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Hugh Capet, the first monarch of France of the House of Capet

The monarchs of France ruled, first as kings and later as emperors (the Bonapartes only), from the Middle Ages to 1870. There is some disagreement as to when France came into existence. One possible date would be the establishment of the Merovingian Frankish kingdom by Clovis I in 486 with the defeat of Syagrius, the last Roman official in Gaul. That kingdom's rulers were deposed in the 8th century. The Treaty of Verdun established the Kingdom of Western Francia in 843.

In light of these trends, this list begins with Charles the Bald and the Kingdom of Western Francia, originating in 843, the state which would directly evolve into modern France. For earlier Frankish monarchs, see List of Frankish Kings.

In addition to the monarchs listed below, the Kings of England and Great Britain from 1340–1360 and 1369–1801 also claimed the title of King of France. For a short time, this had some basis in fact — under the terms of the 1420 Treaty of Troyes, Charles VI had recognized his son-in-law Henry V of England as regent and heir. Henry V predeceased Charles VI and so Henry V's son, Henry VI, succeeded his grandfather Charles VI as King of France. Most of Northern France was under English control until 1435, but by 1453, the English had been expelled from all of France save Calais (and the Channel Islands), and Calais itself fell in 1558. Nevertheless, English and then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves until the creation of the United Kingdom in 1801. Various English kings between 1337 and 1422 had also claimed the title of King of France, but only intermittently.

The title "King of the Franks" (Latin: Rex Francorum) remained in use until the reign of Philip IV. During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–1792) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy which linked the monarch's title to the people, not to the territory of France.

Contents

Early Frankish rulers: The Merovingians

The name of France comes from the Germanic tribe known as the Franks. The Merovingian kings began as mere chieftains, the oldest known being Chlodio. Clovis I was the first of these to rise to true kingship. After his death, his kingdom was split between his sons into Soissons (Neustria), Paris, Orléans (Burgundy), and Metz (Austrasia). Various other kingdoms would continue to break apart and be formed as the various Merovingian kings warred with each other.

Carolingian Dynasty

The Carolingians overpowered the Merovingian kings. First they became their majordomos (mayor of the palace) in Austrasia. Eventually, they united the entire Frankish kingdom for the first time since Clovis. With Mayor Pippin the Younger, the Merovingians were completely phased out. The Carolingian Dynasty would be the first true French monarchy. The great and extended kingdom of Pippin's son, Charlemagne (Charles I), was split by his son Louis I (Louis the Pious). In 843, while Louis I's son Lothair was in power, the great Frankish kingdom was split. The Eastern Kingdom became Germany, the Middle Kingdom became Lotharingia and later part of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Western Kingdom became France. Charles the Bald was the first ruler of the independent West Franks (France).

Carolingian Dynasty (840 to 987)

Three of the twelve kings during the 147 year Carolingian Dynasty, Odo, his brother Robert I and Robert's son in law Raoul/Rudolph, were not from the Carolingian Dynasty but from the rival Robertian Dynasty, named for Robert the Strong (father of Odo and Robert I). The Robertian Dynasty became the Capetian Dynasty with the ascent to the throne of Hugh Capet (son of Hugh the Great, son of Robert I) in 987. The rise and fall of Carolingian Charles III played out during the ascent of these Robertian kings.

Portrait Name King From Coronation King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
CharlesIItheBald.JPG Charles II the Bald
(Charles II le Chauve)
20 June 840 - 6 October 877  • Son of Louis the Pious or Louis I
 • Grandson of Charlemagne or Charles I
Louis II of France.JPG Louis II the Stammerer
(Louis II le Bègue)
6 October 877 8 December 877 at Compiègne
7 September 878 at Troyes
10 April 879  • Son of Charles II
King Louis III.gif Louis III 10 April 879 September 879 at Ferrières-en-Gâtinais 5 August 882  • Son of Louis II
Carloman II of France.jpg Carloman II 10 April 879 September 879 at Ferrières-en-Gâtinais 6 December 884  • Son of Louis II
Charles le Gros.PNG Charles the Fat
(Charles le Gros)
20 May 885 20 May 885 at Grand, Vosges 13 January 888  • Son of Louis the German
 • Grandson of Louis the Pious or Louis I
 • Great grandson of Charlemagne or Charles I
Odo of France.PNG Odo of Paris
(Eudes de Paris)
29 February 888 29 February 888 at Compiègne
13 November 888 at Rheims
1 January 898  • Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 • Elected king against young Charles III.
Georges Rouget (1783-1869) - Charles III, dit le simple, roi de France en 896 (879-929).jpg Charles III the Simple
(Charles III le Simple)
28 January 893 28 January 893 at Rheims 30 June 922  • Posthumous son of Louis II
 • Younger half-brother of Louis III and Carloman II
Robert I de France.jpg Robert I
(Robert Ier)
30 June 922 29 June 922 at Rheims 15 June 923  • Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 • Younger brother of Odo
Rudolph of France.PNG Rudolph
(Raoul de France)
13 July 923 29 June 922 at Soissons 14 January 936  • Son-in-law of Robert I
Louis IV of France.PNG Louis IV from overseas
(Louis IV d'Outremer)
19 June 936 19 June 936 at Laon 10 September 954  • Son of Charles III
Lothaire-Face.jpg Lothair
(Lothaire de France)
12 November 954 12 November 954 at Rheims 2 March 986  • Son of Louis IV
Louis V.jpg Louis V the Lazy
(Louis V le Fainéant)
8 June 986 8 June 979 at Compiègne 22 May 987  • Son of Lothair

