List of Irish monarchs: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The harp has been recognised as a symbol of Ireland since the 13th century and was used on Irish coinage by kings John and Edward I.

There were 33 English and British monarchs who were also monarchs of Ireland from 1177 to 1949. Henry II of England first created the title of Lord of Ireland for his youngest son John Lackland in 1177. He had first sought to have John made King of Ireland. This would appear to have been a strategy of his father's to divide his Angevin possessions between his four sons. The approval of Pope Alexander III was sought to have John crowned King of Ireland. Disagreements with first Alexander III and then his successor Pope Lucius III caused this to be delayed and instead John went as only Lord of Ireland. When John arrived in Ireland the people grew to despise him, causing John to leave after only eight months. When he later unexpectedly inherited the English crown in 1199, the title Lord of Ireland would come to be held by the monarchs of England.

After Henry VIII of England made himself Supreme Head of the Church of England, he also requested and got legislation through the Irish Parliament, in 1541 (effective 1542, see Crown of Ireland Act 1542), naming him King of Ireland and head of the Church of Ireland (which today, both in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, remains a member of the Anglican communion but is no longer an established church like the Church of England). The title "King of Ireland" was then used until 1 January 1801, the effective date of the second Act of Union, which merged Ireland and Great Britain to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. This is a list of the monarchs who ruled Ireland during this time.

Contents

Gaelic kings (before 1607)

Lords of Ireland

The Lordship of Ireland (1171–1541) was all-island[citation needed] Irish state created in the wake of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169–71.

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House of Plantagenet

This long-lived dynasty is usually divided into three houses: the Angevins, the House of Lancaster, and the House of York.

Angevins

As the leader of the Norman invasion of Ireland Henry II of England created the title of Lord of Ireland for his youngest son John in 1177. The title came to be held by the monarchs of England when John later, and unexpectedly, inherited the English crown in 1199.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
John Lackland
(Jean Sans Terre)
May
1177–1216[1]
Tomb effigy of John 24 December 1167
Beaumont Palace
son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine[1]
(1) Isabel of Gloucester
Marlborough Castle
29 August 1189
no children

(2) Isabella of Angoulême
Bordeaux Cathedral
24 August 1200
five children[1]
19 October 1216
Newark Castle
aged 48[1]
Henry III
28 October
1216–1272[2]
Henry III of England - Illustration from Cassell's History of England - Century Edition - published circa 1902.jpg 1 October 1207
Winchester Castle
son of John and Isabella of Angoulême[2]
Eleanor of Provence
Canterbury Cathedral
14 January 1236
nine children[2]
16 November 1272
Westminster Palace
aged 65[2]
Edward I Longshanks
20 November
1272–1307[3]
Gal nations edward i.jpg 17 June 1239
Westminster Palace
son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence[3]
(1) Eleanor of Castile
Abbey of Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas
18 October 1254
17 children

(2) Marguerite of France
10 September 1299
three children[3]
7 July 1307
Burgh by Sands
aged 68[3]
Edward II
7 July 1307 –
25 January 1327[4]
Modern depiction of Edward II 25 April 1284
Caernarfon Castle
son of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile[4]
Isabella of France
Boulogne Cathedral
25 January 1308
five children[4]
21 September 1327
Berkeley Castle
aged 43 (murdered)[4]
Edward III
25 January
1327–1377[5]
16th-century copy of an anonymous portrait of Edward III 13 November 1312
Windsor Castle
son of Edward II and Isabella of France[5]
Philippa of Hainault
York Minster
24 January 1328
14 children[5]
21 June 1377
Sheen Palace
aged 64[5]
Richard II
21 June 1377 –
29 September 1399[6]
Richard II, by an unknown artist working in the International Gothic style, 1390s 6 January 1367
Bordeaux
son of Edward, the Black Prince and Joan of Kent[6]
(1) Anne of Bohemia
14 January 1382
no children

(2) Isabella of Valois
Calais
4 November 1396
no children[6]
6 January 1400
Pontefract Castle
aged 33[6]

House of Lancaster

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry IV Bolingbroke
30 September
1399–1413[7]
Henry IV 3 April 1366/7
Bolingbroke Castle
son of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster[7]
(1) Mary de Bohun
Arundel Castle
27 July 1380
seven children

