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Argentina

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Argentina has had many different types of Heads of State, as well as many different types of government throughout its history. During Pre-Columbian times the territories that nowadays belong to Argentina were mainly inhabited by nomadic tribes, without any defined government. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the King of Spain retained the ultimate authority over the territories conquered in the New World, but eventually temporary Viceroys were designated for local government. The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ousted Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros during the 1810 May Revolution, and replaced him with a Junta, the so-called Primera Junta, that would turn itself into the Junta Grande in 1811 with the incorporation of provincial deputies. Acting on the name of King Ferdinand VII (taken prisoner by the Napoleonic French Empire), the Junta assumed legislative powers, delegating the administrative powers on a Triumvirate, which was to be soon followed by a second one.

In 1813 a Supreme National Assembly was elected, with constitutional and legislative mandates. It is commonly known as the Assembly of the Year XIII (Spanish: Asamblea del Año XIII) although it legislated until the Constitutional Assembly of 1816 known as the Congress of Tucumán, which officially declared Independence from Spain. In 1814, the Assembly had created a new executive authority, with atributions similar to that of a Head of State, called the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. The office was to be occupied for fixed periods of time by Directors chosen by the Assembly, but proved in fact to be a very unstable office for most of the period, frequently subject to military mutinies or coups. In 1816, the Congress of Tucumán elected Juan Martín de Pueyrredón as Supreme Director so, after the July 9th Argentine Declaration of Independence, he would become the first Head of State of what was to become Argentina.

Pueyrredón had to quit office after the 1819 Constitution was enacted by the Congress (now assembled in Buenos Aires), due to the strong opposition from the Provinces and the Liga Federal to the centralist aspects of both the Directory system and the Constitution. In 1820, after the Federal forces defeated at Cepeda the last Director José Rondeau, the national organization had to wait until 1826 to experience a new, short-lived, attempt at establishing any central authority. On behalf of the Constitution of 1826, Bernardino Rivadavia was elected the first President of Argentina. Rivadavia and his Vice-President and succesor Vicente López y Planes both resigned shortly after, as the Constitution was again rejected.

After those experiences, the Argentine Provinces organized themselves as a loose confederation, without any central authority, in what was to be known as the Argentine Confederation. After 1835, when Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas began to exercise his hegemony well beyond his own Buenos Aires Province, his post was granted with the administration of the foreign relations of the Confederation as a whole. Rosas kept his office until the Battle of Caseros of 1852 paved the way for a new Constitutional Assembly. In 1853, the current Constitution of Argentina was promulgated and Justo José de Urquiza became the first President of modern Argentina, acting both as Head of Government and Head of State. However, the Buenos Aires Province had rejected the Constitution and became an independent State until the aftermath of the 1859 Battle of Cepeda, although the internecine conflict continued. Only after the subsequent Battle of Pavón, in 1861, the former bonaerense leader Bartolomé Mitre became the first President of a unified Argentine Republic.

The succession of constitutional Presidents run uninterrupted until the 1930 military coup d'état led by José Félix Uriburu, which in the lapse of a few months derived in the so-called Infamous Decade of patriotic fraud of the 1930s. Another military, nationalist, coup took place in 1943 against the previous governments, ending in 1946 with the democratic election of Juan Perón. Then again, a violent military coup deposed Perón in the so-called Revolución Libertadora of 1955, partially restoring civilian rule in 1958 but intervening again on the 1962 quiet coup.

Between 1966 and 1973, the authoritarian military government known as Revolución Argentina hold power, as it later did the National Reorganization Process Juntas of 1976-1983.

Since the election of Raúl Alfonsín in 1983, civilian governments regained rule and enjoyed an uninterrumped succession, according to the Constitutional provisions, until present.

Currently, the retrospective recognition as presidents or heads of state of any de facto ruler that exercised its authority outside the Constitutional mandate is a controversial and relevant issue in Argentine politics. [1][2][3]

The current Head of State of Argentina is President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who took office on 10th December, 2007 for a four-year term.

Contents

After Independence

After the May Revolution the viceroy was replaced in Buenos Aires by two Juntas, the Primera Junta and the Junta Grande. The difficulties of their big compositions were solved first by creating triumvirates and later a single head of state called Supreme Director. During the Argentine War of Independence there were conflicting authorities at the same time, the ones enacted by the revolution and the ones still loyal to Spain. The initial revolutionary governments employed a ruse known as Mask of Ferdinand VII to conceal their intentions under the appearance of loyalty to the removed king..[4][5][6] The Argentine Declaration of Independence took place on July 9, 1816.

