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Scudetto

The Italian football champions (Italian: Scudetto, "little shield", plural: scudetti) are the annual winners of Serie A, Italy's premier annual football league competition. The title has been contested since 1898 in varying forms of competition. While Internazionale are the current champions, Juventus has won a record 27 championship titles. The first time the Scudetto was used was in 1924 when Genoa won its 9th championship title and decided to add a little shield to their shirt as to reward and celebrate themselves as champions.

The finals of the first Italian Football Championship was decided in a single day with four teams competing, three from Turin and one from Genoa. The title was decided using a knock-out format between the finalists with Genoa Cricket and Athletic Club, the inaugural winners. The knock-out format was used until the 1909–10 season, when a league consisting of nine teams was formed. The regular league season was followed by a championship game featuring the first and second place teams. The championship, which had been confined to a single league in the north of Italy, became a national competition in 1929 with the foundation of Serie A and Serie B.

Several times in history mark when a champion was not named. World Wars suspended the official Championship from both 1915 to 1919 and 1943 to 1945, although unofficial championships were contested in both 1916 and 1944. Match fixing prevented a champion being declared in both the 1926–27 and 2004–05 seasons with Torino Football Club and Juventus Football Club being stripped of their titles, respectively.

Contents

History

Italian Football Championship

Juventus, 1903 runners-up

The first official national football tournament was organised in 1898 by the Italian Football Federation (Italian: Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio, FIGC).[1] This tournament, the final matches of the first Italian Football Championship, were held in a single day on 8 May 1898 in Turin. Genoa Cricket and Athletic Club were crowned as champions, defeating Internazionale Torino by 3–1, following extra time.[1] In the following years, the tournament was structured into regional groups with the winners of each group participating in a playoff with the eventual winners being declared champions. The format was modified for the 1909–10 season which was played in a league format. Nine clubs participated playing each other both home and away, and with the clubs finishing first and second playing for the championship in a single playoff final. This season was the first victory for Football Club Internazionale Milano, who defeated Unione Sportiva Pro Vercelli Calcio in the final by a score of 10–3.[2] The 1912–13 season saw the competition nationalised with North and South divisions.[3] In 1916, Associazione Calcio Milan won the Coppa Federale, which for that season was a substitute for the championship, which had been suspended because of World War I.[4] The tournament that year was limited to clubs from the north, with the exception of Pro Vercelli, but was not treated as an official trophy or recognised by FIGC as an Italian title.

Controversy hit the Championship in the 1921–22 season which saw the major clubs (including Pro Vercelli, Bologna and Juventus) in dispute with the FIGC. The teams had asked for a reduction in the number of clubs in the top division in accordance with a plan drawn up by Vittorio Pozzo, the Italian national team coach. Pozzo's plan was dismissed and the CCI (Italian: Confederazione Calcistica Italiana) was founded and organised a 1921–22 CCI league to run concurrently with the 1921–22 season organised by the FIGC.[5] Further scandal followed in the 1926–27 season when title-winners Torino Football Club were stripped of their Scudetto following an FIGC investigation. A Torino official was found to have bribed opposing defender Luigi Allemandi in Torino's match against Juventus on 5 June 1927, and thus the season finished with no declared champions.[6]

Serie A

Following the scandal of match-fixing and the split between the FIGC and the CCI, the Viareggio charter was drawn up to legalise professionalism, ban foreign players, and rationalise the championship from its regionalised state into national leagues: the Serie A and Serie B.[7] The 1929–30 season was the inaugural Serie A season and was won by Ambrosiana. The next 11 years were also dominated by Juventus Football Club and Bologna Football Club 1909, when all of the Scudetti were won between the three of them. The competition was truncated as the Championship was suspended in 1943 due to World War II.[5] A Championship was held in 1944, the Campionato Alta Italia, and won by Spezia Calcio 1906.[8] The title was not officially recognised by FIGC until 2002 and even then the Scudetto is considered a "decoration."[9]