(2) Joanna of Navarre
Winchester Cathedral
7 February 1403
no children[7]
20 March 1413
Westminster Abbey
aged 45 or 46[8]
Henry V
20 March
1413–1422[7]
Henry V 9 August 1387
Monmouth Castle
son of Henry IV and Mary de Bohun[7]
Catherine of Valois
Troyes Cathedral
2 June 1420
1 son[7]
31 August 1422
Château de Vincennes
aged 35[7]
Henry VI
31 August 1422
– 4 March 1461

30 October 1470
– 11 April 1471[9]
Henry VI 6 December 1421
Windsor Castle
son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois[9]
Margaret of Anjou
Titchfield Abbey
22 April 1445
1 son[9]
21 May 1471
Tower of London
aged 49 (murdered)[9]

House of York

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Edward IV
4 March 1461 –
3 October 1470

11 April 1471–1483[10]
Edward IV 28 April 1442
Rouen
son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville[10]
Elizabeth Woodville
Grafton Regis
1 May 1464
10 children[10]
9 April 1483
Westminster Palace
aged 40[10]
Edward V
9 April–25 June 1483[11]
Edward V 2 November 1470
Westminster
son of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville[11]
unmarried c. 1483
London
aged about 12 (traditionally believed to be murdered)[12]
Richard III
26 June
1483–1485[13]
Richard III 2 October 1452
Fotheringhay Castle
son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville[14]
Anne Neville
Westminster Abbey
12 July 1472
1 son[14]
22 August 1485
Bosworth Field
aged 32 (killed in battle)[14]

House of Tudor

The Tudors were of paternal Welsh descent, and in 1536 the Principality of Wales was fully incorporated into the Kingdom of English state (having been a vassal state in the Angevin Empire under a Plantagenet Prince of Wales since 1301). With Henry VIII's break from the Catholic Church the monarch became the Supreme Head of the Church of Ireland.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry VII
22 August
1485–1509[15]
Henry VII, by Michel Sittow, 1505 28 January 1457
Pembroke Castle
son of Edmund Tudor and Lady Margaret Beaufort[15]
Elizabeth of York
Westminster Abbey
18 January 1486
eight children[15]
21 April 1509
Richmond Palace
aged 52[15]
Henry VIII
21 April
1509–1542[16]
Henry VIII, by Hans Holbein, c.1536 28 June 1491
Greenwich Palace
son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York[16]
(1) Catherine of Aragon
Greenwich
11 June 1509
1 daughter

(2) Anne Boleyn
Westminster Palace
25 January 1533
1 daughter

(3) Jane Seymour
Whitehall Palace
30 May 1536
1 son

(4) Anne of Cleves
Greenwich Palace
6 January 1540

(5) Catherine Howard
Hampton Court Palace
28 July 1540

(6) Katherine Parr
Hampton Court Palace
12 July 1543
28 January 1547
Whitehall Palace
aged 55[16]

Kings and Queens of Ireland

In 1542 Henry VIII passed the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 in the Parliament of Ireland stating that Henry VIII of England and his successors would also be Kings of Ireland.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry VIII
21 April
1542–1547[16]
Henry VIII, by Hans Holbein, c.1536 28 June 1491
Greenwich Palace
son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York[16]
(6) Catherine Parr
Hampton Court Palace
12 July 1543[16]
28 January 1547
Whitehall Palace
aged 55[16]
Edward VI
28 January
1547–1553[17]
Edward VI, by Hans Eworth 12 October 1537
Hampton Court Palace
son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour[17]
unmarried 6 July 1553
Greenwich Palace
aged 15[17]
Jane
("The Nine Days' Queen")
10–19 July 1553[18]
Streathamladyjayne.jpg October 1537
Bradgate Park
daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Lady Frances Brandon[18]
Lord Guildford Dudley
The Strand
21 May 1553
no children[19]
12 February 1554
Tower of London
aged 16 (beheaded)[18]
Mary I
("Bloody Mary")
19 July
1553–1558[17]
Mary I, by Antonius Mor, 1554 18 February 1516
Greenwich Palace
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon[17]
Philip II of Spain
Winchester Cathedral
25 July 1554
no children[17]
17 November 1558
St. James's Palace
aged 42[17]
Elizabeth I
("The Virgin Queen")
17 November
1558–1603[17]
Elizabeth I, by Darnley 7 September 1533
Greenwich Palace
daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn[17]
unmarried 24 March 1603
Richmond Palace
aged 69[17]

