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Japan

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The following is a traditional list of Emperors of Japan. Dates for the first 28 emperors, and especially the first 16, are based on the Japanese Calendar system. It is unlikely that the state of Japan was actually founded in 660 BC; see also Asuka period, Himiko. A list of other Japanese calling themselves or being called emperors (追尊天皇, 尊称天皇, 異説に天皇とされる者, 天皇に準ずる者, 自称天皇) can be seen in the Japanese wikipedia page 天皇の一覧(List of Japanese monarchs)

Contents

List of Emperors of Japan

TABLE: List of Emperors of Japan
# Reign Posthumous name Personal name (imina) Notes
Legendary Emperors
1 660 BC to 585 BC Emperor Jimmu Kamuyamato Iwarebiko Presumed Legendary; claimed descent from the sun goddess, Amaterasu[1]
2 581 BC to 549 BC Emperor Suizei Kamu Nunagawamimi no Mikoto Presumed Legendary.[2]
3 549 BC to 511 BC Emperor Annei Shikitsuhiko Tamademi no Mikoto Presumed Legendary.[3]
4 510 BC to 476 BC Emperor Itoku Oho Yamatohiko Sukitomo no Mikoto Presumed Legendary.[3]
5 475 BC to 393 BC Emperor Kōshō Mimatsuhiko Kaesine no Mikoto Presumed Legendary.[4]
6 392 BC to 291 BC Emperor Kōan Oho Yamato Tarasihiko Kuniosi Hito no Mikoto Presumed Legendary.[5]
7 290 BC to 215 BC Emperor Kōrei Oho Yamato Nekohiko Futoni no Mikoto Presumed Legendary.[6]
8 214 BC to 158 BC Emperor Kōgen Oho Yamato Nekohiko Kuni Kuru no Mikoto Presumed Legendary.[7]
9 157 BC to 98 BC Emperor Kaika Waka Yamato Nekohiko Oho Bibino no Mikoto Presumed Legendary.[8]
10 97 BC to 30 BC Emperor Sujin Mimaki Irihiko Inie no Mikoto Presumed Legendary.[9]
11 29 BC to 70 AD Emperor Suinin Ikume Irihiko Isachi no Mikoto Presumed Legendary.[10]
12 71 to 130 Emperor Keikō Oho Tarasihiko Osirowake no Mikoto Presumed Legendary.[11]
13 131 to 191 Emperor Seimu Waka Tarasihiko Presumed Legendary.[12]
14 192 to 200 Emperor Chūai Tarasi Nakatsuhiko no Mikoto Presumed Legendary.[13]
201 to 269 Empress Jingū Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto Presumed Legendary; interregnum.[14]
Kofun Period
15 270 to 310 Emperor Ōjin Fondano Miko no Mikoto / Otomowake no Mikoto / Humudawake no Mikoto Last proto-historical emperor, deified as Hachiman.[15]
16 313 to 399 Emperor Nintoku Oho Sazaki no Mikoto Inaccurate dates.[16]
17 400 to 405 Emperor Richū Isaho Wake no Mikoto Inaccurate dates.[17]
18 406 to 410 Emperor Hanzei Tajihi Mizuha Wake no Mikoto Inaccurate dates.[18]
19 411 to 453 Emperor Ingyō Wo Asazuma Wakugo no Sukune Inaccurate dates.[19]
20 453 to 456 Emperor Ankō Anaho no Mikoto Inaccurate dates.[20]
21 456 to 479 Emperor Yūryaku Oho Hatsuse Wakatakeru no Mikoto Inaccurate dates.[21]
22 480 to 484 Emperor Seinei Siraka Takehiro Kuni Osi Waka Yamato Neko no Mikoto Inaccurate dates.[22]
23 485 to 487 Emperor Kenzō Ohoke no Mikoto Inaccurate dates.[23]
24 488 to 498 Emperor Ninken Ohosi(Ohosu) no Mikoto/ Simano Iratsuko Inaccurate dates.[24]
25 498 to 506 Emperor Buretsu Wohatsuse Wakasazaki Inaccurate dates.[25]
26 507 to 531 Emperor Keitai Ōto/Hikofuto (Hikofuto no Mikoto/Ōdo no Sumera Mikoto) Possible founder of new dynasty.[26]
27 531 to 535 Emperor Ankan Hirokuni Oshitake Kanahi no Mikoto Inaccurate dates.[27]
28 535 to 539 Emperor Senka Takeo Hirokuni Oshitate no Mikoto Inaccurate dates.[28]
Asuka period (592-710)
29 539 to 571 Emperor Kimmei Amekuni Oshiharuki Hironiwa no Sumera Mikoto Traditional dates.[29]
