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M. Jodi Rell, 87th and current Governor of Connecticut

The Governor of Connecticut is the head of the executive branch of Connecticut's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Connecticut Legislature and to convene the legislature.[1] Unusual among U.S. governors, the Governor of Connecticut has no power to pardon.[2]

The current Constitution of Connecticut, ratified in 1965, calls for a four-year term for the governor,[3] commencing on the Wednesday after the first Monday in the January following an election.[4] The previous constitution of 1818 originally had only a one-year term for governor; this was increased to two years in 1875,[5] and four years in 1948.[6] The 1875 amendment also set the start date of the term to its current date; before then, it was the first Wednesday in the May following an election.[7] The constitution provides for the election of a lieutenant governor for the same term as the governor. The two offices are elected on the same ticket; this provision was added in 1962.[8] In the event of a vacancy in the office of governor, the lieutenant governor becomes governor.[9] Before the adoption of the 1965 constitution, the lieutenant governor only acted as governor.[10] There is no limit of any kind on the number of terms one may serve.

Connecticut did not create a state constitution for itself until several decades after it became a state; until 1818, the state operated under the provisions of its colonial charter. The charter called for the election of a governor every year, but not more than once every two years, with the term commencing on the second Thursday in May.[11]

There have been 67 governors of the state, serving 71 distinct spans in office. The longest terms in office were in the state's early years, when three governors were elected to ten or more one-year terms. The longest was that of the first governor, Jonathan Trumbull, who served 14+12 years, but 7 of those as colonial governor; the longest-serving state governor—with no other position included in the term—was his son, Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., who served over 11+12 years. The shortest term was that of Hiram Bingham III, who served only one day before resigning to take an elected seat in the U.S. Senate. The current governor is M. Jodi Rell, who took office on July 1, 2004, upon the resignation of John G. Rowland; her term will expire in January 2011.

Contents

Governors

Connecticut was one of the original Thirteen Colonies and was admitted as a state on January 9, 1788.[12] Before it declared its independence, Connecticut was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain. Like most early states, Connecticut had claims to western areas, but did not cede all of its claims during the formation of the country like the other states. It maintained its Western Reserve until 1800, at which time it was reassigned to the Northwest Territory.[13]

For the period before Connecticut became a state, see the List of colonial governors of Connecticut.

      No party (1)       Federalist (7)       Democratic-Republican (2)       National Republican (1)       Democratic (21)       Whig (6)       American (1)       Republican (32)       A Connecticut Party (1)
(numbering includes repeat governors)

