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List of Nobel Peace Prize laureates: Wikis

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The Norwegian Nobel Institute assists the Norwegian Nobel Committee in the task of selecting the recipient(s) of the Nobel Peace Prize and to organize the annual Nobel event in Oslo.

The Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and Swedish: Nobels fredspris) is awarded annually by the Norwegian Nobel Committee "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses."[1] It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[2] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Norwegian Nobel Committee and awarded by a committee of five people elected by the Norwegian Parliament.[3] The first Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in 1901 to Frédéric Passy and Jean Henry Dunant. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma, and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.[4] In 1901, Passy and Dunant shared a prize of 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK as of December 2008. In 2008, the prize was awarded to Martti Ahtisaari of Finland, who received the prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK (slightly more than 1 million, or US$1.4 million).[5] The Peace Prize is presented annually in Oslo, Norway, in the presence of the king, on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death, and is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm, Sweden.[6]

The Nobel Peace Prize is generally the most controversial of the Nobel Prizes; several of the selections have been heavily criticized.[7][8] Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi never won the prize, despite having been nominated five times. Following his assassination in 1948 the committee considered awarding it to him posthumously but decided against it and instead withheld the prize that year with the explanation that "there was no suitable living candidate."[9] In 1961, Dag Hammarskjöld, who died after his nomination but several months before the announcement, became the only Laureate to be recognized posthumously; following this, the statutes were changed to make a future posthumous prize nearly impossible.[10] In 1973, Lê Ðức Thọ declined the Nobel Peace Prize, because "he was not in a position to accept the Prize, citing the situation in Vietnam as his reason."[11] Linus Pauling, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate in 1962, is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes; he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954.[11] The International Committee of the Red Cross has been awarded the prize three times (1917, 1944, and 1963), and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has won twice (1954 and 1981).[11] Twelve women have won the Nobel Peace Prize, which is more than any other Nobel Prize.[12] As of 2009, the Peace Prize has been awarded to 97 individuals and 20 organizations. There have been 19 years in which the Peace Prize was not awarded, more times than any other Nobel Prize.