30 572 to 585 Emperor Bidatsu Osada no Nunakura no Futotamashiki no Mikoto Traditional dates.[30]
31 585 to 587 Emperor Yōmei Ooe/Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto Traditional dates.[31]
32 587 to 592 Emperor Sushun Hatsusebe no (Wakasasagi) Mikoto Traditional dates.[32]
33 592 to 628 Empress Suiko Nukatabe/Toyomike Kashikiyahime First non-legendary female emperor (Prince Shotoku acted as her regent); traditional dates.[33]
34 629 to 641 Emperor Jomei Tamura (Oki Nagatarashihi Hironuka no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates.[34]
35 642 to 645 Empress Kōgyoku Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates,[35] reigned twice
36 645 to 654 Emperor Kōtoku Karu (Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates.[36]
37 655 to 661 Empress Saimei -- See 35 above-- traditional dates.[37]
38 661 to 672 Emperor Tenji Katsuragi/Nakano-ooe (Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Mikoto/Amatsu Mikoto Sakiwake no Mikoto) Traditional dates.[38]
39 672 Emperor Kōbun Ōtomo Posthumously named (1870),[39] usurped by Temmu
40 672 to 686 Emperor Temmu Ōama/Ohoshiama/Ōsama (Ame no Nunahara Oki no Mahito no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates.[40]
41 686 to 697 Empress Jitō Unonosarara (Takama no Harahiro no Hime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates.[41]
42 697 to 707 Emperor Mommu Karu (Ame no Mamune Toyoohoji no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates.[42]
43 707 to 715 Empress Gemmei Ahe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Mishiro Toyokuni Narihime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates.[43]
Nara Period (710-794)
44 715 to 724 Empress Genshō Hidaka/Niinomi (Yamatoneko Takamizu Kiyotarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates.[44]
45 724 to 749 Emperor Shōmu Obito (Ameshirushi Kunioshiharuki Toyosakurahiko no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates.[45]
46 749 to 758 Empress Kōken Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) Traditional dates,[46] reigned twice
47 758 to 764 Emperor Junnin Ōi Posthumously named (1870),[47] dethroned by Shōtoku
48 764 to 770 Empress Shōtoku -- See 46 above -- traditional dates.[48]
49 770 to 781 Emperor Kōnin Shirakabe (Amemune Takatsugi no Mikoto) Traditional dates.[49]
Heian Period (794-1192)
50 781 to 806 Emperor Kammu Yamabe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Hitsugi Iyaderi no Mikoto) Traditional dates.[50]
51 806 to 809 Emperor Heizei Ate (Yamatoneko Ameoshikuni Takahiko no Mikoto) Traditional dates.[51]
52 809 to 823 Emperor Saga Kamino Traditional dates.[52]
53 823 to 833 Emperor Junna Ōtomo Traditional dates.[53]
54 833 to 850 Emperor Ninmyō Masara Traditional dates.[54]
55 850 to 858 Emperor Montoku Michiyasu Traditional dates.[55]
56 858 to 876 Emperor Seiwa Korehito Traditional dates.[56]
57 876 to 884 Emperor Yōzei Sadaakira Traditional dates.[57]
58 884 to 887 Emperor Kōkō Tokiyasu Traditional dates.[58]
59 887 to 897 Emperor Uda Sadami Traditional dates.[59]
60 897 to 930 Emperor Daigo Atsuhito Traditional dates.[60]
61 930 to 946 Emperor Suzaku Yutaakira Traditional dates.[61]
62 946 to 967 Emperor Murakami Nariakira Traditional dates.[62]
63 967 to 969 Emperor Reizei Norihira Traditional dates.[63]
64 969 to 984 Emperor En'yū Morihira Traditional dates.[64]