Jonathan Trumbull, first Governor of the State of Connecticut, 16th governor overall
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., 20th Governor of Connecticut
Roger Sherman Baldwin, 32nd Governor of Connecticut, famous for his defense in the Amistad case.
Thomas H. Seymour, 36th Governor of Connecticut
Marshall Jewell, 44th and 46th Governor of Connecticut, and 25th U.S. Postmaster General
Morgan Bulkeley, 54th Governor of Connecticut, and first president of the National League
Hiram Bingham III, 69th Governor of Connecticut, famous for rediscovering Macchu Picchu
Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., 85th Governor of Connecticut
# Governor Term start Term end Party Lt. Governor[N 1] Terms[N 2]
16[N 3]   Jonathan Trumbull October 1, 1769 May 13, 1784 No party   Matthew Griswold 14½[N 4][N 5]
17 Matthew Griswold May 13, 1784 May 11, 1786 Federalist Samuel Huntington 2
18 Samuel Huntington May 11, 1786 January 5, 1796 Federalist Oliver Wolcott [N 6]
19 Oliver Wolcott January 5, 1796 December 1, 1797 Federalist Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. ½+½[N 7][N 6]
20 Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. December 1, 1797 August 7, 1809 Federalist John Treadwell 10½+½[N 7][N 6]
21 John Treadwell August 7, 1809 May 9, 1811 Federalist Roger Griswold[N 8] [N 7]
22 Roger Griswold May 9, 1811 October 25, 1812 Federalist John Cotton Smith ½[N 6]
23 John Cotton Smith October 25, 1812 May 8, 1817 Federalist Chauncey Goodrich[N 6] [N 7]
24 Oliver Wolcott, Jr. May 8, 1817 May 2, 1827 Toleration Republican Jonathan Ingersoll[N 6] 10[N 9]
David Plant
25 Gideon Tomlinson May 2, 1827 March 2, 1831 Democratic-Republican John Samuel Peters [N 10]
26 John Samuel Peters March 2, 1831 May 1, 1833 National Republican Thaddeus Betts [N 7]
27 Henry W. Edwards May 1, 1833 May 7, 1834 Democratic Ebenezer Stoddard 1
28 Samuel A. Foot May 7, 1834 May 6, 1835 Whig Thaddeus Betts 1
29 Henry W. Edwards May 6, 1835 May 2, 1838 Democratic Ebenezer Stoddard 3
30 William W. Ellsworth May 2, 1838 May 4, 1842 Whig Charles Hawley 4
31 Chauncey Fitch Cleveland May 4, 1842 May 1, 1844 Democratic William S. Holabird 2
32 Roger Sherman Baldwin May 1, 1844 May 6, 1846 Whig Reuben Booth 2
33 Isaac Toucey May 6, 1846 May 5, 1847 Democratic Noyes Billings 1[N 11]
34 Clark Bissell May 5, 1847 May 2, 1849 Whig Charles J. McCurdy 2
35 Joseph Trumbull May 2, 1849 May 4, 1850 Whig Thomas Backus 1
36 Thomas H. Seymour May 4, 1850 October 13, 1853 Democratic Charles H. Pond [N 12]
Green Kendrick
Charles H. Pond
37 Charles H. Pond October 13, 1853 May 3, 1854 Democratic vacant ½[N 13]
38 Henry Dutton May 3, 1854 May 2, 1855 Whig Alexander H. Holley 1
39 William T. Minor May 2, 1855 May 6, 1857 American William Field 2
Albert Day
40 Alexander H. Holley May 6, 1857 May 5, 1858 Republican Alfred A. Burnham 1
41 William A. Buckingham May 5, 1858 May 2, 1866 Republican Julius Catlin 8
Benjamin Douglas
Roger Averill
42 Joseph R. Hawley May 2, 1866 May 1, 1867 Republican Oliver Winchester 1
43 James E. English May 1, 1867 May 5, 1869 Democratic Ephraim H. Hyde 2
44 Marshall Jewell May 5, 1869 May 4, 1870 Republican Francis Wayland 1
45 James E. English May 4, 1870 May 16, 1871 Democratic Julius Hotchkiss 1
46 Marshall Jewell May 16, 1871 May 7, 1873 Republican Morris Tyler 2[N 14]
47 Charles R. Ingersoll May 7, 1873 January 3, 1877 Democratic George G. Sill 3[N 15]
48 Richard D. Hubbard January 3, 1877 January 9, 1879 Democratic Francis Loomis 1[N 16]
49 Charles B. Andrews January 9, 1879 January 5, 1881 Republican David Gallup 1
50 Hobart B. Bigelow January 5, 1881 January 3, 1883 Republican William H. Bulkeley 1
51 Thomas M. Waller January 3, 1883 January 8, 1885 Democratic George G. Sumner 1
52 Henry B. Harrison January 8, 1885 January 7, 1887 Republican Lorrin A. Cooke 1
53 Phineas C. Lounsbury January 7, 1887 January 10, 1889 Republican James L. Howard 1
54 Morgan G. Bulkeley January 10, 1889 January 4, 1893 Republican Samuel E. Merwin 2[N 17]
55 Luzon B. Morris January 4, 1893 January 9, 1895 Democratic Ernest Cady 1
56 Owen Vincent Coffin January 9, 1895 January 6, 1897 Republican Lorrin A. Cooke 1
57 Lorrin A. Cooke January 6, 1897 January 4, 1899 Republican James D. Dewell 1
58 George E. Lounsbury January 4, 1899 January 9, 1901 Republican Lyman A. Mills 1
59 George P. McLean January 9, 1901 January 7, 1903 Republican Edwin O. Keeler 1
60 Abiram Chamberlain January 7, 1903 January 4, 1905 Republican Henry Roberts 1
61 Henry Roberts January 4, 1905 January 9, 1907 Republican Rollin S. Woodruff 1
62 Rollin S. Woodruff January 9, 1907 January 6, 1909 Republican Everett J. Lake 1
63 George L. Lilley January 6, 1909 April 21, 1909 Republican Frank B. Weeks ½[N 6]
64 Frank B. Weeks April 21, 1909 January 4, 1911 Republican vacant ½[N 13]
65 Simeon E. Baldwin January 4, 1911 January 6, 1915 Democratic Dennis A. Blakeslee 2
Lyman T. Tingier
66 Marcus H. Holcomb January 6, 1915 January 5, 1921 Republican Clifford B. Wilson 3
67 Everett J. Lake January 5, 1921 January 3, 1923 Republican Charles A. Templeton 1
68 Charles A. Templeton January 3, 1923 January 7, 1925 Republican Hiram Bingham III 1
69 Hiram Bingham III January 7, 1925 January 8, 1925 Republican John H. Trumbull ½[N 10]
70 John H. Trumbull January 8, 1925 January 7, 1931 Republican J. Edwin Brainard[N 18] [N 7]
Ernest E. Rogers
71 Wilbur Lucius Cross January 7, 1931 January 4, 1939 Democratic Samuel R. Spencer 4
Roy C. Wilcox
T. Frank Hayes
72 Raymond E. Baldwin January 4, 1939 January 8, 1941 Republican James L. McConaughy 1
73 Robert A. Hurley January 8, 1941 January 6, 1943 Democratic Odell Shepard 1
74 Raymond E. Baldwin January 6, 1943 December 27, 1946 Republican William L. Hadden [N 10]
Charles W. Snow
75 Charles W. Snow December 27, 1946 January 8, 1947 Democratic vacant ½[N 13]
76 James L. McConaughy January 8, 1947 March 7, 1948 Republican James C. Shannon ½[N 6]
77 James C. Shannon March 7, 1948 January 5, 1949 Republican Robert E. Parsons[N 18] ½[N 13]
78 Chester Bowles January 5, 1949 January 3, 1951 Democratic William T. Carroll 1
79 John Davis Lodge January 3, 1951 January 5, 1955 Republican Edward N. Allen 1[N 19]
80 Abraham A. Ribicoff January 5, 1955 January 21, 1961 Democratic Charles W. Jewett [N 20]
John N. Dempsey
81 John N. Dempsey January 21, 1961 January 6, 1971 Democratic Anthony J. Armentano[N 18] [N 7]
Samuel J. Tedesco[N 21]
Fred J. Doocy[N 22]
Attilio R. Frassinelli
82 Thomas J. Meskill January 6, 1971 January 8, 1975 Republican T. Clark Hull[N 21] 1
Peter L. Cashman[N 22]
83 Ella T. Grasso January 8, 1975 December 31, 1980 Democratic Robert K. Killian [N 23]
William A. O'Neill
84 William A. O'Neill December 31, 1980 January 9, 1991 Democratic Joseph J. Fauliso[N 22] [N 24]
85 Lowell P. Weicker, Jr. January 9, 1991 January 4, 1995 A Connecticut Party Eunice Groark 1
86 John G. Rowland January 4, 1995 July 1, 2004 Republican M. Jodi Rell [N 25]
87 M. Jodi Rell July 1, 2004 incumbent Republican Kevin Sullivan[N 22] [N 24][N 26]
Michael Fedele