Capetian Dynasty, Direct Capetians (987 to 1328)

The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon.

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Hugues capet.jpg Hugh Capet
(Hugues Capet)
July 3, 987 October 24, 996  • Grandson of Robert I
Seal of Robert II.jpg Robert II the Pious
(Robert II le Pieux)
October 24, 996 July 20, 1031  • Son of Hugh Capet
Henri I.jpg Henry I
(Henri Ier)
July 20, 1031 August 4, 1060  • Son of Robert II
Philip I of France · HHWXI28.svg Philip I
(Philippe Ier)
August 4, 1060 July 29, 1108  • Son of Henry I
Louis VI of France.gif Louis VI the Fat
(Louis VI le Gros)
July 29, 1108 August 1, 1137  • Son of Philip I
II Geza es VII Lajos KK.jpg Louis VII the Young
(Louis VII le Jeune)
August 1, 1137 September 18, 1180  • Son of Louis VI
Louis-Félix Amiel-Philippe II dit Philippe-Auguste Roi de France (1165-1223).jpg Philip II Augustus
(Philippe II Auguste)
September 18, 1180 July 14, 1223  • Son of Louis VII
Louis8lelion.jpg Louis VIII the Lion
(Louis VIII le Lion)
July 14, 1223 November 8, 1226  • Son of Philip II Augustus
Louis-ix.jpg Louis IX the Saint
(Saint Louis)
November 8, 1226 August 25, 1270  • Son of Louis VIII
Miniature Philippe III Courronement.jpg Philip III the Bold
(Philippe III le Hardi)
August 25, 1270 October 5, 1285  • Son of Louis IX
Philippe IV Le Bel.jpg Philip IV the Fair
(Philippe IV le Bel)
October 5, 1285 November 29, 1314  • Son of Philip III
Louis X Le Hutin.jpg Louis X the Quarreller
(Louis X le Hutin)
November 29, 1314 June 5, 1316  • Son of Philip IV
John I of France.jpg John I the Posthumous
(Jean Ier le Posthume)
November 15, 1316 November 20, 1316  • Son of Louis X
Philippe V Le Long.JPG Philip V the Tall
(Philippe V le Long)
November 20, 1316 January 3, 1322  • Son of Philip IV
 • Younger brother of Louis X
Charles IV Le Bel.jpg Charles IV the Fair
(Charles IV le Bel)
January 3, 1322 February 1, 1328  • Son of Philip IV
 • Younger brother of Philip V

Not listed above are Hugh Magnus, eldest son of Robert II, and Philip of France, eldest son of Louis VI; both were co-Kings with their fathers (in accordance with the early Capetian practice whereby Kings would crown their heirs in their own lifetimes and share power with the co-king), but predeceased them. Because neither Hugh nor Philip were sole or senior king in their own lifetimes, they are not traditionally listed as Kings of France, and are not given ordinals.

Capetian Dynasty, House of Valois (1328-1589)

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Valois (1328-1498)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Philippe6devalois.jpg Philip VI of Valois, the Fortunate
(Philippe VI de Valois, le Fortuné)
February 1, 1328 August 22, 1350  • Son of Charles of Valois, who was son of Philip III
JeanIIdFrance.jpg John II the Good
(Jean II le Bon)
August 22, 1350 April 8, 1364  • Son of Philip VI
Charles5lesage.jpg Charles V the Wise
(Charles V le Sage)
April 8, 1364 September 16, 1380  • Son of John II
Couronnement de Charles VI le Bien-Aimé.jpg Charles VI the Beloved, the Mad
(Charles VI le Bienaimé, le Fol)
September 16, 1380 October 21, 1422  • Son of Charles V
Charles VII de france.jpg Charles VII the Victorious, the Well-Served
(Charles VII le Victorieux, le Bien-Servi)
October 21, 1422 July 22, 1461  • Son of Charles VI
Louis XI of France.jpg Louis XI the Prudent, the Universal Spider
(Louis XI le Prudent, l'Universelle Aragne)
July 22, 1461 August 30, 1483  • Son of Charles VII
Charles VIII de france.jpg Charles VIII the Affable
(Charles VIII l'Affable)
August 30, 1483 April 7, 1498  • Son of Louis XI