65 984 to 986 Emperor Kazan Morosada Traditional dates.[65]
66 986 to 1011 Emperor Ichijō Yasuhito/Kanehito Traditional dates.[66]
67 1011 to 1016 Emperor Sanjō Okisada/Iyasada Traditional dates.[67]
68 1016 to 1036 Emperor Go-Ichijō Atsuhira Traditional dates.[68]
69 1036 to 1045 Emperor Go-Suzaku Atsunaga/Atsuyoshi Traditional dates.[69]
70 1045 to 1068 Emperor Go-Reizei Chikahito Traditional dates.[70]
71 1068 to 1073 Emperor Go-Sanjō Takahito Traditional dates.[71]
72 1073 to 1086 Emperor Shirakawa Sadahito Traditional dates.[72]
73 1087 to 1107 Emperor Horikawa Taruhito Traditional dates.[73]
74 1107 to 1123 Emperor Toba Munehito Traditional dates.[74]
75 1123 to 1142 Emperor Sutoku Akihito Traditional dates.[75]
76 1142 to 1155 Emperor Konoe Narihito Traditional dates.[76]
77 1155 to 1158 Emperor Go-Shirakawa Masahito Traditional dates.[77]
78 1158 to 1165 Emperor Nijō Morihito Traditional dates.[78]
79 1165 to 1168 Emperor Rokujō Yorihito Traditional dates.[79]
80 1168 to 1180 Emperor Takakura Norihito Traditional dates.[79]
81 1180 to 1185 Emperor Antoku Tokihito Traditional dates.[80]
82 1183 to 1198 Emperor Go-Toba Takahira Traditional dates.[81]
Kamakura Period (1192-1333)
83 1198 to 1210 Emperor Tsuchimikado Tamehito Traditional dates.[82]
84 1210 to 1221 Emperor Juntoku Morihira/Morinari Traditional dates.[83]
85 1221 Emperor Chūkyō Kanehira/Kanenari Pothumously named (1870).[84] unthroned
86 1221 to 1232 Emperor Go-Horikawa Yutahito Traditional dates.[85]
87 1232 to 1242 Emperor Shijō Mitsuhito/Hidehito Traditional dates.[86]
88 1242 to 1246 Emperor Go-Saga Kunihito Traditional dates.[87]
89 1246 to 1260 Emperor Go-Fukakusa Hisahito Traditional dates.[88]
90 1260 to 1274 Emperor Kameyama Tsunehito Traditional dates.[89]
91 1274 to 1287 Emperor Go-Uda Yohito Traditional dates.[90]
92 1287 to 1298 Emperor Fushimi Hirohito Traditional dates.[91]
93 1298 to 1301 Emperor Go-Fushimi Tanehito Traditional dates.[92]
94 1301 to 1308 Emperor Go-Nijō Kuniharu Traditional dates.[93]
95 1308 to 1318 Emperor Hanazono Tomihito Traditional dates.[94]
96 1318 to 1339 Emperor Go-Daigo Takaharu Traditional dates;[95] Southern Court
Northern Court
1331 to 1333 Emperor Kōgon Kazuhito [96]
1336 to 1348 Emperor Kōmyō Yutahito [97]
1348 to 1351 Emperor Sukō Okihito [98]
1351 to 1352 Interregnum
1352 to 1371 Emperor Go-Kōgon Iyahito [99]
1371 to 1382 Emperor Go-En'yū Ohito [100]
1382 to 1392 Emperor Go-Komatsu -- See 100 below -- reunified courts in 1392 [101]
Muromachi Period (1392-1573)
97 1339 to 1368 Emperor Go-Murakami Norinaga/Noriyoshi [102] Southern Court
98 1368 to 1383 Emperor Chōkei Yutanari [103] Southern Court
99 1383 to 1392 Emperor Go-Kameyama Hironari [104] Southern Court
100 1392 to 1412 Emperor Go-Komatsu Motohito [105]
101 1412 to 1428 Emperor Shōkō Mihito Traditional dates.[106]
102 1428 to 1464 Emperor Go-Hanazono Hikohito Traditional dates.[107]
103 1464 to 1500 Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado Fusahito Traditional dates.[108]
104 1500 to 1526 Emperor Go-Kashiwabara Katsuhito Traditional dates.[109]
105 1526 to 1557 Emperor Go-Nara Tomohito Traditional dates.[110]
106 1557 to 1586 Emperor Ōgimachi Michihito Traditional dates.[111]
107 1586 to 1611 Emperor Go-Yōzei Kazuhito/Katahito Traditional dates.[112]
Edo Period (1603-1867)
108 1611 to 1629 Emperor Go-Mizunoo(a.k.a. Emperor Go-Minoo) Kotohito Traditional dates.[113]