After such independence, Argentina was a federation without an effective central government. In those years, it was first known as Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata (United Provinces of the River Plate) and later as Provincias Unidas de Sud América (United Provinces of South America).

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Juntas

# Picture Name Term start Term end Notes
- Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros.jpg Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros 24 May 1810 25 May 1810 An Open Cabildo decided to remove Cisneros as viceroy and make a Junta, but the politicians of the Cabildo decided to invest him with the presidency of such Junta. A local uprising forced him to resign the following day.
- Cornelio Saavedra - 1810.jpg Cornelio Saavedra 25 May 1810 26 Aug 1811 President of the Primera Junta during all of its existence. President of the Junta Grande, left the government to serve in the battles in the north.
- Matheu.jpg Domingo Matheu 26 Aug 1811 22 Sep 1811 President of the Junta Grande since Saavedra's departure, until the dissolution of it.

Triumvirates

The defeat at the Battle of Huaqui generated a political crisis that led to the disband of the Junta Grande, which was replaced by a triumvirate. Thus, a government with many leaders was replaced by one with three leaders. Bernardino Rivadavia, despite being just secretary of war, was highly influential in the first triumvirate.[7]

# Picture Name Term start Term end Notes
- Feliciano Chiclana 22 Sep 1811 8 Oct 1812 Member of the First Triumvirate during all of its existence.
- Manuel de Sarratea.jpg Manuel de Sarratea 22 Sep 1811 8 Oct 1812 Member of the First Triumvirate during all of its existence.
- Juanjpaso.jpg Juan José Paso 22 Sep 1811 23 Mar 1812 Resigned due to political conflicts with Chiclana.
- Juan Martin de Pueyrredon.jpg Juan Martín de Pueyrredón 23 Mar 1812 8 Oct 1812 Designated as replacement for Paso.

The First Triumvirate was criticized for not having a strong commitment with the Argentine War of Independence. This led José de San Martín, Carlos María de Alvear and the Logia Lautaro to revolt against it, and promote instead a government with active support to independentism.

# Picture Name Term start Term end Notes
- Juanjpaso.jpg Juan José Paso 8 Oct 1812 31 Jan 1814 Member of the Second Triumvirate during all of its existence.
- NRodriguez.jpg Nicolás Rodríguez Peña 8 Oct 1812 31 Jan 1814 Member of the Second Triumvirate during all of its existence.
- Antonio Álvarez Jonte 8 Oct 1812 19 Aug 1813
- Posadas.jpg Gervasio Antonio de Posadas 19 Aug 1813 31 Jan 1814

The Second Triumvirate called for the Asamblea del Año XIII which, among other things, replaced the authority of the triumvirate with that of a single leader, called Supreme Director. A Third Triumvirate took the power for a couple of days, to prevent a power vacuum.

# Picture Name Term Notes
- Josedesanmartin.jpg José de San Martín April 18 to 20, 1815
- Matiasdeirigoyen.jpg Matías de Irigoyen April 18 to 20, 1815
- Manuel de Sarratea.jpg Manuel de Sarratea April 18 to 20, 1815

Supreme directors

# Picture Name Term start Term end Notes
- Posadas.jpg Gervasio Antonio de Posadas 31 Jan 1814 9 Jan 1815 Resigned.
- CarlosAlvearcolor.jpg Carlos María de Alvear 9 Jan 1815 20 Apr 1815 Resigned.
- Alvarez thomas.jpg Ignacio Álvarez Thomas 20 Apr 1815 9 Jul 1816
- Juan Martin de Pueyrredon.jpg Juan Martín de Pueyrredón 9 Jul 1816 9 Jun 1819
- Jose Rondeau.jpg José Rondeau 9 Jun 1819 11 Feb 1820
- Juan Pedro Julián Aguirre y López de Anaya 11 Feb 1820 16 Feb 1820 interim

The first Presidential Government

After an unsuccessful attempt of establishing a constitution in 1819, a new constitution was established in 1826, the first one creating a figure of President for the executive power of the country. This constitution, however, was short-lived, mainly because of grave conflict with Brazil, which moved its first president to resignation and caused the dissolution of this executive position shortly after.