House of Lancaster (1422-1453)

From 1422 Henry VI of England controlled much of northern France in accordance with the Plantagenet claim to the French crown, although Charles VII held sway over large areas south of the Loire River. Charles was crowned at Reims in 1429 and increasingly extended this dominion. By 1453, Henry had lost all French possessions except Calais, effectively putting an end to the Hundred Years' War. (See also main article:The Dual-Monarchy of England and France)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
HenryVIofEngland.JPG Henry VI of England
(Henri II de France [1][2][3][4][5][6])
October 21, 1422 October 19, 1453  • Grandson of Charles VI, succession according to the Treaty of Troyes

Capetian Dynasty, ValoisOrléans Branch (1498-1515)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Ludvig XII av Frankrike på målning från 1500-talet.jpg Louis XII Father of the People
(Louis XII le Père du Peuple)
April 7, 1498 January 1, 1515  • Great-grandson of Charles V
 • Second cousin, and by first marriage son-in-law of Louis XI
 • By second marriage husband of Anne of Brittany, Queen of Charles VIII

Capetian Dynasty, ValoisAngoulême Branch (1515-1589)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Francis1-1.jpg Francis I the Father and Restorer of Letters
(François Ier le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres)
January 1, 1515 March 31, 1547  • Great-great-grandson of Charles V
 • First cousin once removed, and by
first marriage son-in-law of Louis XII
Henry II of France..jpg Henry II
(Henri II)
March 31, 1547 July 10, 1559  • Son of Francis I
Francesco II.jpg Francis II
(François II)
July 10, 1559 December 5, 1560  • Son of Henry II
Charles IX by Francois Clouet.jpg Charles IX December 5, 1560 May 30, 1574  • Son of Henry II
 • Younger brother of Francis II
Anjou 1570louvre.jpg Henry III
(Henri III)
May 30, 1574 August 2, 1589  • Son of Henry II
 • Younger brother of Charles IX

Capetian Dynasty, House of Bourbon (1589-1792)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Henry IV of france by pourbous younger.jpg Henry IV, Good King Henry, the Green Gallant
(Henri IV, le Bon Roi Henri, le Vert-Galant)
August 2, 1589 May 14, 1610  • Tenth generation descendant of Louis IX in the male line
 • Grandnephew of Francis I
 • Second cousin, and by first marriage brother-in-law of Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III
Louis XIIIval grace.jpg Louis XIII the Just
(Louis XIII le Juste)
May 14, 1610 May 14, 1643  • Son of Henry IV
Louis XIV of France.jpg Louis XIV the Great, the Sun King
(Louis XIV le Grand, le Roi Soleil)
May 14, 1643 September 1, 1715  • Son of Louis XIII
LouisXV-Rigaud1.jpg Louis XV the Beloved
(Louis XV le Bien-Aimé)
September 1, 1715 May 10, 1774  • Great-grandson of Louis XIV
Louis XVI2.jpg Louis XVI the Last
(Louis XVI le Dernier)
May 10, 1774 September 21, 1792  • Grandson of Louis XV

From January 21, 1793 to June 8, 1795, Louis XVI's son Louis-Charles was the titular King of France as Louis XVII; in reality, however, he was imprisoned in the Temple throughout this duration, and power was held by the leaders of the Republic. Upon Louis XVII's death, his uncle (Louis XVI's brother) Louis-Stanislas claimed the throne, as Louis XVIII, but only became de facto King of France in 1814.

First Republic (1792-1804)

The First French Republic lasted from 1792 to 1804, when its First Consul, Napoléon Bonaparte, declared himself Emperor of the French.

