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List of Latin words with English derivatives: Wikis

  

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of Latin words with derivatives in English (and other modern languages).

Ancient orthography did not distinguish between i and j or between u and v. Many modern works distinguish u from v but not i from j. In this article both distinctions are shown as they are helpful when tracing the origin of English words. See also Latin spelling and pronunciation.

Contents

Nouns and adjectives

The citation form for nouns (the one normally shown in Latin dictionaries) is the Latin nominative singular, but this typically does not exhibit the root form from which English nouns are generally derived.

Latin Nouns and Adjectives
Citation form Declining stem Meaning English derivative
acerbus acerb- bitter acerbic
acētum acēt- vinegar acetic
aedificium aedifici- building edifice
alacer alacr- quick alacrity
albus alb- white album, albino
alius ali- other alien
anima anim- soul, life animate, animal
animus anim- mind, anger animosity
annus ann- year annual
ānser ānser- goose anserine
aqua aqu- water aquamarine, aquatic
audāx audāc- brave, bold audacious
auris aur- ear aural
avis avi- bird avian, aviary
bellum bell- war bellicose, belligerence, antebellum
bonus
– melior
– optimus
bon-
– melior-
– optim-
good
– better
– best
bonus
– ameliorate
– optimist
bōs bov- cow bovine
canis can- dog canine
cervīx cervīc- neck cervix
cīvis cīv- citizen civil, civilian
clāvicula clāvicul- little key clavicle
coniūnx coniug- spouse conjugal
cornū corn- horn unicorn, capricorn
deus de- god deity, deification
diēs diē- day diary, quotidian
discipulus discipul- student disciple
dominus domin- lord dominion, dominate, domain
domus dom- house domestic, domicile
equus equ- horse equestrian
falx falc- sickle falcate
fēlēs (or fēlis) fēl- cat feline
fēmina fēmin- woman feminine, effeminate
fīlius fīli- son filial, affiliation
fīnis fīni- limit infinite, final
flōs flōr- flower floral, florist
folium foli- leaf folio, foliage, portfolio
fōrma fōrm- form, shape, beauty formal, information
fors fort- luck fortuitous
fortis fort- strength fortitude, fortify, effort
frāter frātr- brother fratricide, fraternity
frōns front- forehead front,frontal
frūx frūg- fruit frugal
fūmus fūm- smoke fume
genus gen- birth, offspring, creation generation, genuine
homō homin- man (human being) hominid
ignis ign- fire ignite
īnsula īnsul- island insulate, peninsula
iūdex iūdic- judge judge, judicial, adjudicate
iūs iūr- right, law justice, jurisdiction
lacrima lacrim- tear lachrymose
lēx lēg- law legal, alleged
lūna lūn- moon lunar, lunatic
lupus lup- wolf lupine
magister magistr- master magistrate
magnus
– māior
– maximus
magn-
– māior-
– maxim-
big
– bigger
– biggest
magnitude
– major
– maximum
malus
– peior
–pessimus
mal-
– peior-
– pessim
bad
– worse
– worst
malevolence, malice, malignant
–pejorative
–pessimist
manus manu- hand, band of men manual
mare mar- sea marine, maritime
māter mātr- mother matron, maternal
mora mor- delay moratorium
nihil nihil- nothing nil, nihilism, annihilate
nox noct- night nocturnal
oculus ocul- eye inoculate, ocular
onus oner- load exonerate, onus
pater patr- father patron, paternal
pavīmentum pavīment- ground pavement
pēs ped- foot pedestrian
prior
– prīmus
prior-
– prīm-
former
– first
priority
– prime
pulcher pulchr- beautiful pulchritude
punctum pun(c)t- point punctuation, punctual, contrapuntal
rēx rēg- king regal
rūs rūr- farm rural, rustic
sinister sinistr- left sinister
terra terr- land terrain, terrestrial
unda und- wave undulate, inundate
urbs urb- city urban, suburb
ursus urs- bear ursine
vehiculum vehicul- wagon vehicle
vērus ver- truth veracity, verify
vīlla vill- country house village, villa
vir vir- man (male person) virile
vulpēs vulp- fox vulpine

Verbs

In some Latin verbs, a preposition caused a vowel change in the root of the verb. For example, "capiō" becomes "incipio".