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
1 Bernardino Rivadavia 2.jpg Bernardino Rivadavia 8 Feb 1826 7 Jul 1827 Unitarian Resigned
2 Vicente Lopez 1860.jpg Vicente López y Planes 7 Jul 1827 18 Aug 1827 Interim, ended by dissolution of national government

The Argentine Confederation

After the dissolution of the Presidential Government, Argentina was without an effective central government for another 28 years. By that time, the country began to be commonly known as Confederación Argentina (Argentine Confederation). The role that got nearer to that of a President was that of the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires who got designated by the other Provinces as Chairman of Foreign Relations for the Confederation. The last Chairman of Foreign Relations, Juan Manuel de Rosas retained office for seventeen years, and was overthrown by his former General-in-Chief Justo José de Urquiza in 1852, which lead to a transitional period before the next presidential period began.

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
Manuel Dorrego.jpg Manuel Dorrego 12 Aug 1827 13 Dec 1828 Federal Executed by Juan Lavalle
Juan Lavalle.jpg Juan Lavalle 13 Dec 1828 26 Aug 1829 Unitarian Forced by Juan Manuel de Rosas to resign with the Cañuelas pact.
Viamonte.jpg Juan Jose Viamonte 26 Aug 1829 5 Dec 1829 Federal Interim governor
Juan Manuel de Rosas.jpg Juan Manuel de Rosas 5 Dec 1829 17 Dec 1832 Federal Designated by the legislature of Buenos Aires. Resigned.
JuanRamonGonzalezBalcarce.gif Juan Ramón Balcarce 17 Dec 1832 5 Nov 1833 Federal
Viamonte.jpg Juan Jose Viamonte 5 Nov 1833 1 Oct 1834 Federal Interim
Vicente Maza.jpg Manuel Vicente Maza 1 Oct 1834 Mar 1835 Federal Interim
Juan Manuel de Rosas.jpg Juan Manuel de Rosas Mar 1835 20 Sep 1851 Federal
Juan Manuel de Rosas.jpg Juan Manuel de Rosas 20 Sep 1851 3 Feb 1852 Federal As Supreme Chief of the Confederation
Urquiza.jpg Justo José de Urquiza 3 Feb 1852 5 Mar 1854 Federal provisional Director

The Argentine Republic

The last Chairman of Foreign Relations, Justo José de Urquiza, organized a constitutional convention that composed the Constitution of 1853. This constitution resuscitated the figure of the President, and the presidents elected hereafter are often described as 'constitutional presidents', as they portray the presidential figure as described by the constitution that, through its amendments, is still effective in Argentina to this day.

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
3 Urquiza.jpg Justo José de Urquiza 5 Mar 1854 5 Mar 1860 Federal
4 Santiago Derqui 1860.JPG Santiago Derqui 5 Mar 1860 5 Nov 1861 Federal Resigned
5 Juan Pedernera fix.jpg Juan Esteban Pedernera 5 Nov 1861 12 Dec 1861 Military acting

In the Battle of Pavón, the rivalry between the Argentine Republic and the State of Buenos Aires was decided in favour of the latter entity, resulting in the dissolution of the national authorities of Argentina. The victor Governor of Buenos Aires, Bartolomé Mitre, acted as president then, and elections later ratified him in his charge, becoming then the first president of a united Argentina. It was by this time that the country became commonly known as República Argentina (Argentine Republic).

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
BartolomeMitre.jpg Bartolomé Mitre 12 Apr 1862 12 Oct 1862 Lib Governor of Buenos Aires, acting
6 BartolomeMitre.jpg Bartolomé Mitre 12 Oct 1862 12 Oct 1868 Lib First president of the unified country.
7 Sarmiento.jpg Domingo Faustino Sarmiento 12 Oct 1868 12 Oct 1874 Lib
8 Nicolás Avellaneda.JPG Nicolás Avellaneda 12 Oct 1874 12 Oct 1880 UC
9 Julio A Roca.jpg Julio Argentino Roca 12 Oct 1880 12 Oct 1886 PAN First term
10 JuarezCelman.jpg Miguel Juárez Celman 12 Oct 1886 6 Aug 1890 PAN Resigned
11 Retrato de Carlos Pellegrini.jpg Carlos Pellegrini 6 Aug 1890 12 Oct 1892 PAN
12 LSaenzpeña.jpg Luis Sáenz Peña 12 Oct 1892 22 Jan 1895 UC
13 Juriburu.jpg José Evaristo Uriburu 22 Jan 1895 12 Oct 1898 AUT
14 Julio A Roca.jpg Julio Argentino Roca 12 Oct 1898 12 Oct 1904 AUT Second term
15 Foto quintana.jpg Manuel Quintana 12 Oct 1904 25 Jan 1906 PC Replaced by vicepresident Alcorta, died the following 12 March 1906
16 Jfalcorta.jpg José Figueroa Alcorta 25 Jan 1906 12 Oct 1910 PC
17 Roque Saenz Pena.jpg Roque Sáenz Peña 12 Oct 1910 9 Aug 1914 PC Died in office
18 Vdelaplaza.jpg Victorino de la Plaza 9 Aug 1914 12 Oct 1916 PC

The governments hereafter are regarded by most historians (except obviously for governments established by coups d'etat) as being the ones that were elected by free and universal vote.

