List of Governors of Arkansas: Wikis

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Mike Beebe, 45th and current Governor of Arkansas

The Governor of Arkansas is the head of the executive branch of Arkansas's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Arkansas Legislature, to convene the legislature, and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.[1]

The first state constitution of 1836 established four-year terms for governors,[2] which was lowered to two years in the 1874, and current, constitution.[3] Amendment 63 to the Arkansas Constitution, passed in 1984, increased the terms of both governor and lieutenant governor to four years.[4] Governors were originally limited only to serving no more than eight out of every twelve years,[2] but the 1874 constitution removed any term limit. A referendum in 1992 limited governors to two terms.[5]

Until 1864, the constitutions provided that, should the office of governor be rendered vacant, the president of the senate would serve as acting governor until such time as a new governor were elected or the disability removed, or the acting governor's senate term expired.[6][7] This led to some situations where the governorship changed hands in quick succession, due to senate terms ending or new senate presidents being elected. For example, after John Sebastian Little resigned in 1907, three senate presidents acted as governor before the next elected governor took office. Should the president of the senate be similarly incapacitated, the next in line for the governorship was the speaker of the state house of representatives.

The 1864 constitution created the office of lieutenant governor[8] who would also act as president of the senate,[9] and who would serve as acting governor in case of vacancy.[10] The 1868 constitution maintained the position,[11] but the 1874 constitution removed it and returned to the original line of succession.[12] Amendment 6 to the state constitution, passed in 1914 but not recognized until 1925,[13] recreated the office of lieutenant governor, who becomes governor in case of vacancy of the governor's office.[14] The governor and lieutenant governor are not elected on the same ticket.

The state has had 45 elected governors, as well as 10 acting governors who took office following the resignation or death of the governor, totaling 55 distinct terms. Orval Faubus served the longest term, being elected six times to serve twelve years. Bill Clinton, elected five times over two distinct terms, fell only one month short of twelve years. The shortest term for an elected governor was the 38 days served by John Sebastian Little before his nervous breakdown; one of the acting successors to his term, Jesse M. Martin, served only three days, the shortest stint overall. The current governor is Mike Beebe, who took office on January 9, 2007; his first term will expire in January 2011.

Contents

Governors

Arkansas was part of the Louisiana Purchase, bought by the United States from France in 1803. The purchase was split in 1804 into the Territory of Orleans and the District of Louisiana, which was placed under the jurisdiction of Indiana Territory. In 1805, the district was organized into Louisiana Territory, and renamed Missouri Territory in 1812 to avoid confusion with the new state of Louisiana. Arkansas Territory (named Arkansaw Territory until around 1822[N 1]) was split from Missouri Territory in 1819.

For the period before Arkansas Territory was formed, see the list of Governors of Missouri Territory.
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Governors of Arkansas Territory

Arkansaw Territory was split from Missouri Territory on July 4, 1819. It lost land twice, on November 15, 1824, and May 6, 1828, with the land being made unorganized territory both times; this land eventually became part of Oklahoma.

As secretary of the territory from 1819 to 1829, Robert Crittenden served as acting governor whenever the appointed governor was not in the state. This meant he was in fact the first person to perform the office of Governor of Arkansas Territory, since James Miller did not arrive in the territory until nine months after his appointment.[16]

Picture Governor Took office Left office Appointed by Notes
AR Miller James.jpg James Miller March 3, 1819 December 27, 1824 James Monroe [N 2][N 3]
George Izard.jpg George Izard March 4, 1825 November 22, 1828 James Monroe [N 4][N 5]
John Quincy Adams
AR Pope John.jpg John Pope March 9, 1829[20] March 9, 1835 Andrew Jackson [N 6][N 7]
WSFulton.jpg William Savin Fulton March 9, 1835 June 15, 1836 Andrew Jackson [N 8]

Governors of Arkansas

James Sevier Conway, first Governor of Arkansas
Augustus Hill Garland, 11th Governor of Arkansas, and 39th U.S. Attorney General
Sid McMath, 34th Governor of Arkansas
Dale Bumpers, 38th Governor of Arkansas
Bill Clinton, 40th and 42nd Governor of Arkansas, and 42nd President of the United States
Mike Huckabee, 44th Governor of Arkansas

Arkansas was admitted to the Union on June 15, 1836. It seceded from the Union on May 6, 1861 and joined the Confederate States of America on May 18, 1861; there was no Union government in exile, so there was a single line of governors, though as the state fell to Union forces there was a loyalist government put in place with an insignificant Confederate government in exile. Following the end of the American Civil War, it was part of the Fourth Military District. Arkansas was readmitted to the Union on June 22, 1868.