Contents

Laureates

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
1901 Jean Henri Dunant.jpg Jean Henry Dunant Switzerland "[for] his role in founding the International Committee of the Red Cross"[10][13]
Frederic Passy.jpg Frédéric Passy France "[for] being one of the main founders of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and also the main organizer of the first Universal Peace Congress."[10][13]
1902 Ducommun.jpg Élie Ducommun Switzerland "Honorary Secretary, Permanent International Peace Bureau"[14]
Charles Albert Gobat2.jpg Charles Albert Gobat Switzerland "Secretary General, Inter-Parliamentary Union; Honorary Secretary, Permanent International Peace Bureau"[14]
1903 Cremer.jpg William Randal Cremer United Kingdom "Member, British Parliament; Secretary, International Arbitration League"[15]
1904 Institut de Droit International Belgium "for its efforts as an unofficial body to formulate the general principles of the science of international law."[10][16]
1905 Bertha-von-Suttner-1906.jpg Bertha von Suttner Austria-Hungary "Honorary President of Permanent International Peace Bureau; Author of Lay Down Your Arms"[17]
1906 President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg Theodore Roosevelt United States "for his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case"[10][18]
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta.jpg Ernesto Teodoro Moneta Italy "President, Lombard League of Peace,"[19] was "prominent as a worker for peace in Italy."[20]
Louis Renault jurist.gif Louis Renault France "Professor International Law,"[19] was "the permanent delegate of France to The Hague Tribunal."[20]
1908 KParnoldson.jpg Klas Pontus Arnoldson Sweden "Founder of Swedish Peace and Arbitration League"[21]
Fredrik Bajer Denmark "[for his]work in the Inter-Parliamentary Union with being the first president of the International Peace Bureau"[10][21]
1909 Beernaert.gif Auguste Marie François Beernaert Belgium "Former Prime Minister; Member, Belgian Parliament; Member of Cour Internationale d'Arbitrage"[22]
PaulBalluet.gif Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant France "Member, French Parliament (Sénateur); Founder and President of French parliamentary group for voluntary arbitration; Founder, Committee for the Defense of National Interests and International Conciliation"[22]
1910 IPB-logo.gif International Peace Bureau Switzerland "Founded in 1891"[23]
1911 TMCasser.jpg Tobias Michael Carel Asser The Netherlands "Initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law at the Hague; Cabinet Minister; Lawyer"[24]
Alfred Herrmann Fried Foto.jpg Alfred Hermann Fried Austria "Journalist; Founder of Die Friedenswarte"[24]
1912 Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902.jpg Elihu Root United States "Former Secretary of State; Originator of various treaties of arbitration"[25]
1913 HenriLaFontaine.jpg Henri La Fontaine Belgium "Member, Belgian Parliament (Sénateur); President, Permanent International Peace Bureau"[26]
1914 Not awarded
1915
1916
1917 Flag of the ICRC.svg International Committee of the Red Cross Switzerland [27]
1918 Not awarded
1919 President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg Woodrow Wilson United States "President of United States of America; Founder of the League of Nations"[28]
1920 Bourgeoi.jpg Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois France "Former Secretary of State; President, French Parliament (Sénat); President, Council of the League of Nations"[29]
1921 Hjalmar branting stor bild.jpg Hjalmar Branting Sweden "Prime Minister; Swedish Delegate, Council of the League of Nations"[30]
Christian Lous Lange Norway "Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[30]
1922 Fridtjof Nansen LOC 03377u.jpg Fridtjof Nansen Norway "Scientist; Explorer; Norwegian Delegate, League of Nations; Originator of "Nansen passports""[31]
1923 Not awarded
1924
1925 Austen Chamberlain.jpg Austen Chamberlain United Kingdom "Foreign Secretary; Part-originator of Locarno Pact"[32]
Charles Dawes, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg Charles Gates Dawes United States "Vice-President of United States of America; Chairman of Allied Reparation Commission (Originator of "Dawes Plan")"[32]
1926 Aristide Briand 2.jpg Aristide Briand France "Foreign Minister; Part-originator of Locarno Pact and Briand-Kellogg Pact"[33]
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-040-27, Gustav Stresemann.jpg Gustav Stresemann Germany "Former Lord High Chancellor (Reichs-kanzler); Foreign Minister; Part-originator of Locarno Pact"[33]
1927 Ferdinand Buisson France "Formerly Professor, Sorbonne University, Paris; Founder and President, Human Rights League in France"[34]
DBP - Nobelpreisträger, Ludwig Quidde - 50 Pfennig - 1975 fixed.jpg Ludwig Quidde Germany "Professor, Berlin University; Member, German Parliament; Participant of various peace conferences"[34]
1928 Not awarded
1929 FrankKellogg.jpg Frank B. Kellogg United States "Former Secretary of State; Part-originator of Briand-Kellogg Pact"[35]
1930 Soderblom.gif Lars Olof Jonathan (Nathan) Söderblom Sweden "Archbishop; Leader in the ecumenical movement"[36]
1931 Jane Addams profile.jpg Jane Addams United States "Sociologist; International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[37]
NMButler.jpg Nicholas Murray Butler United States "President, Columbia University; Promoter of Briand Kellogg Pact"[37]
1932 Not awarded
1933 Norman Angell 01.jpg Sir Norman Angell (Ralph Lane) United Kingdom "Writer; Member, Executive Committee of the League of Nations and of National Peace Council"[38]
1934 Arthurhenderson.jpg Arthur Henderson United Kingdom "Former Foreign Secretary; President, Disarmament Conference in 1932"[39]
1935 Carl von Ossietzky.jpg Carl von Ossietzky Germany "Journalist (die Weltbühne); Pacifist"[40]