Bonaparte Dynasty, First Empire (1804-1814)

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until
Ingres, Napoleon on his Imperial throne.jpg Napoleon I, the Great
(Napoléon Ier, le Grand)
May 18, 1804 April 11, 1814

Capetian Dynasty, House of Bourbon, Restored (1814-1815)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Lodewijk XVIII.jpg Louis XVIII, the Desired
(Louis XVIII, le Désiré)
April 11, 1814 March 20, 1815  • Younger brother of Louis XVI/ uncle of Louis XVII

Bonaparte Dynasty, First Empire, Restored (The Hundred Days, 1815)

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Ingres, Napoleon on his Imperial throne.jpg Napoleon I
(Napoléon Ier)
March 20, 1815 June 22, 1815

From June 22 to July 7, 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon I's son Napoleon II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, the young child's reign was entirely fictional, as he was residing in Austria with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on July 7.

Capetian Dynasty, House of Bourbon, Restored (1815-1830)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Lodewijk XVIII.jpg Louis XVIII July 7, 1815 September 16, 1824  • Younger brother of Louis XVI/ uncle of Louis XVII
Charles X Roi de France et de Navarre.jpg Charles X September 16, 1824 August 2, 1830  • Younger brother of Louis XVIII

The elder son and heir of Charles X, the Dauphin Louis-Antoine, is occasionally considered to have legally been the King of France as Louis XIX in the 20 minutes that passed between Charles X's formal signature of abdication and the Dauphin's own signature.
Henri d'Artois, Charles X's grandson, was considered by monarchists to be the titular King of France, as Henry V from August 2, 1830 to August 9, 1830, but his reign remained largely fictional, as he acceeded in a revolutionary context and hence was never recognized by the French State. He is generally not accounted for in lists of official French monarchs.

Capetian Dynasty, House of Bourbon-Orléans (The Monarchy of July 1830-1848)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Louis-Philippe de Bourbon.jpg Louis-Philippe I the Citizen King
(Louis Philippe, le Roi Citoyen)
August 9, 1830 February 24, 1848  • Sixth generation descendant of Louis XIII in the male line
 • Fifth cousin of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X

Second Republic (1848 - 1852)

The Second French Republic lasted from 1848 to 1852, when its president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French.

Bonaparte Dynasty, Second Empire, Restored (1852-1870)

Portrait Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s)
Franz Xaver Winterhalter Napoleon III.jpg Napoleon III
(Napoléon III)
December 2, 1852 September 4, 1870  • Nephew of Napoleon I

Government of National Defence (Paris Commune 1870 - 1871)

The transition period between the fall of the Second Empire after the capture of Napoleon III by the Prussians and the assumption of the Third Republic by General Louis Jules Trochu.

Heads of State following 1871

The chronology of Head of State of France continues with the Presidents of the French Republic and short term interim periods by the Chief of State of the French State (1940–1944), the Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic (1944–1946) and the president of the French Senate (1969 and 1974) during the Fifth Republic.

Later pretenders

Various pretenders descended from the preceding monarchs have claimed to be the legitimate monarch of France, rejecting the claims of the President of France, and of each other. These groups are:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Patrick, James, Renaissance and Reformation, (Marshall Cavendish, 2007), 601.
  2. ^ Neillands, Robin, The Hundred Years War, (Routledge, 1991), 263.
  3. ^ Morgan, Kenneth O., The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain, (Oxford University Press, 2000), 200.
  4. ^ Oman, Charles William Chadwick, The History of England, from the Accession of Richard II to the Death of Richard III (1377-1485), (Longmans, Green, and Co., 1906), 316-317.
  5. ^ Hare, Christopher and Mare Andrews, The life of Louis XI, (C. Scribner, 1907), 15-16.
  6. ^ Thackeray, Frank W., Events that changed the world through the sixteenth century, (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001), 57.

References

  • Edward James, The Origins of France: Clovis to the Capetians 500-1000. ISBN 0-333-27052-5.
  • Edward James, The Franks. Blackwell: 1991. ISBN 0-631-17936-4.
  • The history of France as recounted in the Grandes Chroniques de France, and particularly in the personal copy produced for King Charles V between 1370 and 1380 that is the saga of the three great dynasties, the Merovingians, Carolingians, and the Capetian Rulers of France, that shaped the institutions and the frontiers of the realm. It should be noted that this work was commissioned at a time that France was embroiled in the Hundred Years' War with England, a war fought over hereditary claims to the throne of France. It must therefore be read with a careful eye toward biases meant to justify the Capetian claims of continuity and inheritance.
  • The Cambridge Illustrated History of France. Cambridge University Press.
  • Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding, Late Merovingian France: History and Hagiography, 640-720. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-4791-9.
  • Patrick Geary, Before France and Germany: The Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World. Oxford: Oxford U. Press, 1988. ISBN 0-19-504458-4.
  • Patrick Geary, The Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe. Princeton University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-691-11481-1.