Other high offices held

This is a table of congressional and other federal offices held by governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented Connecticut.

Denotes those offices which the governor resigned to take.
† Denotes those offices that the governor resigned to be governor.
Governor Gubernatorial term U.S. House U.S. Senate Other offices held Sources
Huntington, SamuelSamuel Huntington 1786–1796 Continental Delegate (including President of the Continental Congress) [23]
Wolcott, OliverOliver Wolcott 1796–1797 Continental Delegate [24]
Trumbull, Jr., JonathanJonathan Trumbull, Jr. 1797–1809 H S Speaker of the House [25]
Treadwell, JohnJohn Treadwell 1809–1811 Continental Delegate [26]
Griswold, RogerRoger Griswold 1811–1812 H [27]
Smith, John CottonJohn Cotton Smith 1812–1817 H [28]
Wolcott, Jr., OliverOliver Wolcott, Jr. 1817–1827 U.S. Secretary of the Treasury [29]
Tomlinson, GideonGideon Tomlinson 1827–1831 H S* [30]
Edwards, Henry W.Henry W. Edwards 1833–1834, 1835–1838 H S [31]
Foot, Samuel A.Samuel A. Foot 1834–1835 H† S [32]
Ellsworth, William W.William W. Ellsworth 1838–1842 H [33]
Cleveland, Chauncey FitchChauncey Fitch Cleveland 1842–1843 H [34]
Baldwin, Roger ShermanRoger Sherman Baldwin 1844–1846 S [35]
Toucey, IsaacIsaac Toucey 1846–1847 H S U.S. Attorney General, U.S. Secretary of the Navy [17]
Trumbull, JosephJoseph Trumbull 1849–1850 H [36]
Seymour, Thomas HartThomas Hart Seymour 1850–1853 H Minister to Russia* [37]
Buckingham, William A.William A. Buckingham 1858–1866 S [38]
Hawley, Joseph R.Joseph R. Hawley 1866–1867 H S [39]
English, James E.James E. English 1867–1869, 1870–1871 H S [40]
Jewell, MarshallMarshall Jewell 1869–1870, 1871–1873 Minister to Russia, U.S. Postmaster General [41]
Hubbard, Richard D.Richard D. Hubbard 1878–1879 H [42]
Bulkeley, Morgan G.Morgan G. Bulkeley 1889–1893 S [43]
McLean, George P.George P. McLean 1901–1903 S [44]
Lilley, George L.George L. Lilley 1909 H [45]
Bingham III, HiramHiram Bingham III 1925 S [46]
Baldwin, Raymond E.Raymond E. Baldwin 1939–1941, 1943–1946 S* [47]
Bowles, ChesterChester Bowles 1949–1951 H Ambassador to India, Ambassador to Nepal [48]
Lodge, John DavisJohn Davis Lodge 1951–1955 H Ambassador to Argentina, Ambassador to Spain, Ambassador to Switzerland [49]
Ribicoff, Abraham A.Abraham A. Ribicoff 1955–1961 H S U.S. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare* [50]
Meskill, Thomas J.Thomas J. Meskill 1971–1975 H Second Circuit Court Judge [51]
Grasso, Ella T.Ella T. Grasso 1975–1980 H [52]
Weicker, Jr., Lowell P.Lowell P. Weicker, Jr. 1991–1995 H S [53]
Rowland, John G.John G. Rowland 1995–2004 H [54]