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas.jpg Carlos Saavedra Lamas Argentina "Secretary of State; President, League of Nations; Mediator in a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia"[41]
1937 Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood - Project Gutenberg eText 15306.jpg The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood United Kingdom "Writer, Former Lord Privy Seal; Founder and President, International Peace Campaign"[42]
1938 Nansen International Office For Refugees Switzerland "An international relief organization, started by Fridtjof Nansen in 1921"[43]
1939 Not awarded
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944 Flag of the ICRC.svg International Committee of the Red Cross Switzerland [44]
1945 Hull-Cordell-LOC.jpg Cordell Hull United States "Former Secretary of State; Prominent participant in the originating of the United Nations"[45]
1946 EmilyGreeneBalch.jpg Emily Greene Balch United States "Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[46]
John Raleigh Mott, 1910.jpg John Raleigh Mott United States "Chairman, International Missionary Council; President, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations"[46]
1947 Friends Service Council United Kingdom [47]
American Friends Service Committee United States
1948 Not awarded
1949 The Lord Boyd-Orr United Kingdom "Physician; Alimentary Politician; Prominent organizer and Director, General Food and Agricultural Organization; President, National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations"[48]
1950 Ralph Bunche - 1963 March on Washington.jpg Ralph Bunche United States "Professor, Harvard University Cambridge, MA; Director, division of Trusteeship, U.N.; Acting Mediator in Palestine, 1948"[49]
1951 Léon Jouhaux France "President of the International Committee of the European Council, vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the United Nations"[50]
1952 Albert Schweitzer, Etching by Arthur William Heintzelman.jpg Albert Schweitzer France "Missionary surgeon; Founder of Lambaréné (République de Gabon)"[51]
1953 General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG George Catlett Marshall United States "General President American Red Cross; Former Secretary of State and of Defense; Delegate U.N.; Originator of "Marshall Plan""[52]
1954 UNHCR DADAAB REGION, KENYA AFRICA DOD 2006.JPEG United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Switzerland "An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"[53]
1955 Not awarded
1956
1957 Lester B. Pearson with a pencil.jpg Lester Bowles Pearson Canada "former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada; former President of the 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly";[54] "for his role in trying to end the Suez conflict and to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations."[10]
1958 Georges Pire 1958.jpg Georges Pire Belgium "Father of the Dominican Order; Leader of the relief organization for refugees "L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde""[55]
1959 Philip J. Noel-Baker United Kingdom "Member of Parliament; lifelong ardent worker for international peace and co-operation"[56]
1960 Albert Lutuli (458603639).jpg Albert Lutuli South Africa "President of the African National Congress,"[57] "was in the very forefront of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa."[10]
1961 Dag Hammarskjold.jpg Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld Sweden "Secretary General of the U.N.,"[58] awarded "for strengthening the organization."[10]
1962 Pauling.jpg Linus Carl Pauling United States "for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing"[59]
1963 Flag of the ICRC.svg International Committee of the Red Cross Switzerland [60]
Flag of the IFRC.svg League of Red Cross societies Switzerland
1964 Martin Luther King Jr NYWTS.jpg Martin Luther King, Jr. United States "campaigner for civil rights"[61]
1965 Flag of UNICEF.svg United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) United Nations "An international aid organization." [62]
1966 Not awarded
1967
1968 ReneCassin.JPG René Cassin France "President of the European Court for Human Rights"[63]
1969 International Labour Organization United Nations [64]
1970 Norman Borlaug.jpg Norman E. Borlaug United States "International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center;"[65] "for his contributions to the "green revolution" that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America."[10]
1971 Willy Brandt.jpg Willy Brandt Federal Republic of Germany "Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany; for West Germany's Ostpolitik"[66]
1972 Not awarded
1973 Henry Kissinger.jpg Henry A. Kissinger United States "For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam war and a withdrawal of the American forces"[67][10]
Lê Ðức Thọ (refused) Democratic Republic of Vietnam
1974 SeanMB.gif Seán MacBride Ireland "President of the International Peace Bureau; President of the Commission of Namibia."[68] "For his strong interest in human rights: piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists"[10]
Eisaku Sato Japan "Prime Minister of Japan,"[68] "for his renunciation of the nuclear option for Japan and his efforts to further regional reconciliation"[10]
1975 Sakharov 1943.jpg Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov Soviet Union "[for his] struggle for human rights, for disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations"[69][70]
1976 Betty Williams.jpg Betty Williams United Kingdom "Founder[s] of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)"[71]
Mairead Corrigan United Kingdom
1977 Amnesty International United Kingdom "[for] protecting the human rights of prisoners of conscience"[72][10]
1978 Anwar Sadat cropped.jpg Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat Egypt "for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"[73]