The post-war years were dominated by Il Grande Torino while Juventus finished second three times in a row.[5] The 1950s saw the gradual emergence of Associazione Calcio Milan, with the help of Swedish striker Gunnar Nordahl, who was Serie A's leading scorer (Italian: Capocannonieri) for five out of six seasons. Juventus began to dominate throughout the 1970s and early 1980s with nine Scudetti in fifteen seasons while the 1990s saw Milan come to prominence.[5]

Serie A was dealt another blow by the 2006 Serie A scandal which involved alleged widespread match fixing implicating league champions Juventus, and other major teams including AC Milan, Fiorentina, Lazio, and Reggina.[10] The FIGC ruled Juventus be stripped of their title, relegated to Serie B and start the following season with a nine-point deduction. The other clubs involved suffered similarly with relegation and points deduction.[11]

Winners

Italian Football Championship

Year Winner Runners-up Top scorer (club) (goals)
1898 Genoa Cricket & Football Club Internazionale Torino
1899 Genoa Internazionale Torino
1900 Genoa Torinese
1901 Milan Cricket & Football Club Genoa
1902 Genoa Milan
1903 Genoa Juventus
1904 Genoa Juventus
1905 Juventus Football Club Genoa
1906 Milan Juventus
1907 Milan Torino
1908 Unione Ginnica Pro Vercelli US Milanese
1909 Pro Vercelli US Milanese
1909–10 Football Club Internazionale Milano Pro Vercelli
1910–11 Pro Vercelli Milan (League)
Vicenza (National)
1911–12 Pro Vercelli Milan (League)
Venezia (National)
1912–13 Pro Vercelli Genoa (League)
Lazio (National)
1913–14 Unione Ginnica Casale Genoa (League)
Lazio (National)
1914–15 Genoa [12] Torino
1916 Milan [13] Juventus → Unofficial title
1916–19
Postponed due to First World War
1919–20 Internazionale Juventus (League)
Livorno (National)
1920–21 Pro Vercelli Bologna (League)
Pisa (National)
1921–22
(C.C.I.)
Pro Vercelli Genoa (League)
Fortitudo Roma (National)
1921–22
(F.I.G.C.)
Unione Ginnica Novese Sampierdarenese
1922–23 Genoa Pro Vercelli (League)
Lazio (National)
1923–24 Genoa Bologna (League)
Savoia (National)
Austria Heinrich Schönfeld (Torino) (22)
1924–25 Bologna Football Club Genoa (League)
Alba Trastevere (National)
Italy Mario Magnozzi (Livorno) (19)
1925–26 Juventus Bologna (League)
Alba Trastevere (National)
Hungary Ferenc Hirzer (Juventus) (35)
1926–27 No winner [14] Bologna Austria Anton Powolny (Inter) (22)
1927–28 Torino Football Club Genoa Argentina Julio Libonatti (Torino) (35)
1928–29 Bologna Torino Italy Gino Rossetti (Torino) (36)