Arkansas was a strongly Democratic state before the Civil War, electing only candidates from the Democratic party. It elected three Republican governors following Reconstruction, but after the Democratic Party established control, 93 years passed before voters chose another Republican.

      Democratic       Republican

# Governor Term start Term end Party Lt. Governor[N 9] Terms[N 10]
1   James Sevier Conway September 13, 1836 November 4, 1840 Democratic None 1
2 Archibald Yell November 4, 1840 April 29, 1844 Democratic None ½[N 11]
Samuel Adams April 29, 1844 November 5, 1844 Democratic None ½[N 12]
3 Thomas Stevenson Drew November 5, 1844 January 10, 1849 Democratic None 1⅓[N 13]
Richard C. Byrd January 10, 1849 April 19, 1849 Democratic None [N 14]
4 John Selden Roane April 19, 1849 November 15, 1852 Democratic None [N 15]
5 Elias Nelson Conway November 15, 1852 November 16, 1860 Democratic None 2
6 Henry Massey Rector November 16, 1860 November 4, 1862 Democratic None 1[N 16]
7 Harris Flanagin November 4, 1862 April 18, 1864 Democratic None 1[N 17][N 18]
8 Isaac Murphy April 18, 1864 July 2, 1868 Republican   Calvin C. Bliss[31] 1[N 17]
James M. Johnson[32]
9 Powell Clayton July 2, 1868 March 17, 1871 Republican James M. Johnson[N 19] ½[N 20]
Ozra Amander Hadley[N 21] March 17, 1871 January 6, 1873 Republican vacant ½[N 22]
10 Elisha Baxter January 6, 1873 November 12, 1874 Republican Volney V. Smith[34] 1[N 23][N 24]
11 Augustus Hill Garland November 12, 1874 January 11, 1877 Democratic None 2
12 William Read Miller January 11, 1877 January 11, 1881 Democratic None 2
13 Thomas James Churchill January 11, 1881 January 13, 1883 Democratic None 1
14 James Henderson Berry January 13, 1883 January 17, 1885 Democratic None 1
15 Simon Pollard Hughes, Jr. January 17, 1885 January 8, 1889 Democratic None 2
16 James Philip Eagle January 8, 1889 January 10, 1893 Democratic None 2
17 William Meade Fishback January 10, 1893 January 8, 1895 Democratic None 1
18 James Paul Clarke January 8, 1895 January 12, 1897 Democratic None 1
19 Daniel Webster Jones January 12, 1897 January 8, 1901 Democratic None 2
20 Jeff Davis January 8, 1901 January 8, 1907 Democratic None 3
21 John Sebastian Little January 8, 1907 February 15, 1907 Democratic None ¼[N 25]
John Isaac Moore February 15, 1907 May 14, 1907 Democratic None ¼[N 26]
Xenophon Overton Pindall May 14, 1907 January 11, 1909 Democratic None ¼[N 27]
Jesse M. Martin January 11, 1909 January 14, 1909 Democratic None ¼[N 28]
22 George Washington Donaghey January 14, 1909 January 16, 1913 Democratic None 2
23 Joseph Taylor Robinson January 16, 1913 March 8, 1913 Democratic None ¼[N 20]
William Kavanaugh Oldham March 8, 1913 March 13, 1913 Democratic None ¼[N 29]
Junius Marion Futrell March 13, 1913 July 23, 1913 Democratic None ¼[N 30]
24 George Washington Hays July 23, 1913 January 10, 1917 Democratic vacant ¼[N 31]
25 Charles Hillman Brough January 10, 1917 January 11, 1921 Democratic vacant 2
26 Thomas Chipman McRae January 11, 1921 January 13, 1925 Democratic vacant 2
27 Tom Jefferson Terral January 13, 1925 January 11, 1927 Democratic vacant 1
28 John Ellis Martineau January 11, 1927 March 4, 1928 Democratic Harvey Parnell ½[N 32]
29 Harvey Parnell March 4, 1928 January 10, 1933 Democratic William Lee Cazort [N 33]
Lawrence Elery Wilson
30 Junius Marion Futrell January 10, 1933 January 12, 1937 Democratic William Lee Cazort 2
31 Carl Edward Bailey January 12, 1937 January 14, 1941 Democratic Robert L. Bailey 2
32 Homer Martin Adkins January 14, 1941 January 9, 1945 Democratic Robert L. Bailey 2
James L. Shaver
33 Benjamin Travis Laney January 9, 1945 January 11, 1949 Democratic James L. Shaver 2
Nathan Green Gordon
34 Sid McMath January 11, 1949 January 13, 1953 Democratic Nathan Green Gordon 2
35 Francis Cherry January 13, 1953 January 11, 1955 Democratic Nathan Green Gordon 1
36 Orval Faubus January 11, 1955 January 10, 1967 Democratic Nathan Green Gordon 6
37 Winthrop Rockefeller January 10, 1967 January 12, 1971 Republican Maurice Britt 2
38 Dale Bumpers January 12, 1971 January 3, 1975 Democratic Bob C. Riley [N 20]
Bob C. Riley January 3, 1975 January 14, 1975 Democratic acting as governor ½[N 34]
39 David Pryor January 14, 1975 January 3, 1979 Democratic Joe Purcell [N 20]
Joe Purcell January 3, 1979 January 9, 1979 Democratic acting as governor ½[N 34]
40 Bill Clinton January 9, 1979 January 19, 1981 Democratic Joe Purcell 1
41 Frank D. White January 19, 1981 January 11, 1983 Republican Winston Bryant 1
42 Bill Clinton January 11, 1983 December 12, 1992 Democratic Winston Bryant [N 35][N 36]
Jim Guy Tucker
43 Jim Guy Tucker December 12, 1992 July 15, 1996 Democratic Mike Huckabee ½+½[N 33][N 37]
44 Mike Huckabee July 15, 1996 January 9, 2007 Republican Winthrop P. Rockefeller[N 5] [N 33]
45 Mike Beebe January 9, 2007 incumbent Democratic Bill Halter 1[N 38]