109 1629 to 1643 Empress Meishō Okiko Traditional notes.[114]
110 1643 to 1654 Emperor Go-Kōmyō Tsuguhito Traditional dates.[115]
111 1655 to 1663 Emperor Go-Sai Nagahito Traditional dates.[116]
112 1663 to 1687 Emperor Reigen Satohito Traditional dates.[117]
113 1687 to 1709 Emperor Higashiyama Asahito Traditional dates.[118]
114 1709 to 1735 Emperor Nakamikado Yasuhito Traditional dates.[119]
115 1735 to 1747 Emperor Sakuramachi Teruhito Traditional dates.[120]
116 1747 to 1762 Emperor Momozono Toohito Traditional dates.[121]
117 1762 to 1771 Empress Go-Sakuramachi Toshiko Traditional dates.[122]
118 1771 to 1779 Emperor Go-Momozono Hidehito Traditional dates.[123]
119 1780 to 1817 Emperor Kōkaku Tomohito Traditional dates.[124]
120 1817 to 1846 Emperor Ninkō Ayahito Traditional dates.[125]
121 1846 to 1867 Emperor Kōmei Osahito
Modern Japan (1868-present)
122 1867 to 1912 Emperor Meiji Mutsuhito First emperor in constitutional monarchy
123 1912 to 1926 Emperor Taishō Yoshihito
124 1926 to 1989 Emperor Shōwa Hirohito Last emperor to hold political power
125 1989 to present none Akihito Referred to as 'the Present Emperor' or Tenno Heika (i.e. His Majesty the Emperor) in Japanese and as Emperor Akihito in English. After his death, he will presumably be renamed Emperor Heisei.

Notes

  1. ^ Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 249; Varley, Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 84-88; Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 1-3.
  2. ^ Brown, pp. 250-251; Varley, pp.88-89; Titisingh, pp. 3-4.
  3. ^ a b Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 89; Titsingh, p. 4.
  4. ^ Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 90; Titsingh, pp. 4-5.
  5. ^ Brown, pp. 251-252; Varley, p. 90; Titsingh, p. 5.
  6. ^ Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 90-92; Titsingh, pp. 5-6.
  7. ^ Brown, p. 251; Varley, pp. 92-93; Titsingh, p. 6.
  8. ^ Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 93; Titsingh, pp. 6-7.
  9. ^ Brown, p. 253; Varley, pp. 93-95; Titsingh, pp. 7-9.
  10. ^ Brown, pp. 253-254; Varley, pp. 95-96; Titsingh, pp. 9-10.
  11. ^ Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 96-99; Titsingh, pp. 11-14.
  12. ^ Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 99-100; Titsingh, pp. 14-15.
  13. ^ Brown, pp. 254-255; Varley, pp. 100-101; Titsingh, p. 15.
  14. ^ Brown, p. 255; Varley, pp. 101-103; Titsingh, pp. 16-19.
  15. ^ Brown, pp. 255-256; Varley, pp. 17, 103-110; Titsingh, pp. 19-21.
  16. ^ Brown, pp. 256-257; Varley, pp. 110-111; Titsingh, pp. 22-24.
  17. ^ Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 111; Titsingh, pp. 24-25.
  18. ^ Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 25.
  19. ^ Brown, pp. 257-258; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 26.
  20. ^ Brown, p. 258; Varley, p. 113; Titsingh, p. 26.
  21. ^ Brown, p. 258; Varley, pp. 113-115; Titsingh, pp. 27-28.
  22. ^ Brown, p. 258-259; Varley, pp. 115-116; Titsingh, pp. 28-29.
  23. ^ Brown, p. 259; Varley, p. 116; Titsingh, pp. 29-30.
  24. ^ Brown, pp. 259-260; Varley, p. 117; Titsingh, p. 30.
  25. ^ Brown, p. 260; Varley, pp. 117-118; Titsingh, p. 31.
  26. ^ Brown, pp. 260-261; Varley, pp. 17-18, 119-120; Titsingh, p. 31-32.
  27. ^ Brown, p. 261; Varley, pp. 120-121; Brown, p. 261; Titsingh, p. 33.
  28. ^ Brown, p. 261; Varley, p. 121; Titsingh, p. 33-34.