Serie A

Year Winner Runners-up Top scorer (club) (goals)
1929–30 Ambrosiana Genoa Italy Giuseppe Meazza (Ambrosiana) (31)
1930–31 Juventus Roma Italy Rodolfo Volk (Roma) (29)
1931–32 Juventus Bologna Uruguay Pedro Petrone (Fiorentina)
Italy Angelo Schiavio (Bologna) (25)
1932–33 Juventus Internazionale Italy Felice Placido Borel II° (Juventus) (29)
1933–34 Juventus Internazionale Italy Felice Placido Borel II° (Juventus) (31)
1934–35 Juventus Internazionale Argentina Enrico Guaita (Roma) (31)
1935–36 Bologna Roma Italy Giuseppe Meazza (Ambrosina-Inter) (25)
1936–37 Bologna Lazio Italy Silvio Piola (Lazio) (21)
1937–38 Ambrosiana-Inter Juventus Italy Giuseppe Meazza (Ambrosiana-Inter) (20)
1938–39 Bologna Torino Italy Aldo Boffi (Milan)
Uruguay Ettore Puricelli (Bologna) (19)
1939–40 Ambrosiana-Inter Bologna Italy Aldo Boffi (Milan) (24)
1940–41 Bologna Internazionale Uruguay Ettore Puricelli (Bologna) (22)
1941–42 Associazione Sportiva Roma Torino Italy Aldo Boffi (Milan) (22)
1942–43 Torino Livorno Italy Silvio Piola (Lazio) (21)
1944 Spezia Calcio [15] Torino → Unofficial title
1944–45
Postponed due to Second World War
1945–46 Torino Juventus Italy Eusebio Castigliano (Torino) (13)
1946–47 Torino Juventus Italy Valentino Mazzola (Torino) (29)
1947–48 Torino Milan Italy Giampiero Boniperti (Juventus) (27)
1948–49 Torino [16] Internazionale Hungary István Nyers (Internazionale) (26)
1949–50 Juventus Milan Sweden Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (35)
1950–51 Milan Internazionale Sweden Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (34)
1951–52 Juventus Milan Denmark John Hansen (Juventus) (30)
1952–53 Internazionale Juventus Sweden Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (26)
1953–54 Internazionale Juventus Sweden Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (23)
1954–55 Milan Udinese Sweden Gunnar Nordahl (Milan) (26)
1955–56 Associazione Calcio Fiorentina Milan Italy Gino Pivatelli (Bologna) (29)
1956–57 Milan Fiorentina Brazil Dino da Costa (Roma) (22)
1957–58 Juventus Fiorentina Wales John Charles (Juventus) (28)
1958–59 Milan Fiorentina Argentina Antonio Valentin Angelillo (Internazionale) (33)
1959–60 Juventus Fiorentina Argentina Omar Sivori (Juventus) (28)
1960–61 Juventus Milan Italy Sergio Brighenti (Sampdoria) (27)
1961–62 Milan Internazionale Brazil José Altafini (Milan)
Italy Aurelio Milani (Fiorentina) (22)
1962–63 Internazionale Juventus Denmark Harald Nielsen (Bologna)
Argentina Pedro Manfredini (Roma) (19)
1963–64 Bologna Internazionale Denmark Harald Nielsen (Bologna) (21)
1964–65 Internazionale Milan Italy Sandro Mazzola (Internazionale)
Italy Alberto Orlando (Fiorentina) (17)
1965–66 Internazionale Bologna Italy Luis Vinicio (Vicenza) (25)
1966–67 Juventus Internazionale Italy Gigi Riva (Cagliari) (18)
1967–68 Milan Napoli Italy Pierino Prati (Milan) (15)
1968–69 Fiorentina Cagliari Italy Gigi Riva (Cagliari) (21)
1969–70 Cagliari Calcio Internazionale Italy Gigi Riva (Cagliari) (21)
1970–71 Internazionale Milan Italy Roberto Boninsegna (Internazionale) (24)
1971–72 Juventus Milan Italy Roberto Boninsegna (Internazionale) (22)
1972–73 Juventus Milan Italy Giuseppe Savoldi (Bologna)
Italy Paolino Pulici (Torino)
Italy Gianni Rivera (Milan) (17)
1973–74 Società Sportiva Lazio Juventus Italy Giorgio Chinaglia (Lazio) (24)
1974–75 Juventus Napoli Italy Paolino Pulici (Torino) (18)
1975–76 Torino Juventus Italy Paolino Pulici (Torino) (21)
1976–77 Juventus Torino Italy Francesco Graziani (Torino) (21)
1977–78 Juventus Vicenza Italy Paolo Rossi (Vicenza) (24)
1978–79 Milan Perugia Italy Bruno Giordano (Lazio) (19)
1979–80 Internazionale Juventus Italy Roberto Bettega (Juventus) (16)
1980–81 Juventus Roma Italy Roberto Pruzzo (Roma) (18)
1981–82 Juventus Fiorentina Italy Roberto Pruzzo (Roma) (15)
1982–83 Roma Juventus France Michel Platini (Juventus) (16)
1983–84 Juventus Roma France Michel Platini (Juventus) (20)
1984–85 Hellas Verona Torino France Michel Platini (Juventus) (18)
1985–86 Juventus Roma Italy Roberto Pruzzo (Roma) (19)
1986–87 Società Sportiva Napoli Juventus Italy Pietro Paolo Virdis (Milan) (17)
1987–88 Milan Napoli Argentina Diego Maradona (Napoli) (15)
1988–89 Internazionale Napoli Italy Aldo Serena (Internazionale) (22)
1989–90 Società Sportiva Napoli Milan Netherlands Marco van Basten (Milan) (19)
1990–91 Unione Calcio Sampdoria Milan Italy Gianluca Vialli (Sampdoria) (19)
1991–92 Milan Juventus Netherlands Marco van Basten (Milan) (25)
1992–93 Milan Internazionale Italy Giuseppe Signori (Lazio) (26)
1993–94 Milan Juventus Italy Giuseppe Signori (Lazio) (23)
1994–95 Juventus Lazio Argentina Gabriel Batistuta (Fiorentina) (26)
1995–96 Milan Juventus Italy Igor Protti (Bari)
Italy Giuseppe Signori (Lazio) (24)
1996–97 Juventus Parma Italy Filippo Inzaghi (Atalanta) (24)
1997–98 Juventus Internazionale Germany Oliver Bierhoff (Udinese) (27)
1998–99 Milan Lazio Brazil Márcio Amoroso (Udinese) (22)
1999–00 Lazio Juventus Ukraine Andriy Shevchenko (Milan) (24)
2000–01 Roma Juventus Argentina Hernán Crespo (Lazio) (26)
2001–02 Juventus Roma France David Trezeguet (Juventus)
Italy Dario Hübner (Piacenza) (24)
2002–03 Juventus Internazionale Italy Christian Vieri (Internazionale) (24)
2003–04 Milan Roma Ukraine Andriy Shevchenko (Milan) (24)
2004–05 No winner [17] Milan Italy Cristiano Lucarelli (Livorno) (24)
2005–06 Internazionale [18] Roma [18] Italy Luca Toni (Fiorentina) (31)
2006–07 Internazionale Roma Italy Francesco Totti (Roma) (26)
2007–08 Internazionale Roma Italy Alessandro Del Piero (Juventus) (21)
2008–09 Internazionale Juventus Sweden Zlatan Ibrahimović (Internazionale) (25)

