
9
6 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F073620-0005, Mainz, CDU-Bundesparteitag, Kohl.jpg Helmut Kohl
(1930-)
1 October 1982
- 27 October 1998
(5870 days)
Christian Democrats
(CDU)
1st 4 October 1982
- 29 March 1983
Christian Social
Free Democrats
2nd 30 March 1983
- 11 March 1987
10
3rd 12 March 1987
- 18 January 1991
11
4th 18 January 1991
- 17 November 1994
12
5th 17 November 1994
- 26 October 1998
13
7 Gerhardschroeder01.jpg Gerhard Schröder
(1944-)
27 October 1998
- 22 November 2005
(2583 days)
Social Democrats
(SPD)
1st 27 October 1998
- 22 October 2002
Green 14
2nd 22 October 2002
- 18 October 2005
15
8 Angela Merkel 24092007.jpg Angela Merkel
(1954-)
22 November 2005
- Incumbent
(1514 days)
Christian Democrats
(CDU)
1st 22 November 2005
- 28 October 2009
Social Democrats
Christian Social
(Grand coalition)
16
2nd 28 October 2009
- Present
Christian Social
Free Democrats
17

See also


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