Living former governors

As of February 2010, two former governors were alive. The most recent governor to die was William O'Neill (1980–1991), who died on November 24, 2007.

Name Gubernatorial term Date of birth
Lowell P. Weicker, Jr. 1991–1995 May 16, 1931 (1931-05-16) (age 78)
John G. Rowland 1995–2004 May 24, 1957 (1957-05-24) (age 52)

Notes

  1. ^ The office of Lieutenant Governor was known as Deputy-Governor under the colonial charter, but the name 'Lieutenant Governor' was predominantly used after independence.[11]
  2. ^ The fractional terms of some governors are not to be understood absolutely literally; rather, they are meant to show how many times a governor was elected, and to show single terms during which multiple governors served, due to resignations, deaths and the like.
  3. ^ According to the Connecticut State Library, the official listing goes back to the first governor of Connecticut Colony in 1639, and did not include repeat governors serving non-consecutive terms in the colonial period; this makes Trumbull the 16th governor.[14]
  4. ^ The Connecticut General Assembly approved the United States Declaration of Independence on October 10, 1776, and resolved that the state's government would continue as established under the charter. So, as colonial governor, Jonathan Trumbull became state governor, serving roughly 7½ years.[15]
  5. ^ As deputy governor, became governor upon the death of William Pitkin
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Died in office
  7. ^ a b c d e f g As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term, and was subsequently elected in their own right
  8. ^ Appointed by the general assembly to fill the vacant Lieutenant Governor office[16]
  9. ^ Wolcott was the first governor elected under the provisions of the 1818 constitution, which shifted the start date of his third term from May 13 to May 5.
  10. ^ a b c Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate
  11. ^ Lost election, but was appointed by state legislature[17]
  12. ^ Resigned to be Minister to Russia
  13. ^ a b c d As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term
  14. ^ James English won the popular vote, but a canvassing committee found the election was fraudulent, and named Jewell governor several days into the term..[18]
  15. ^ The end date of Ingersoll's term was moved back from May 3, 1876, to January 3, 1877, due to the adoption of the 26th amendment to the state constitution.
  16. ^ Hubbard was the first governor elected under the provisions of the 26th amendment to the state constitution, increasing term lengths to two years and moving the start date of his term to January 3.
  17. ^ Morgan Bulkeley did not run for re-election in 1890, but due to such a close contest and controversies, the results were not certified, and the legislature spent two years debating the issue; Bulkeley essentially served as governor by default.[19]
  18. ^ a b c As president pro tempore of the state senate, filled vacancy in office of lieutenant governor[16]
  19. ^ John Davis Lodge was the first governor elected under the provisions of the 45th amendment to the state constitution, lengthening terms to four years.
  20. ^ Resigned to become United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare
  21. ^ a b Resigned to become a superior court judge[16]
  22. ^ a b c d As president pro tempore of the state senate, became lieutenant governor[16]
  23. ^ Resigned due to ovarian cancer
  24. ^ a b As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term, and was subsequently elected in their own right
  25. ^ Resigned due to a federal corruption investigation;[20] he later pleaded guilty to corruption.[21]
  26. ^ Governor Rell's second term expires on January 5, 2011; she has stated she will not seek re-election.[22]