Monarchy of France
Former Monarchy
File:Coat of Arms Second French Empire (1852–1870).svg
Imperial Coat of arms
First monarch Clovis I
(as King of the Franks)
Last monarch Napoleon III
(as Emperor)
Style see Style of the French sovereign
Appointer Hereditary
Monarchy started 428
Monarchy ended 24 February 1848
(Royal Monarchy)
4 September 1870
(Imperial Monarchy)
Current pretender Disputed
Prince Louis
(House of Bourbon)
Prince Henri
(House of Orléans)
Jean Christophe
(House of Bonaparte)

The Monarchs of France ruled, first as kings and later as emperors (the Bonapartes only), from the establishment of the Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages to 1870. There is some disagreement as to when France came into existence. One possible date would be the establishment of the Merovingian Frankish kingdom by Clovis I in 486 with the defeat of Syagrius, the last Roman official in Gaul. That kingdom's rulers were deposed in the 8th century. The Treaty of Verdun established the Kingdom of Western Francia in 843.

In light of these trends, this article lists all rulers to have held the title "King of France" or "King of the Franks". For other Frankish monarchs, see List of Frankish Kings.

In addition to the monarchs listed below, the Kings of England and Great Britain from 1340–1360 and 1369–1801 also claimed the title of King of France. For a short time, this had some basis in fact — under the terms of the 1420 Treaty of Troyes, Charles VI had recognized his son-in-law Henry V of England as regent and heir. Henry V predeceased Charles VI and so Henry V's son, Henry VI, succeeded his grandfather Charles VI as King of France. Most of Northern France was under English control until 1435, but by 1453, the English had been expelled from all of France save Calais (and the Channel Islands), and Calais itself fell in 1558. Nevertheless, English and then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves until the creation of the United Kingdom in 1801. Various English kings between 1337 and 1422 had also claimed the title of King of France, but only intermittently.

The title "King of the Franks" (Latin: Rex Francorum) remained in use until the reign of Philip II.[1] During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–1792) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy which linked the monarch's title to the people, not to the territory of France.

Contents

Merovingian Dynasty (428–737)

The name of France comes from the Germanic tribe known as the Franks. The Merovingian kings began as mere chieftains, the oldest known being Chlodio. Clovis I was the first of these to rise to true kingship. After his death, his kingdom was split between his sons into Soissons (Neustria), Paris, Orléans (Burgundy), and Metz (Austrasia). Several Merovingian monarchs reunited the Frankish kingdoms and assumed the title of "King of the Franks". But upon their deaths, according to Frankish custom, the kingdom would often be split once again between their sons.

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Chlodio the Longhair
(Clodion le Chevelu)
428 448
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Theudemeres
King of the Salian Franks
(Roi des Francs saliens)
Merovech
(Mérovée)
448 457
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Chlodio
King of the Salian Franks
(Roi des Francs saliens)
Childeric I
(Childéric Ier)
457 481
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Merovech
King of the Salian Franks
(Roi des Francs saliens)
Clovis I
(Clovis Ier)
481 511
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Childeric I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Childebert I
(Childebert Ier)
511 23 December 558
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Clovis I
King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)
Chlothar I the Old
(Clotaire Ier le Vieux)
23 December 558 29 November 561
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Clovis I
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Younger brother of Childebert I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Charibert I
(Caribert Ier)
29 November 561 567
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Chlothar I
King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)
Chilperic I
(Chilpéric Ier)
567 584
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Chlothar I
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Younger brother of Charibert I
King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)

King of Neustria
(Roi de Neustrie)
Chlothar II the Great, the Young
(Clotaire II le Grand, le Jeune)
584 18 October 629
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Chilperic I
King of Neustria
(Roi de Neustrie)

King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)
(595–629)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(613–629)
Dagobert I
(Dagobert Ier)
18 October 629 19 January 639
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Chlothar II
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Clovis II the Lazy
(Clovis II le Fainéant)
19 January 639 31 October 657
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Dagobert I
King of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)
Chlothar III
(Clotaire III)
31 October 657 673
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Clovis II
King of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(657–663)
Childeric II
(Childéric II)
673 675
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Clovis II
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Younger brother of Chlothar III
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Theuderic III
(Thierry III)
675 691
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Clovis II
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Younger brother of Childeric II
King of Neustria
(Roi de Neustrie)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(687–691)
Clovis IV
(Clovis IV)
691 695
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Theuderic III
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Childebert III the Just
(Childebert III le Juste)
695 23 April 711
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Theuderic III
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Younger brother of Clovis IV
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Dagobert III 23 April 711 715
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Childebert III
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Chilperic II
(Chilpéric II)
715 13 February 721
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Probably son of Childeric II
King of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(719–721)
Theuderic IV
(Thierry IV)
13 February 721 737
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Dagobert III
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Carolingian Interregnum (737–743)

The last Merovingian kings, known as the lazy kings (rois fainéants) did not hold any real political power, while the Mayor of the Palace governed instead. When Theuderic IV died in 737, Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel left the throne vacant and continued to rule until his own death in 741. His son Pepin the Short briefly restored the Merovingian dynasty by raising Childeric III to the throne in 743, only to depose him in 751.