  29. ^ Brown, pp. 261-262; Varley, pp. 123-124; Titsingh, p. 34-36.
  30. ^ Varley, pp. 124-125; Brown, pp. 262-263; Titsingh, p. 36-37.
  31. ^ Brown, p. 263; Varley, pp. 125-126; Titsingh, p. 37-38.
  32. ^ Brown, p. 263; Varley, p. 126; Titsingh, p. 38-39.
  33. ^ Brown, pp. 263-264; Varley, pp. 126-129; Titsingh, pp. 39-42.
  34. ^ Brown, pp. 264-265; Varley, pp. 129-130; Titsingh, pp. 42-43.
  35. ^ Brown, pp. 265-266; Varley, pp. 130-132; Titsingh, pp. 43-47.
  36. ^ Brown, pp. 266-267; Varley, pp. 132-133; Titsingh, pp. 47-50.
  37. ^ Brown, p. 267; Varley, pp. 133-134; Titsingh, pp. 50-52.
  38. ^ Brown, p. 268; Varley, p. 135; Titsingh, pp. 52-56.
  39. ^ Brown, pp. 268-269; Varley, pp. 135-136; Titsingh, pp. 56-58.
  40. ^ Brown, pp. 268-269; Varley, pp. 135-136; Titsingh, pp. 58-59.
  41. ^ Brown, pp. 269-270; Varley, pp. 136-137; Titsingh, pp. 59-60.
  42. ^ Brown, pp. 270-271; Varley, pp. 137-140; Titsingh, pp. 60-63.
  43. ^ Brown, p. 271; Varley, p. 140; Titsingh, pp. 63-65.
  44. ^ Brown, p. 271-272; Varley, pp. 140-141; Titsingh, pp. 65-67.
  45. ^ Brown, pp. 272-273; Varley, pp. 141-143; Titsingh, pp. 67-73.
  46. ^ Brown, pp. 274-275; Varley, p. 143; Titsingh, pp. 73-75.
  47. ^ Brown, p. 275; Varley, pp. 143-144; Titsingh, pp. 75-78.
  48. ^ Brown, p. 276; Varley, pp. 144-147; Titsingh, pp. 78-81.
  49. ^ Brown, p. 276-277; Varley, pp. 147-148; Titsingh, pp. 81-85.
  50. ^ Brown, pp. 277-279; Varley, pp. 148-150; Titsingh, pp. 86-95.
  51. ^ Brown, pp. 279-280; Varley, p. 151; Titsingh, pp. 96-97.
  52. ^ Brown, pp. 280-282; Varley, pp. 151-164; Titsingh, pp. 97-102.
  53. ^ Brown, p. 282-283; Varley, p. 164; Titsingh, pp. 103-106.
  54. ^ Brown, pp. 283-284; Varley, pp. 164-165; Titsingh, pp. 106-112.
  55. ^ Brown, pp. 285-286; Varley, p. 165; Titsingh, pp. 112-115.
  56. ^ Brown, pp. 286-288; Varley, pp. 166-170; Titsingh, pp. 115-121.
  57. ^ Brown, pp. 288-289; Varley, pp. 170-171; Titsingh, pp. 121-124.
  58. ^ Brown, p. 289; Varley, pp. 171-175; Titsingh, pp. 124-125.
  59. ^ Brown, p. 289-290; Varley, pp. 175-179; Titsingh, pp. 125-129.
  60. ^ Brown, pp. 290-293; Varley, pp. 179-181; Titsingh, pp. 129-134.
  61. ^ Brown, pp. 294-295; Varley, pp. 181-183; Titsingh, pp. 134-138.
  62. ^ Brown, pp. 295-298; Varley, pp. 183-190; Titsingh, pp. 139-142.
  63. ^ Brown, p. 298; Varley, pp. 190-191; Titsingh, pp. 142-143.
  64. ^ Brown, pp. 299-300; Varley, pp. 191-192; Titsingh, pp. 144-148.
  65. ^ Brown, pp. 300-302; Varley, p. 192; Titsingh, pp. 148-149.
  66. ^ Brown, pp. 302-307; Varley, pp. 192-195; Titsingh, pp. 150-154.
  67. ^ Brown, p. 307; Varley, p. 195; Titsingh, pp. 154-155.
  68. ^ Brown, pp. 307-310; Varley, pp. 195-196; Titsingh, pp. 156-160.