Menachem Begin 2.jpg Menachem Begin Israel
1979 MotherTeresa 090.jpg Mother Teresa India "Leader of Missionaries of Charity"[74]
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Argentina "Human rights leader;"[75] "founded non-violent human rights organizations to fight the military junta that was ruling his country (Argentina)."[10]
1981 UNHCR DADAAB REGION, KENYA AFRICA DOD 2006.JPEG United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations "An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"[76]
1982 ARB-Alva-Myrdal.jpg Alva Myrdal Sweden "[for] their magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition"[77][78]
Alfonso García Robles Mexico
1983 Lech Walesa.jpg Lech Wałęsa Poland "Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights"[79]
1984 Desmond tutu 20070607 2.jpg Desmond Mpilo Tutu South Africa "Bishop of Johannesburg; former Secretary General, South African Council of Churches"[80]
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War United States For "authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare. The committee believes that this in turn contributes to an increase in the pressure of public opposition to the proliferation of atomic weapons and to a redefining of priorities, with greater attention being paid to health and other humanitarian issues."[81]
1986 Elie Wiesel.jpg Elie Wiesel United States "Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""[82]
1987 OscarArias.jpg Óscar Arias Sánchez Costa Rica "for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"[83]
1988 Blue helmet.JPG United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces United Nations "[for] their efforts [that] have made important contributions towards the realization of one of the fundamental tenets of the United Nations"[84][85]
1989 Tenzin Gyatzo foto 1.jpg Tenzin Gyatso,
14th Dalai Lama
Tibet "In his struggle for the liberation of Tibet [he] consistently has opposed the use of violence. He has instead advocated peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people."[86][87]
1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1987.jpg Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev Soviet Union President of the Soviet Union, "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"[88]
1991 Burma 3 150.jpg Aung San Suu Kyi Burma "for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"[89]
1992 Rigoberta Menchu Tum.JPG Rigoberta Menchú Tum Guatemala "[for] her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"[90]
1993 Nelson Mandela-2008.jpg Nelson Mandela South Africa "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"[91]
Frederik Willem de Klerk.jpg Frederik Willem de Klerk South Africa
1994 ArafatEconomicForum.jpg Yasser Arafat Palestine "to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."[92]
Yitzhak Rabin (1986) cropped.jpg Yitzhak Rabin Israel
Shimon Peres World Economic Forum 2007.jpg Shimon Peres Israel
1995 Josef Rotblat ID badge.png Joseph Rotblat United Kingdom "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"[93]
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs Canada
1996 Carlosbelo.jpg Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo East Timor "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."[94]
Ramos-Horta.png José Ramos-Horta East Timor
1997 IntlCampaignBanLandmines.jpg International Campaign to Ban Landmines United States "for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"[95]
JodyWilliams1.jpg Jody Williams United States
1998 John Hume 2008.jpg John Hume United Kingdom "for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"[96]
David Trimble at Lisburn Seed Group benefit, Hillsborough Castle, Christmas 2007 crop.jpg David Trimble United Kingdom
1999 Msf logo.png Médecins Sans Frontières Switzerland "in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents"[97]
2000 Kim Dae-jung (Cropped).png Kim Dae Jung South Korea "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"[98]
2001 Small Flag of the United Nations ZP.svg United Nations "for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"[99]
Kofi Annan, Photo: Harry Wad Kofi Annan Ghana
2002 Jimmy Carter.jpg Jimmy Carter United States "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"[100]
2003 Ebadi.jpg Shirin Ebadi Iran "for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children."[101]
2004 Wangari Maathai potrait by Martin Rowe.jpg Wangari Muta Maathai Kenya "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"[102]
2005 Flag of IAEA.svg International Atomic Energy Agency Austria "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"[103]
Mohamed ElBaradei WEF 2008.jpg Mohamed ElBaradei Egypt
2006 Grameen Yunus Dec 04.jpg Muhammad Yunus Bangladesh "for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work"[104]
Grameen Bank Bangladesh
2007 Flag of the World Meteorological Organization.svg Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Switzerland "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"[105]
Al Gore.jpg Al Gore United States
2008 Martti Ahtisaari.jpg Martti Ahtisaari Finland "for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"[106]
2009 Official portrait of Barack Obama-2.jpg Barack Obama United States "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."[107]

See Also

Notes

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column, as well as the order of laureates in years in which the prize was shared, is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel Laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel Laureate at nobelprize.org.

^ B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship or the sovereignty of the country.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation.

References

General
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