Performances

Clubs

The following table lists the performance of each club describing winners of the Championship.

Club Winners Runners-up Winning seasons
Juventus
27
21
1905, 1925–26, 1930–31, 1931–32, 1932–33, 1933–34, 1934–35, 1949–50, 1951–52, 1957–58, 1959–60, 1960–61, 1966–67, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1974–75, 1976–77, 1977–78, 1980–81, 1981–82, 1983–84, 1985–86, 1994–95, 1996–97, 1997–98, 2001–02, 2002–03
Milan
17
15
1901, 1906, 1907, 1950–51, 1954–55, 1956–57, 1958–59, 1961–62, 1967–68, 1978–79, 1987–88, 1991–92, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1995–96, 1998–99, 2003–04
Internazionale
17
13
1909–10, 1919–20, 1929–30, 1937–38, 1939–40, 1952–53, 1953–54, 1962–63, 1964–65, 1965–66, 1970–71, 1979–80, 1988–89, 2005–06, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09
Genoa
9
8
1898, 1899, 1900, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1914–15, 1922–23, 1923–24
Torino
7
7
1927–28, 1942–43, 1945–46, 1946–47, 1947–48, 1948–49, 1975–76
Bologna
7
7
1924–25, 1928–29, 1935–36, 1936–37, 1938–39, 1940–41, 1963–64
Pro Vercelli
7
2
1908, 1909, 1910–11, 1911–12, 1912–13, 1920–21, 1921–22 (CCI)
Roma
3
10
1941–42, 1982–83, 2000–01
Fiorentina
2
5
1955–56, 1968–69
Napoli
2
4
1986–87, 1989–90
Lazio
2
3
1973–74, 1999–00
Cagliari
1
1
1969–70
Casale
1
-
1913–14
Novese
1
-
1921–22 (FIGC)
Sampdoria
1
-
1990–91
Verona
1
-
1984–85

Regions

The following table lists the Italian football champions by region.