House of Stuart

Following the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 without issue, the Scottish king, James VI, succeeded to the English and Irish throne as James I in what became known as the Union of the Crowns. In 1604 he adopted the title King of Great Britain, although the kingdoms remained separate.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
James I
24 March
1603–1625[20]
James I, by Paulus van Somer 19 June 1566
Edinburgh Castle
son of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Mary, Queen of Scots[20]
Anne of Denmark
Oslo
23 November 1589
nine children[20]
27 March 1625
Theobalds House
aged 58[20]
Charles I
("Saint Charles the Martyr")
27 March
1625–1649[21]
Charles I, by Anthony van Dyck 19 November 1600
Dunfermline Palace
son of James I and Anne of Denmark[21]
Henrietta Maria of France
St Augustine's Abbey
13 June 1625
nine children[21]
30 January 1649
Whitehall Palace
aged 48 (executed)[21]

Commonwealth

There was no reigning monarch between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. Despite this, from 1653 the following individuals held power as Lords Protector, during the period known as the Protectorate.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Oliver Cromwell
16 December
1653–1658[22]
Oliver Cromwell, an unfinished portrait miniature by Samuel Cooper 25 April 1599
Huntingdon[22]
son of Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Stewart[23]
Elizabeth Bourchier
St Giles[24]
22 August 1620
nine children[22]
3 September 1658
Whitehall
aged 59[22]
Richard Cromwell
("Tumbledown Dick")
3 September 1658
– 7 May 1659[25]
Richard Cromwell, c.1650 4 October 1626
Huntingdon
son of Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth Bourchier[25]
Dorothy Maijor
May 1649
nine children[25]
12 July 1712
Cheshunt
aged 85[26]

House of Stuart (restored)

Although the monarchy was restored in 1660, no stable settlement proved possible until the Glorious Revolution of 1688, when parliament finally asserted the right to choose whomsoever it pleased as monarch.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles II
8 May
1660–1685[27]
Charles II of England.jpeg 29 May 1630
St. James's Palace
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France[27]
Catherine of Braganza
Portsmouth
21 May 1662
three children (none survived infancy)[27]
6 February 1685
Whitehall Palace
aged 54[27]
James II
6 February 1685 –
23 December 1688[28]
James II of England.jpg 14 October 1633
St. James's Palace
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France[28]
(1) Anne Hyde
The Strand
3 September 1660
eight children

(2) Mary of Modena
Dover
21 November 1673
seven children[28]
16 September 1701
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
aged 67[28]
William III of Orange
(Willem Hendrik,
Prins van Oranje)

13 February
1689–1702[29]
Portrait of William III, (1650-1702).jpg 4 November 1650
The Hague
son of William II, Prince of Orange and Mary Stuart[30]
St James's Palace
4 November 1677
three children (none survived infancy)[29]
8 March 1702
Kensington Palace
aged 51[29]
Mary II
13 February
1689–1694[28]
Queen Mary II.jpg 30 April 1662
St James's Palace
daughter of James II and Anne Hyde[28]
28 December 1694
Kensington Palace
aged 32[28]
Anne
8 March
1702–1714[31]
Anniex.jpg 6 February 1665
St James's Palace
daughter of James II and Anne Hyde[32]
George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683
17 children[32]
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
aged 49[32]

House of Hanover

The Hanoverian succession came about as a result of the Act of Settlement 1701, passed by the English Parliament. In return for access to the economically alluring plantations in North America,[citation needed] the Hanoverian succession and ultimately the Union was ratified by the English Parliament and subsequently the Scottish Parliament in 1707.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
George I
1 August
1714–1727
GeorgeIKneller1714.jpg 28 May 1660
Osnabrück
son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia of Celle
Germany
1 November 1682
two children
11 June 1727
Osnabrück
aged 67
George II
11 June
1727–1760
KING GEORGE II.jpg 30 October 1683
Hanover
son of George I and Sophia of Celle
Caroline of Ansbach
Hanover
22 August 1705
eight children
25 October 1760
Palace of Westminster
aged 76
George III
25 October
1760–1 January
1801
George III of the United Kingdom-e.jpg 4 June 1738
Norfolk House
son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
aged 81

During George III's reign The Kingdom's of Great Britain and Ireland merged to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Act of Union 1800.