Other high offices held

This is a table of congressional, confederate and other federal offices held by governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented Arkansas except where noted.

Denotes those offices which the governor resigned to take.
† Denotes those offices from which the governor resigned to take the governorship.
Governor Gubernatorial term U.S. House U.S. Senate Other offices held Sources
Miller, JamesJames Miller 1819–1825 (territorial) Elected U.S. Representative from New Hampshire but did not take his seat. [17]
Pope, JohnJohn Pope 1829–1835 (territorial) U.S. Representative and Senator from Kentucky (including President pro tempore of the Senate) [45]
Fulton, William SavinWilliam Savin Fulton 1835–1836 (territorial) S [23]
Yell, ArchibaldArchibald Yell 1840–1844 H [46]
Clayton, PowellPowell Clayton 1868–1871 S* U.S. Minister to Mexico [47]
Garland, Augustus HillAugustus Hill Garland 1874–1877 S Confederate Representative, Confederate Senator, U.S. Attorney General [48]
Berry, James HendersonJames Henderson Berry 1883–1885 S [49]
Fishback, William MeadeWilliam Meade Fishback 1893–1895 Elected to the U.S. Senate but was refused his seat [50]
Clarke, James PaulJames Paul Clarke 1895–1897 S President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate [51]
Davis, JeffersonJefferson Davis 1901–1907 S [52]
Little, John SebastianJohn Sebastian Little 1907 H† [53]
Robinson, Joseph TaylorJoseph Taylor Robinson 1913 H† S* Majority Leader and Minority Leader of the U.S. Senate [54]
McRae, Thomas ChipmanThomas Chipman McRae 1921–1925 H [55]
Bumpers, DaleDale Bumpers 1971–1975 S* [56]
Pryor, DavidDavid Pryor 1975–1979 H S* [57]
Clinton, BillBill Clinton 1979–1981, 1983–1992 President of the United States* [58]
Tucker, Jim GuyJim Guy Tucker 1992–1996 H [59]

Living former governors

As of January 2010, five former governors were alive. The most recent death of a former governor was that of Sid McMath (1949–1953), who died on October 4, 2003. The most recently serving governor to die was Frank D. White (1981–1983), who died on May 21, 2003.

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth
Dale Bumpers 1971–1975 August 12, 1925 (1925-08-12) (age 84)
David Pryor 1975–1979 August 29, 1934 (1934-08-29) (age 75)
Bill Clinton 1979–1981, 1983–1992 August 19, 1946 (1946-08-19) (age 63)
Jim Guy Tucker 1992–1996 June 12, 1943 (1943-06-12) (age 66)
Mike Huckabee 1996–2007 August 24, 1955 (1955-08-24) (age 54)