References

General
Constitutions
Specific
  1. ^ CT Const. art. IV
  2. ^ "Pardons Power in Connecticut". http://www.cga.ct.gov/2001/rpt/olr/htm/2001-r-0498.htm. Retrieved February 21, 2009. 
  3. ^ CT Const. art. IV, § 1
  4. ^ CT Const. art. IV, § 2
  5. ^ 1818 Const. amendment XVI
  6. ^ 1818 Const. amendment XLV
  7. ^ 1818 Const. art. IV § 1
  8. ^ 1818 Const. new amendment VII
  9. ^ CT Const. art. IV § 19
  10. ^ 1818 Const. art. IV § 14
  11. ^ a b 1662 Charter
  12. ^ "Today in History: January 9". Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan09.html. Retrieved February 21, 2009. 
  13. ^ "Research Guide to Connecticut's "Western Lands" or "Western Reserve"". Connecticut State Library. http://www.cslib.org/westernreserve.htm. Retrieved February 21, 2009. 
  14. ^ "Roster of Connecticut Governors". Connecticut State Library. http://www.cslib.org/gov/. Retrieved April 4, 2008. 
  15. ^ "Jonathan Trumbull". Connecticut State Library. http://www.cslib.org/gov/trumbullj.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-10. 
  16. ^ a b c d "Brief Descriptions of Connecticut State Agencies: Lieutenant Governor". Connecticut State Library. http://www.cslib.org/agencies/lieutenantgovernor.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-10. 
  17. ^ a b "Toucey, Issac". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=T000319. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Connecticut Governor James Edward English". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=b1ba224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  19. ^ "Connecticut Governor Morgan Gardner Bulkeley". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=44ca224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved February 24, 2009. 
  20. ^ William Yardley; Stacey Stowe; Avi Salzman and Alison Leigh Cowan (June 22, 2004). "Connecticut's Governor Steps Down". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CEED91339F931A15755C0A9629C8B63. 
  21. ^ Robert D. McFadden (December 24, 2004). "An Ex-Governor Says He's Guilty". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/12/24/nyregion/24rowland.html. 
  22. ^ "Connecticut Governor Won’t Seek Re-election". The New York Times. November 9, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/10/nyregion/10rell.html. Retrieved February 23, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Huntington, Samuel". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H000998. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  24. ^ "Wolcott, Oliver". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=W000670. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Trumbull, Jonathan, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=T000389. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  26. ^ "Treadwell, John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=T000359. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  27. ^ "Griswold, Roger". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=G000488. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  28. ^ "Smith, John Cotton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=S000570. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  29. ^ "Connecticut Governor Oliver Wolcott". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=095a224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Tomlinson, Gideon". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=T000300. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  31. ^ "Edwards, Henry Waggaman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=E000070. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  32. ^ "Foot, Samuel Augustus". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=F000247. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  33. ^ "Ellsworth, William Wolcott". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=E000150. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  34. ^ "Cleveland, Chauncey Fitch". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000511. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Baldwin, Roger Sherman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=B000096. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  36. ^ "Trumbull, Joseph". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=T000391. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  37. ^ "Seymour, Thomas Hart". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=S000271. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  38. ^ "Buckingham, William Alfred". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=B001021. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  39. ^ "Hawley, Joseph Roswell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H000377. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  40. ^ "English, James Edward". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=E000185. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  41. ^ "Connecticut Governor Marshall Jewell". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=c3ba224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  42. ^ "Hubbard, Richard Dudley". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H000888. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  43. ^ "Bulkeley, Morgan Gardner". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=B001044. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  44. ^ "McLean, George Payne". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000547. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  45. ^ "Lilley, George Leavens". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=L000308. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  46. ^ "Bingham, Hiram". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=B000470. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  47. ^ "Baldwin, Raymond Earl". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=B000095. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  48. ^ "Bowles, Chester Bliss". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=B000699. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  49. ^ "Lodge, John Davis". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=L000395. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  50. ^ "Ribicoff, Abraham Alexander". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=R000191. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  51. ^ "Meskill, Thomas Joseph". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000667. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  52. ^ "Grasso, Ella Tambussi". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=G000387. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  53. ^ "Weicker, Lowell Palmer, Jr.". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=W000253. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  54. ^ "Rowland, John". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=R000482. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 

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