In 1949 twenty-six counties in the southern part of Ireland became the Republic of Ireland and thus the British Monarchs continue to rule only over the remaining northern counties of the island that are part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

House of Windsor

Following dominion status being conferred on the Irish Free State in 1922, in 1927 the title King of Ireland was re-introduced, and lasted until Ireland became a republic in 1949.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
George V
6 December
1922–1936[33]
George V of the united Kingdom.jpg 3 June 1865
Marlborough House
son of Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark[34]
Mary of Teck
6 July 1893
St James's Palace
six children[35]
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
aged 70[34]
Edward VIII
20 January –
12 December 1936[36]
A030596.jpg 23 June 1894
Richmond
son of George V and Mary of Teck[36]
Wallis, Duchess of Windsor
France
3 June 1937
no children[36]
28 May 1972
Paris
aged 77[37]
George VI
12 December
1936–18 April
1949[38]
King George VI of England, formal photo portrait, circa 1940-1946.jpg 14 December 1895
Sandringham House
son of George V and Mary of Teck[38]
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey
26 April 1923
two children[39]
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
aged 56[40]

As the British monarchs continue to rule over Northern Ireland, as a constituent part of the United Kingdom, the continuation of this list is at List of British monarchs.

References

  1. ^ a b c d "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10201". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10201.htm#i102006. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  2. ^ a b c d "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10193". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10193.htm#i101923. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  3. ^ a b c d "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10191". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10191.htm#i101903. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  4. ^ a b c d Edward II was officially deposed by Parliament on 25 January 1327, having been imprisoned on 16 November 1326. "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10094". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10094.htm#i100933. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  5. ^ a b c d "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10188". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10188.htm#i101871. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  6. ^ a b c d Richard II was deposed, and became a prisoner of Henry Bolingbroke, who usurped the throne from the prior claims of the issue of his father John of Gaunt. "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10206". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10206.htm#i102054. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10187". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10187.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  8. ^ "HENRY IV - Archontology.org". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/king_england/henry4.php. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  9. ^ a b c d Edward IV usurped the throne in 1461 after years of civil war. Henry VI was restored for about five months in 1470 before being deposed again permanently. "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10186". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10186.htm#i101859. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  10. ^ a b c d Edward was briefly deposed during his reign by Henry VI. "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10164". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10164.htm#i101635. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  11. ^ a b Edward V was deposed by Richard III, who usurped the throne on the grounds that Edward was illegitimate. "EDWARD V - Archontology.org". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/king_england/edward5.php. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  12. ^ "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10165". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10165.htm#i101645. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  13. ^ "RICHARD III - Archontology.org". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/king_england/richard3b.php. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  14. ^ a b c "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10163". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10163.htm#i101628. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  15. ^ a b c d "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10142". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10142.htm#i101418. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10148". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10148.htm#i101473. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10150". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10150.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  18. ^ a b c Jane was deposed in favour of Mary Tudor. "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10152". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10152.htm#i101513. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  19. ^ "Lady Jane Grey: Marriage". http://www.britannia.com/history/ladyjane/marriage.html. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  20. ^ a b c d "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10137". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10137.htm#i101370. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  21. ^ a b c d "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10138". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10138.htm#i101375. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  22. ^ a b c d "Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658". http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/oliver-cromwell.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  23. ^ "Oliver Cromwell - Faq 1". http://www.olivercromwell.org/faqs1.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  24. ^ "New Page 1". http://www.stgilescripplegate.org.uk/frhistory.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  25. ^ a b c "Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, 1626-1712". http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/richard-cromwell.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  26. ^ "CROMWELL, Richard - Archontology.org". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/commonwealth/cromwell2.php. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  27. ^ a b c d "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10139". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10139.htm#i101388. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10136". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10136.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  29. ^ a b c "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10141". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10141.htm#i101402. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  30. ^ "WILLIAM III - Archontology.org". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/king_grbritain/william3.php. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  31. ^ "Anne (England) - Archontology.org". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/king_grbritain/anne.php. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  32. ^ a b c "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10134". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10134.htm#i101338. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  33. ^ King George V. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  34. ^ a b House of Windsor - George V. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  35. ^ Mary of Teck. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  36. ^ a b c House of Windsor - Edward VIII. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  37. ^ Royal Government's The House of Windsor - Edward VIII. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  38. ^ a b House of Windsor - George VI. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  39. ^ Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon: The Indomitable Queen Mum. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.
  40. ^ King George VI dies in his sleep. URL last accessed 21 January 2006.