Region Titles Winning Clubs
 Piedmont
43
Juventus (27), Pro Vercelli (7), Torino (7), Casale (1), Novese (1)
 Lombardy
34
Milan (17), Internazionale (17)
 Liguria
10
Genoa (9), Sampdoria (1)
 Emilia-Romagna
7
Bologna (7)
 Lazio
5
Roma (3), Lazio (2)
 Campania
2
Napoli (2)
 Tuscany
2
Fiorentina (2)
 Sardinia
1
Cagliari (1)
 Veneto
1
Verona (1)

Cities

The following table lists the Italian football champions by city.

City Titles Winning Clubs
Torino-Stemma.png Turin
34
Juventus (27), Torino (7)
Milan
34
Milan (17), Internazionale (17)
Genoa
10
Genoa (9), Sampdoria (1)
Bologna
7
Bologna (7)
Vercelli
7
Pro Vercelli (7)
Rome
5
Roma (3), Lazio (2)
FlorenceCoA.svg Florence
2
Fiorentina (2)
Naples
2
Napoli (2)
Cagliari-Stemma.png Cagliari
1
Cagliari (1)
Casale Monferrato
1
Casale (1)
Novi Ligure
1
Novese (1)
Verona
1
Verona (1)

See also

Sources

  • Almanacco Illustrato del Calcio - La Storia 1898–2004, Panini Edizioni, Modena, September 2005

References and notes

  1. ^ a b "FIGC History - 1898". FIGC. http://www.figc.it/english/storia/storia_completa.htm#1898. Retrieved 2007-04-26.  
  2. ^ "Italy - Championship History 1898-1923". rsssf.com. http://www.rsssf.com/tablesi/italhist98-25.html#10. Retrieved 2007-04-26.  
  3. ^ "FIGC History - 1913". FIGC. http://www.figc.it/english/storia/storia_completa.htm#1913. Retrieved 2007-04-26.  
  4. ^ "Juventus vs Milan". rsssf.com. http://www.rsssf.com/tablesj/juvemilan.html. Retrieved 2007-04-26.  
  5. ^ a b c d "Italy - List of Champions". rsssf.com. http://www.rsssf.com/tablesi/italchamp.html. Retrieved 2007-04-26.  
  6. ^ James Lawton (2006-07-08). "Italy are fabulously flawed". The Independent. http://sport.independent.co.uk/football/internationals/article1166526.ece. Retrieved 2007-04-17.  
  7. ^ John Foot. Calcio - a history of Italian Football. Fourth Estate. ISBN 0007175744.  
  8. ^ "Italy 1943/44 (War Championship)". rsssf.com. http://www.rsssf.com/tablesi/ital44.html. Retrieved 2007-04-26.  
  9. ^ "Lo scudetto del '44 - 4a parte" (in Italian). Spezia Calcio 1906. http://www.acspezia1906.it/LaStoria/lo_scudetto_del_44_4p.asp. Retrieved 2007-04-26.  
  10. ^ "Serie A quartet will stand trial". BBC Sport. 2006-06-23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/europe/4993482.stm. Retrieved 2007-04-26.  
  11. ^ "Italian trio relegated to Serie B". BBC Sport. 2006-07-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/europe/5164194.stm. Retrieved 2007-04-26.  
  12. ^ Championship unfinished due to WWI, title awarded by the FIGC
  13. ^ Title not recognised by FIGC.
  14. ^ Torino stripped of their title.
  15. ^ Not recognised by FIGC until 2002, considered a decorative title.
  16. ^ Title awarded by FIGC following the Superga air disaster.
  17. ^ Juventus stripped of their title.
  18. ^ a b Standings decided by FIGC after Juventus relegation.

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