  69. ^ Brown, pp. 310-311; Varley, p. 197; Titsingh, pp. 160-162.
  70. ^ Brown, pp. 311-314; Varley, pp. 197-198; Titsingh, pp. 162-166.
  71. ^ Brown, pp. 314-315; Varley, pp. 198-199; Titsingh, pp. 166-168.
  72. ^ Brown, pp. 315-317; Varley, pp. 199-202; Titsingh, pp. 169-171.
  73. ^ Brown, pp. 317-320; Varley, p. 202; Titsingh, pp. 172-178.
  74. ^ Brown, pp. 320-322; Varley, pp. 203-204; Titsingh, pp. 178-181.
  75. ^ Brown, pp. 322-324; Varley, pp. 204-205; Titsingh, pp. 181-185.
  76. ^ Brown, pp. 324-326; Varley, p. 205; Titsingh, pp. 186-188.
  77. ^ Brown, p. 326-327; Varley, pp. 205-208; Titsingh, pp. 188-190.
  78. ^ Brown, pp. 327-329; Varley, pp. 208-212; Titsingh, pp. 191-194.
  79. ^ a b Brown, pp. 329-330; Varley, p. 212; Titsingh, pp. 194-195.
  80. ^ Brown, pp. 333-334; Varley, pp. 214-215; Titsingh, pp. 200-207.
  81. ^ Brown, pp. 334-339; Varley, pp. 215-220; Titsingh, pp. 207-221.
  82. ^ Brown, pp. 339-341; Varley, pp 220; Titsingh, pp. 221-230.
  83. ^ Brown, pp. 341-343, Varley, pp. 221-223; Titsingh, pp 230-238.
  84. ^ Brown, pp. 343-344; Varley, pp. 223-226; Titsingh, pp. 236-238.
  85. ^ Brown, pp. 344-349; Varley, pp. 226-227; Titsingh, pp. 238-241.
  86. ^ Varley, p. 227; Titsingh, pp. 242-245.
  87. ^ Varley, pp. 228-231; Titsingh, pp. 245-247.
  88. ^ Varley, pp. 231-232; Titsingh, pp. 248-253.
  89. ^ Varley, pp. 232-233; Titsingh, pp. 253-261.
  90. ^ Varley, pp. 233-237; Titsingh, pp. 262-269.
  91. ^ Varley, pp. 237-238; Titsingh, pp. 269-274.
  92. ^ Varley, pp. 238-239; Titsingh, pp. 274-275.
  93. ^ Varley, p. 239; Titsingh, pp. 275-278.
  94. ^ Varley, pp. 239-241; Titsingh, pp. 278-281.
  95. ^ Varley, pp. 241-269; Titsingh, pp. 281-286, and Titsingh, p. 290-294.
  96. ^ Titsingh, p. 286-289.
  97. ^ Titsingh, pp. 294-298.
  98. ^ Titsingh, pp. 298-301.
  99. ^ Titsingh, pp. 302-309.
  100. ^ Titsingh, pp. 310-316.
  101. ^ Titsingh, pp. 317- .
  102. ^ Varley, pp. 269-270 | Titsingh, p. .
  103. ^ Titsingh, p. .
  104. ^ [Titsingh, p. ]-320.
  105. ^ Titsingh, pp. 320-327.
  106. ^ Titsingh, pp. 327-331.
  107. ^ Titsingh, pp. 331-351.
  108. ^ Titsingh, pp. 352-364.
  109. ^ Titsingh, pp. 364-372.
  110. ^ Titsingh, pp. 372-382.
  111. ^ Titsingh, pp. 382-402.
  112. ^ Titsingh, pp. 402-409.
  113. ^ Titsingh, pp. 410-411.
  114. ^ Titsingh, pp. 411-412.
  115. ^ Titsingh, pp. 412-413.
  116. ^ Titsingh, p. 413.
  117. ^ Titsingh, pp. 414-415.
  118. ^ Titsingh, pp. 415-416.
  119. ^ Titsingh, pp. 416-417.
  120. ^ Titsingh, pp. 417-418.
  121. ^ Titsingh, pp. 418-419.
  122. ^ Titsingh, p. 419.
  123. ^ Titsingh, pp. 419-420.
  124. ^ Titsingh, pp. 420-421.
  125. ^ Titsingh, p. 421.

References

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