Contents

High-Kings of Ireland 846-1198

File:Rory O'Connor Stone
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair

Ruaidrí was inaugurated King of Ireland at Dublin in spring 1166. He was arguably the first undisputed full king of Ireland. He was also the only Gaelic one, as the events of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169 undid Gaelic efforts at establishing an all-island united kingdom of Ireland.

King Ruaidrí died at Cong in 1198, and was buried at Clonmacnoise. He was the last fully-recognised Gaelic monarch of all Ireland. Later pretenders such as Brian Ua Neill (died 1260) and Edward Bruce (died 1318) were not recognised as such even among the native Irish.

Lords of Ireland

The Lordship of Ireland (1171–1541) was a state briefly covering between two thirds and three quarters of the island that was created in the wake of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169–71. It thereafter was reduced drastically in size both by a native Gaelic resurgence and the process of Gaelicization, or the assimilation of the Anglo-Irish lords into the Gaelic culture. By 1450 it was reduced to only The Pale, an insignificant region in the far east of the island.

English overlordship

Of the following "monarchs" Oliver Cromwell was the first to hold nearly the entire island. Those following him simply inherited a largely destroyed Gaelic nation. Of what they were actually "monarchs" is debated. In any case none were at any time even close to universally recognized, especially because a substantial part of the Irish nation were now dwelling in Europe, swearing allegiance to other monarchs.

However, it is generally agreed that Henry VIII of England was effectively recognized as High King of enough of the island to be listed, although not all the great lords submitted to him. Against his daughter Elizabeth I of England there were enormous revolts.

Towards the end of Elizabeth's reign in England it was actually Aodh Mór Ó Néill who was recognized as High King by the majority of the Gaelic Irish.

Kings and Queens of Ireland

In 1542 Henry VIII passed the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 in the Parliament of Ireland stating that Henry VIII of England and his successors would also be Kings of Ireland.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Henry VIII
21 April
1542–1547[1]
28 June 1491
Greenwich Palace
son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York[1]
(6) Catherine Parr
Hampton Court Palace
12 July 1543[1]
28 January 1547
Whitehall Palace
aged 55[1]
Edward VI
28 January
1547–1553[2]
12 October 1537
Hampton Court Palace
son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour[2]
unmarried6 July 1553
Greenwich Palace
aged 15[2]
Jane
("The Nine Days' Queen")
10–19 July 1553[3]
October 1537
Bradgate Park
daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Lady Frances Brandon[3]
Lord Guildford Dudley
The Strand
21 May 1553
no children[4]
12 February 1554
Tower of London
aged 16 (beheaded)[3]
Mary I
("Bloody Mary")
19 July
1553–1558[2]
18 February 1516
Greenwich Palace
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon[2]
Philip II of Spain
Winchester Cathedral
25 July 1554
no children[2]
17 November 1558
St. James's Palace
aged 42[2]
Elizabeth I
("The Virgin Queen")
17 November
1558–1603[2]
7 September 1533
Greenwich Palace
daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn[2]
unmarried24 March 1603
Richmond Palace
aged 69[2]

House of Stuart

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
James I
24 March
1603–1625[5]
19 June 1566
Edinburgh Castle
son of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and Mary, Queen of Scots[5]
Anne of Denmark
Oslo
23 November 1589
nine children[5]
27 March 1625
Theobalds House
aged 58[5]
Charles I
("Saint Charles the Martyr")
27 March
1625–1649[6]
19 November 1600
Dunfermline Palace
son of James I and Anne of Denmark[6]
Henrietta Maria of France
St Augustine's Abbey
13 June 1625
nine children[6]
30 January 1649
Whitehall Palace
aged 48 (executed)[6]