Notes

  1. ^ The territory was formally organized with the name "Arkansaw", but spellings including "Arkansas" and "Arkansa" remained common until around 1822, when the popularity of the Arkansas Gazette helped standardize the spelling as "Arkansas".[15]
  2. ^ James Miller was appointed territorial governor on March 3, 1819, the same date the bill organizing Arkansaw Territory was signed. However, to avoid the hot southern summer, he delayed his departure from New Hampshire until September, and took a non-direct route, finally arriving in the territory on December 26, 1819.[17] Robert Crittenden, secretary of the territory, served as acting governor while Miller was delayed.[16]
  3. ^ Resigned citing poor health. At the time of his resignation, he had been absent from the territory for 18 months.[18]
  4. ^ George Izard did not arrive in Arkansas Territory until May 31, 1825; Robert Crittenden, Secretary of the territory, acted as governor in his stead, though Crittenden himself was out of state when Izard arrived.[19]
  5. ^ a b Died in office
  6. ^ The office was vacant from November 22, 1828, until March 9, 1829. By the time notice of George Izard's death reached Washington, D.C., Andrew Jackson had been elected president, and the U.S. Senate refused to approve John Quincy Adams's choice for governor, preferring to wait until Jackson took office.[21]
  7. ^ Pope arrived in the territory in May 1829.[22]
  8. ^ William Savin Fulton served as governor until statehood, when he was elected to the United States Senate.[23]
  9. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in 1864 and abolished in 1874. It was recreated in 1914, and was not filled until 1926. The amendment to the state constitution creating the office was narrowly voted in by the electorate in 1914. The Speaker of the House declared that the measure had lost because it did not receive a majority of the highest vote total from that election. In 1925, it was discovered that a 1910 law amended this requirement such that only a majority of the votes on the specific question was required. Therefore, the 1914 initiative was declared to be valid.[13]
  10. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  11. ^ Resigned to run for the United States House of Representatives, winning the election[24]
  12. ^ As president of the senate, acted as governor for unexpired term
  13. ^ Resigned due to the low salary he received as governor[25]
  14. ^ As president of the senate, acted as governor until special election[26]
  15. ^ Elected in a special election to fill unexpired term[27]
  16. ^ The 1861 constitution was enacted during Rector's term; while term lengths remained at four years, a new election schedule was created, calling for elections in 1862, two years into his term.[28]
  17. ^ a b Harris Flanagin fled Little Rock as it fell to Union forces on September 10, 1863, leading a largely inept government in exile in Washington, Arkansas until 1865. Isaac Murphy was elected provisional governor by a loyalist government set up after Union control of the state was established, taking office on April 18, 1864, causing a slight overlap in terms, though due to the collapse of the Confederate effort in Arkansas, Flanagin had no authority over the state.[29]
  18. ^ The 1864 constitution was enacted during Flanagin's term; however, it was drafted by the Union occupation, and had no effect on his government. While term lengths remained at four years, a new election schedule was created, calling for elections in 1864.[30]
  19. ^ Resigned to take office as state secretary of state
  20. ^ a b c d Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate
  21. ^ Ozra Amander Hadley's first name is sometimes spelled "Ozro" in sources; it is unknown which is correct.[33]
  22. ^ As president pro tempore of the senate, acted as governor for unexpired term; the office of lieutenant governor at the time was vacant[33]
  23. ^ Removed from office for a short time due to the Brooks–Baxter War[35]
  24. ^ The 1874 constitution was enacted during Baxter's term, which shortened his tenure to two years as new elections were scheduled.
  25. ^ Resigned after suffering a nervous breakdown soon after taking office[36]
  26. ^ As president of the senate, acted as governor until the legislature adjourned[37]
  27. ^ As the new president pro tempore of the senate, became acting governor until his senate term expired[38]
  28. ^ As the new president pro tempore of the senate, became acting governor for three days until the next elected governor took office[39]
  29. ^ As president of the senate, acted as governor for six days before a new president of the senate was elected[40]
  30. ^ As the new president of the senate, acted as governor until special election[41]
  31. ^ Elected in special election to fill unexpired term[42]
  32. ^ Resigned to be a judge on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas[43]
  33. ^ a b c As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term, and was subsequently elected in his own right
  34. ^ a b As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term
  35. ^ Resigned to be President of the United States
  36. ^ Gubernatorial terms changed from two years to four years during Clinton's term; he was elected for two-year terms in 1982 and 1984, and for four-year terms in 1986 and 1990.
  37. ^ Resigned after being convicted of mail fraud in the Whitewater scandal[44]
  38. ^ Governor Beebe's first term expires on January 11, 2011; he is not yet term limited.