Merovingian Dynasty, Restored (743–752)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Childeric III
(Childéric III)
743 November 751
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Chilperic II or of Theuderic IV
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Carolingian Dynasty (752–987)

Three of the twelve kings during the 147 year Carolingian Dynasty, Odo, his brother Robert I and Robert's son in law Raoul/Rudolph, were not from the Carolingian Dynasty but from the rival Robertian Dynasty, named for Robert the Strong (father of Odo and Robert I). The Robertian Dynasty became the Capetian Dynasty with the ascent to the throne of Hugh Capet (son of Hugh the Great, son of Robert I) in 987. The rise and fall of Carolingian Charles III played out during the ascent of these Robertian kings.

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Pepin the Short
(Pépin le Bref)
752 24 September 768
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Charles Martel
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Carloman I 24 September 768 December 4, 771
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Pepin the Short
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Charlemagne 24 September 768 28 January 814
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Pepin the Short
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
(800–814)
Louis I the Pious, the Debonaire
(Louis Ier le Pieux, le Débonnaire)
28 January 814 20 June 840
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Charlemagne
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
Charles II the Bald
(Charles II le Chauve)
20 June 840 6 October 877
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Louis I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
(875–877)
Louis II the Stammerer
(Louis II le Bègue)
6 October 877 10 April 879
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Charles II
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis III 10 April 879 5 August 882
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Louis II
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Carloman II 10 April 879 6 December 884
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Louis II
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
File:Die deutschen Kaiser Karl der Charles the Fat
(Charles le Gros)
20 May 885 13 January 888
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Louis the German
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Grandson of Louis the Pious or Louis I
  3. REDIRECT Template:• Great grandson of Charlemagne or Charles I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Emperor of the Romans
(Imperator Romanorum)
(881–887)
File:Odo of Odo of Paris
(Eudes de Paris)
29 February 888 1 January 898
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Elected king against young Charles III.
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
File:Georges Rouget (1783-1869) - Charles III, dit le simple, roi de France en 896 (879-929).jpg Charles III the Simple
(Charles III le Simple)
28 January 893 30 June 922
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Posthumous son of Louis II
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Younger half-brother of Louis III and Carloman II
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Robert I
(Robert Ier)
30 June 922 15 June 923
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Younger brother of Odo
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
File:Rudolph of Rudolph
(Raoul de France)
13 July 923 14 January 936
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Richard, Duke of Burgundy (Bosonids)
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Son-in-law of Robert I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
File:Louis IV of Louis IV from overseas
(Louis IV d'Outremer)
19 June 936 10 September 954
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Charles III
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
[[File:|80px]] Lothair
(Lothaire de France)
12 November 954 2 March 986
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Louis IV
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis V the Lazy
(Louis V le Fainéant)
8 June 986 22 May 987
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Lothair
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Capetian Dynasty (987–1792)

The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon.