Latin Verbs
Citation form Present stem Perfect stem Participial stem Meaning Typical derivative
agō ag- eg- āct- do action, agenda, agent
amō am- amav- amat- like, love amateur, enamor
audiō aud- audiv- audit- hear audible
capiō
-cipiō
cap- cep-
-cip-
capt-
-cept-
take capable, captive, recipient, reception
cēdō cēd- cess- yield, depart recede, recession
cogitō cogit- cogitav- cogitat- think, ponder cogitate
colligo collig- collegi collect- collect collect
claudō
-clūdō
claud-
-clūd-
claus-
-clūs-
close conclude, conclusive
clinō clin- clinat- lean inclination, recline
cubō cub- cubat- lie incubator
currō curr- cucurr- curs- run current, recursion
d- dat-
-dit-
give add, dative, editor
doleō dol- dolui dolit- grieve dolor, condolence
dubitō dubit- dubitav- dubitat- doubt indubitable
e- i- it- go ambition, obituary
faciō
-ficiō
fac- fec-
-fic-
fact-
-fect-
make effective, facile, factory
ferō fer- tul- lāt- bring fertile, refer, relate
fīgō fīg- fīx- fix- fix crucifixion
findō find- fiss- cleave, split fission
fingō fing- fict- fashion, invent fiction
flectō flect- flex- bend deflect, reflex
flō fl- flat- blow inflate
fluō flu- flux- flow effluent, influx
for f- fat- say, speak affable, infant
gradior
-gredior
gradi-
-gredi-
gress-
-gress-
none step ingredient, progressive
gustō gust- gustav- gustat- taste gustation
iaciō
-iciō
iac- iec-
(j)ic-
jact-
-ject-
throw inject, projectile
laudō laud- laudav- laudat- praise laud, laudable
linquō linqu- liqu- lict- abandon derelict, relinquish
locō loc- locav- locat- place, put location
lūdō lūd- lūs- play collude, collusion
mergō merg- mers- dip emerge, immerse
mittō mitt- mīs- miss- send commit, missive
moveō mov- mov- mot- move motion, motive, motor, move
nascor nasci natus none be born nascent, natal, prenatal
necō nec- necav- necat- dead
nōscō
-gnōscō
nōsc-
-gnōsc-
nosc- nōt-
-gnōt-, -gnit-
know notable
cognitive
nuntiō nunt- nuntiav- nuntiat- bring news of, announce announce
petō pet- petiv- petit- seek, attack compete, petulant
pōnō pōn- posu- posit- put component, position
portō port- portat- carry deport, portage
premō
-primō
prem- press- press- push imprimatur, oppress, pressure
pugnō pugn- pugnav- pugnat- fight pugnacious
putō put- putav- putat- think compute, putative
rideō ris- laugh, smile derision, ridiculous
rumpō rump- rup- rupt- break interrupt, rupture
sciō sci- sciv- scit- know science
scrībō scrīb- scrips- scrīpt- write describe, scripture, scribble
sedeō sede- sed- sess- sit sedentary, sediment, session
sequor sequ- secut- sum follow consecutive, sequence
sum es- fu- futur- be essence, future
veniō ven- vent- come convene, prevention
vertō vert- vers- vers- turn reverse, revert, version
videō vidē- vid- vīs- see video, vision
vivō viv- vix- vict- live vivacity, victim, victorious
volō vell- volu- wish benevolent, malevolent, volition
volvō volv- volūt- roll evolve, revolution
voveō vov- vot- vow votive

Prepositions used to form compound words

Latin Prepositions
Word Meaning Prefixes
ā, ab away from ab-, a-, abs-, as-
ad to, toward ad-, a-, ac-, af-, ag-, ar-
(ambi) around ambi-, amb-
ante before ante-, anti-
circum around circum-
cis this side of cis-
contrā against, opposite to contra-, contro-
cum together, with con-, co-, col-, com-, cor-
down from de-
dis- apart dis-, di-, dif-, dir-
ex, ē from, out of ex-, e-, ef-
extrā outside extra-
in in, into in-, il-, im-, ir-
īnfrā below infra-
inter among, between inter-, intel-
intrā within intra-, intro-
iuxtā beside juxta-
ob, obs by reason of ob-, oc-, of-, op-
paene almost pen-
per thorough, through per-
post after, behind post-
prae before pre-
praeter past preter-
prō for, in front of pro-, por-, prod-
(re) again, back re-, red-
without se-, sed-
sub below, under sub-, su-, suc-, suf-, sug-, sum-, sup-, sus-
subter beneath subter
super above, over super-
suprā above, more than supra-
trāns across trans-, tra-, tran-
ultrā beyond ultra-

See also

External links








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