Commonwealth

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Oliver Cromwell
16 December
1653–1658[7]
25 April 1599
Huntingdon[7]
son of Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Stewart[8]
Elizabeth Bourchier
St Giles[9]
22 August 1620
nine children[7]
3 September 1658
Whitehall
aged 59[7]
Richard Cromwell
("Tumbledown Dick")
3 September 1658
– 7 May 1659[10]
4 October 1626
Huntingdon
son of Oliver Cromwell and Elizabeth Bourchier[10]
Dorothy Maijor
May 1649
nine children[10]
12 July 1712
Cheshunt
aged 85[11]

House of Stuart (restored)

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles II
8 May
1660–1685[12]
29 May 1630
St. James's Palace
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France[12]
Catherine of Braganza
Portsmouth
21 May 1662
three children (none survived infancy)[12]
6 February 1685
Whitehall Palace
aged 54[12]
James II
6 February 1685 –
23 December 1688[13]
14 October 1633
St. James's Palace
son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France[13]
(1) Anne Hyde
The Strand
3 September 1660
eight children

(2) Mary of Modena
Dover
21 November 1673
seven children[13]
16 September 1701
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
aged 67[13]
William III of Orange
(Willem Hendrik,
Prins van Oranje)

13 February
1689–1702[14]
4 November 1650
The Hague
son of William II, Prince of Orange and Mary Stuart[15]
St James's Palace
4 November 1677
three children (none survived infancy)[14]
8 March 1702
Kensington Palace
aged 51[14]
Mary II
13 February
1689–1694[13]
30 April 1662
St James's Palace
daughter of James II and Anne Hyde[13]
28 December 1694
Kensington Palace
aged 32[13]
Anne
8 March
1702–1714[16]
6 February 1665
St James's Palace
daughter of James II and Anne Hyde[17]
George of Denmark
St James's Palace
28 July 1683
17 children[17]
1 August 1714
Kensington Palace
aged 49[17]

House of Hanover

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
George I
1 August
1714–1727
28 May 1660
Osnabrück
son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia of Celle
Germany
1 November 1682
two children
11 June 1727
Osnabrück
aged 67
George II
11 June
1727–1760
30 October 1683
Hanover
son of George I and Sophia of Celle
Caroline of Ansbach
Hanover
22 August 1705
eight children
25 October 1760
Palace of Westminster
aged 76
George III
25 October
1760–1 January
1801
4 June 1738
Norfolk House
son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
aged 81

During George III's reign The Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland merged to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Act of Union 1800.

In 1949 twenty-six counties in the southern part of Ireland became the Republic of Ireland and thus the British Monarchs continue to rule only over the remaining northern counties of the island that are part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

As the British monarchs continue to rule over Northern Ireland, as a constituent part of the United Kingdom, the continuation of this list is at List of British monarchs.

References

  1. ^ a b c d "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10148". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10148.htm#i101473. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10150". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10150.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  3. ^ a b c Jane was deposed in favour of Mary Tudor. "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10152". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10152.htm#i101513. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  4. ^ "Lady Jane Grey: Marriage". http://www.britannia.com/history/ladyjane/marriage.html. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  5. ^ a b c d "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10137". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10137.htm#i101370. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  6. ^ a b c d "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10138". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10138.htm#i101375. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658". http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/oliver-cromwell.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  8. ^ "Oliver Cromwell - Faq 1". http://www.olivercromwell.org/faqs1.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  9. ^ "New Page 1". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. http://web.archive.org/web/20070929223348/http://www.stgilescripplegate.org.uk/frhistory.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  10. ^ a b c "Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, 1626-1712". http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/richard-cromwell.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  11. ^ "CROMWELL, Richard - Archontology.org". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/commonwealth/cromwell2.php. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  12. ^ a b c d "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10139". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10139.htm#i101388. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10136". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10136.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  14. ^ a b c "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10141". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10141.htm#i101402. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  15. ^ "WILLIAM III - Archontology.org". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/king_grbritain/william3.php. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  16. ^ "Anne (England) - Archontology.org". http://www.archontology.org/nations/england/king_grbritain/anne.php. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  17. ^ a b c "thePeerage.com - Person Page 10134". http://www.thepeerage.com/p10134.htm#i101338. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 

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