Direct Capetians (987 to 1328)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
align="center"align="center"|Hugh Capet
(Hugues Capet)
July 3, 987October 24, 996
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Grandson of Robert I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
align="center"align="center"|Robert II the Pious, the Wise
(Robert II le Pieux, le Sage)
October 24, 996July 20, 1031
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Hugh Capet
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
align="center"align="center"|Henry I
(Henri Ier)
July 20, 1031August 4, 1060
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Robert II
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
File:Philip I of France ·Philip I
(Philippe Ier l' Amoureux)
August 4, 1060July 29, 1108
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Henry I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
File:Louis VI of France.gifLouis VI the Fat
(Louis VI le Gros)
July 29, 1108August 1, 1137
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Philip I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
align="center"align="center"|Louis VII the Young
(Louis VII le Jeune)
August 1, 1137September 18, 1180
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Louis VI
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
File:Louis-Félix Amiel-Philippe II dit Philippe-Auguste Roi de France (1165-1223).jpgPhilip II Augustus
(Philippe II Auguste)
September 18, 1180July 14, 1223
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Louis VII
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
King of France
(Roi de France)
[[File:|80px]]Louis VIII the Lion
(Louis VIII le Lion)
July 14, 1223November 8, 1226
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Philip II Augustus
King of France
(Roi de France)
[[File:|80px]]Louis IX the Saint
(Saint Louis)
November 8, 1226August 25, 1270
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Louis VIII
King of France
(Roi de France)
align="center"align="center"|Philip III the Bold
(Philippe III le Hardi)
August 25, 1270October 5, 1285
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Louis IX
King of France
(Roi de France)
align="center"align="center"|Philip IV the Fair
(Philippe IV le Bel)
October 5, 1285November 29, 1314
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Philip III
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
File:Louis X LeLouis X the Quarreller
(Louis X le Hutin)
November 29, 1314June 5, 1316
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Philip IV
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
align="center"align="center"|John I the Posthumous
(Jean Ier le Posthume)
November 15, 1316November 20, 1316
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Louis X
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
File:Philippe V LePhilip V the Tall
(Philippe V le Long)
November 20, 1316January 3, 1322
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Philip IV
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Younger brother of Louis X
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
File:Charles IV LeCharles IV the Fair
(Charles IV le Bel)
January 3, 1322February 1, 1328
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Philip IV
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Younger brother of Philip V
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

Not listed above are Hugh Magnus, eldest son of Robert II, and Philip of France, eldest son of Louis VI; both were co-Kings with their fathers (in accordance with the early Capetian practice whereby Kings would crown their heirs in their own lifetimes and share power with the co-king), but predeceased them. Because neither Hugh nor Philip were sole or senior king in their own lifetimes, they are not traditionally listed as Kings of France, and are not given ordinals.

House of Valois (1328–1589)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
align="center"align="center"|Philip VI of Valois, the Fortunate
(Philippe VI de Valois, le Fortuné)
April 1, 1328August 22, 1350
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Charles of Valois, who was son of Philip III
King of France
(Roi de France)
align="center"align="center"|John II the Good
(Jean II le Bon)
August 22, 1350April 8, 1364
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Philip VI
King of France
(Roi de France)
align="center"align="center"|Charles V the Wise
(Charles V le Sage)
April 8, 1364September 16, 1380
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of John II
King of France
(Roi de France)
File:Couronnement de Charles VI le Bien-Aimé.jpgCharles VI the Beloved, the Mad
(Charles VI le Bienaimé, le Fol)
September 16, 1380October 21, 1422
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Charles V
King of France
(Roi de France)
align="center"align="center"|Charles VII the Victorious, the Well-Served
(Charles VII le Victorieux, le Bien-Servi)
October 21, 1422July 22, 1461
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Charles VI
King of France
(Roi de France)
File:Louis XI ofLouis XI the Prudent, the Universal Spider
(Louis XI le Prudent, l'Universelle Aragne)
July 22, 1461August 30, 1483
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Charles VII
King of France
(Roi de France)
align="center"align="center"|Charles VIII the Affable
(Charles VIII l'Affable)
August 30, 1483April 7, 1498
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Louis XI
King of France
(Roi de France)

Valois–Orléans Branch (1498–1515)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
align="center"align="center"| Louis XII Father of the People
(Louis XII le Père du Peuple)
April 7, 1498January 1, 1515
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Great-grandson of Charles V
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Second cousin, and by first marriage son-in-law of Louis XI
  3. REDIRECT Template:•By second marriage husband of Anne of Brittany, widow of Charles VIII
King of France
(Roi de France)

Valois–Angoulême Branch (1515–1589)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
align="center"align="center"|Francis I the Father and Restorer of Letters
(François Ier le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres)
January 1, 1515March 31, 1547
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Great-great-grandson of Charles V
  2. REDIRECT Template:•First cousin once removed, and by
    first marriage son-in-law of Louis XII
King of France
(Roi de France)
File:Henry II of France..jpgHenry II
(Henri II)
March 31, 1547July 10, 1559
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Francis I
King of France
(Roi de France)
File:FrancescoFrancis II
(François II)
July 10, 1559December 5, 1560
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Henry II
King of France and Scotland
(Roi de France et d'Écosse)
align="center"align="center"|Charles IXDecember 5, 1560May 30, 1574
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Henry II
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Younger brother of Francis II
King of France
(Roi de France)
align="center"align="center"|Henry III
(Henri III)
May 30, 1574August 2, 1589
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Henry II
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Younger brother of Charles IX
King of France and Poland
(Roi de France et de Pologne)