References

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ AR Const. art. VI
  2. ^ a b 1836 Const. art. V, § 4
  3. ^ AR Const. art. VI, § 1
  4. ^ AR Const. amendment 63
  5. ^ "State Gubernatorial Term Limits". http://www.ustl.org/Current_Info/State_TL/gubernatorial.html. Retrieved 2007-09-01.  
  6. ^ 1836 Const. art. V, § 18
  7. ^ 1861 Const. art. V, § 18
  8. ^ 1864 Const. art. VI, § 19
  9. ^ 1864 Const. art. VI, § 20
  10. ^ 1864 Const. art. VI, § 23
  11. ^ 1868 Const. art. VI, § 1
  12. ^ AR Const. art. VI, § 12
  13. ^ a b "About The Office – Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas". http://www.ltgovernor.arkansas.gov/about_the_office.html. Retrieved 2007-08-31.  
  14. ^ Arkansas Supreme Court, Bryant v. English, 311 Ark. 187, 843 S.W.2d 308 (1992).
  15. ^ "Timeline – 1822: Indian Peace Treaty". Historic Arkansas Museum. http://www.historicarkansas.org/resources/timeline/1822.asp. Retrieved 2007-08-31.  
  16. ^ a b "Robert Crittenden (1797–1834)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=2270. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  17. ^ a b "James Miller (1776–1851)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=2872. Retrieved 2007-08-31.  
  18. ^ "Timeline – 1824: Expansion". Historic Arkansas Museum. http://www.historicarkansas.org/resources/timeline/1824.asp. Retrieved 2007-08-31.  
  19. ^ "George Izard (1776–1828)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=3662. Retrieved 2007-08-31.  
  20. ^ Bruce, Henry Addington (1909). The Romance of American Expansion. Moffat, Yard & Company. p. 86.  
  21. ^ "Timeline – 1828: Final Indian Treaty". Historic Arkansas Museum. http://www.historicarkansas.org/resources/timeline/1828.asp. Retrieved 2007-08-31.  
  22. ^ Williams, Nancy A.; Jeannie M. Whayne (2000). Arkansas Biography: A Collection of Notable Lives. University of Arkansas Press. p. 226. ISBN 155728587X.  
  23. ^ a b "Fulton, William Savin". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=F000425. Retrieved 2007-08-31.  
  24. ^ "Arkansas Governor Archibald Yell". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=4a79224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  25. ^ "Arkansas Governor Thomas Stevenson Drew". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=6e79224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  26. ^ "Arkansas Governor Richard C. Byrd". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=7089224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  27. ^ "Arkansas Governor John Selden Roane". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=8289224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  28. ^ 1861 Const. art. IV, § 8
  29. ^ "Harris Flanagin (1817–1874)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=104. Retrieved 2008-01-18.  
  30. ^ 1864 Const. art. IV, § 8
  31. ^ Herndon p. 287
  32. ^ Herndon p. 293
  33. ^ a b "Ozro Amander Hadley (1826–1915)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=3711. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  34. ^ Herndon p. 306
  35. ^ "Arkansas Governor Elisha Baxter". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=f099224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  36. ^ "Arkansas Governor John Sebastian Little". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=a7a9224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  37. ^ "Arkansas Governor John Isaac Moore". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=b9a9224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  38. ^ "Arkansas Governor Xenophon Overton Pindall". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=cba9224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  39. ^ "John Sebastian Little (1851–1916)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=112. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  40. ^ "Arkansas Governor William Kavanaugh Oldham". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=f1b9224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  41. ^ "Arkansas Governor Junius Marion Futrell". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=60c9224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  42. ^ "Arkansas Governor George Washington Hays". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=04b9224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  43. ^ "Arkansas Governor John Ellis Martineau". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=4cb9224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  44. ^ R.H., Melton; Michael Haddigan (1996-05-29). "Three Guilty in Arkansas Fraud Trial". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/whitewater/stories/wwtr960529.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-14.  
  45. ^ "Pope, John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=P000431. Retrieved 2007-08-31.  
  46. ^ "Yell, Archibald". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=Y000017. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  
  47. ^ "Clayton, Powell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000498. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  
  48. ^ "Garland, Augustus Hill". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=G000065. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  
  49. ^ "Berry, James Henderson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=B000418. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  
  50. ^ "Arkansas Governor William Meade Fishback". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=6f99224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  
  51. ^ "Clarke, James Paul". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000463. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  
  52. ^ "Davis, Jeff". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=D000112. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  
  53. ^ "Little, John Sebastian". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=L000352. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  
  54. ^ "Robinson, Joseph Taylor". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=R000347. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  
  55. ^ "McRae, Thomas Chipman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000597. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  
  56. ^ "Bumpers, Dale". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=B001057. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  
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  58. ^ "Arkansas Governor William Jefferson Clinton". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=7037ae3effb81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  
  59. ^ "Tucker, James (Jim) Guy, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=T000400. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  

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