House of Bourbon (1589–1792)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
align="center"align="center"|Henry IV, Good King Henry, the Green Gallant
(Henri IV, le Bon Roi Henri, le Vert-Galant)
August 2, 1589May 14, 1610
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Tenth generation descendant of Louis IX in the male line
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Grandnephew of Francis I
  3. REDIRECT Template:•Second cousin, and by first marriage brother-in-law of Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
align="center"align="center"|Louis XIII the Just
(Louis XIII le Juste)
May 14, 1610May 14, 1643
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Henry IV
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
align="center"align="center"|Louis XIV the Great, the Sun King
(Louis XIV le Grand, le Roi Soleil)
May 14, 1643September 1, 1715
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Son of Louis XIII
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
align="center"align="center"|Louis XV the Beloved
(Louis XV le Bien-Aimé)
September 1, 1715May 10, 1774
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Great-grandson of Louis XIV
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
align="center"align="center"|Louis XVI the Last
(Louis XVI le Dernier)
May 10, 1774September 21, 1792
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Grandson of Louis XV
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
(1774–1789)

King of the French
(Roi des Français)
(1789–1792)

From January 21, 1793 to June 8, 1795, Louis XVI's son Louis-Charles was the titular King of France as Louis XVII; in reality, however, he was imprisoned in the Temple throughout this duration, and power was held by the leaders of the Republic. Upon Louis XVII's death, his uncle (Louis XVI's brother) Louis-Stanislas claimed the throne, as Louis XVIII, but only became de facto King of France in 1814.

First Republic (1792–1804)

The First French Republic lasted from 1792 to 1804, when its First Consul, Napoléon Bonaparte, declared himself Emperor of the French.

Bonaparte Dynasty, First Empire (1804–1814)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
align="center"align="center"|Napoleon I, the Great
(Napoléon Ier, le Grand)
May 18, 1804April 11, 1814 - Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Capetian Dynasty, House of Bourbon, Restored (1814–1815)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
align="center"align="center"|Louis XVIIIApril 11, 1814March 20, 1815
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Younger brother of Louis XVI/ uncle of Louis XVII
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

Bonaparte Dynasty, First Empire, Restored (The Hundred Days, 1815)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
align="center"align="center"|Napoleon I, the Great
(Napoléon Ier, le Grand)
March 20, 1815June 22, 1815 - Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

From June 22 to July 7, 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon I's son Napoleon II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, the young child's reign was entirely fictional, as he was residing in Austria with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on July 7.

Capetian Dynasty, House of Bourbon, Restored (1815–1830)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
align="center"align="center"|Louis XVIIIJuly 7, 1815September 16, 1824
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Younger brother of Louis XVI/ uncle of Louis XVII
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
align="center"align="center"|Charles XSeptember 16, 1824August 2, 1830
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Younger brother of Louis XVIII
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

The elder son and heir of Charles X, the Dauphin Louis-Antoine, is occasionally considered to have legally been the King of France as Louis XIX in the 20 minutes that passed between Charles X's formal signature of abdication and the Dauphin's own signature.
Henri d'Artois, Charles X's grandson, was considered by monarchists to be the titular King of France, as Henry V from August 2, 1830 to August 9, 1830, but his reign remained largely fictional, as he acceeded in a revolutionary context and hence was never recognized by the French State. He is generally not accounted for in lists of official French monarchs.

Capetian Dynasty, House of Orléans (The Monarchy of July 1830–1848)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
align="center"align="center"|Louis-Philippe I the Citizen King
(Louis Philippe, le Roi Citoyen)
August 9, 1830February 24, 1848
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Sixth generation descendant of Louis XIII in the male line
  2. REDIRECT Template:•Fifth cousin of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X
King of the French
(Roi des Français)

Second Republic (1848–1852)

The Second French Republic lasted from 1848 to 1852, when its president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French.

Bonaparte Dynasty, Second Empire, Restored (1852–1870)

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Napoleon III
(Napoléon III)
December 2, 1852September 4, 1870
  1. REDIRECT Template:•Nephew of Napoleon I
Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Government of National Defence (Paris Commune 1870–1871)

The transition period between the fall of the Second Empire after the capture of Napoleon III by the Prussians and the assumption of the Third Republic by General Louis Jules Trochu.

Heads of State following 1871

The chronology of Head of State of France continues with the Presidents of the French Republic and short term interim periods by the Chief of State of the French State (1940–1944), the Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic (1944–1946) and the president of the French Senate (1969 and 1974) during the Fifth Republic.

Later pretenders

Various pretenders descended from the preceding monarchs have claimed to be the legitimate monarch of France, rejecting the claims of the President of France, and of each other. These groups are:

See also

Notes

References


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