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
19 Hipólito Yrigoyen.jpg Hipólito Yrigoyen 12 Oct 1916 12 Oct 1922 Unión Cívica Radical First term
20 MTAlvear-1922.jpg Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear 12 Oct 1922 12 Oct 1928 Unión Cívica Radical
21 Hipólito Yrigoyen.jpg Hipólito Yrigoyen 12 Oct 1928 6 Sep 1930 Unión Cívica Radical Second term, ousted from office

In 1930 the first military coup d'etat occurred in Argentine history. The resulting leader, who assumed the title of president, was followed in the charge by other presidents who, as regarded by most historians, were not elected by transparent vote as the presidents who had preceded them.

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
22 Jfuriburu.jpg José Félix Uriburu 6 Sep 1930 20 Feb 1932 Mil De Facto
23 Apjusto.jpg Agustín Pedro Justo 20 Feb 1932 20 Feb 1938 CC
24 Roberto Ortiz.jpg Roberto María Ortiz 20 Feb 1938 27 Jun 1942 PDN Died in office
25 Ramoncastillo.jpg Ramón Castillo 27 Jun 1942 4 Jun 1943 Unión Cívica Radical Deposed in a coup d'état

In 1943, another coup d'état occurred, bringing in a new line of military presidents:

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
26 Arturo Rawson.jpg Arturo Rawson 4 Jun 1943 7 Jun 1943 Mil De facto President of the Provisional Government, ousted from office
27 Pedro-p-ramirez.jpg Pedro Pablo Ramírez 7 Jun 1943 9 Mar 1944 Mil De facto President of the Provisional Government, resigned
28 Efarrell.jpg Edelmiro Julián Farrell 11 Mar 1944 4 Jun 1946 Mil De facto

After the de facto government, a new president was elected by popular vote, one who amended the constitution enabling his reelection, and stood in power for nine years until he was deposed:

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
29 Juan Peron con banda de presidente.jpg Juan Perón 4 Jun 1946 4 Jun 1952 First term
29 Juan Peron con banda de presidente.jpg Juan Perón 4 Jun 1952 20 Sep 1955 Second term, ousted from office

1955 military coup, also known as Revolución Libertadora (Liberating Revolution):

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
30 José Domingo Molina Gómez 20 Sep 1955 23 Sep 1955 Mil De facto, replaced by the military Junta.
31 Lonardi1.jpg Eduardo Lonardi 23 Sep 1955 13 Nov 1955 Mil De Facto, resigned
32 Aramburu2.jpg Pedro Eugenio Aramburu 13 Nov 1955 1 May 1958 Mil De facto

Restoration of an elected president, later deposed by a coup, succeeded by constitutional mechanisms, and this president succeeded by free election, later deposed:

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
33 Arturo Frondizi 2.jpg Arturo Frondizi 1 May 1958 29 Mar 1962 UCRI Ousted from office
34 JMGuido.gif José María Guido 29 Mar 1962 12 Oct 1963 UCRI President of the senate, acting as president
35 Illia.jpg Arturo Umberto Illia 12 Oct 1963 28 Jun 1966 UCRP Ousted from office

1966 military coup, known as Revolución Argentina (Argentine Revolution):

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
Revolutionary Junta 28 Jun 1966 29 Jun 1966 Mil
36 Ongania.jpg Juan Carlos Onganía 29 Jun 1966 8 Jun 1970 Mil De facto, removed from office
Revolutionary Junta 8 Jun 1970 18 Jun 1970 Mil
37 Levingstonroberto.jpg Roberto M. Levingston 18 Jun 1970 23 March 1971 Mil De facto, removed from office
38 Lanusse.jpg Alejandro A. Lanusse 26 Mar 1971 25 May 1973 Mil De facto

New democratical restoration, short-lived because of political turmoil:

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
39 Campora.jpg Héctor José Cámpora 25 May 1973 13 Jul 1973 FJL Resigned
40 Raullastiri.jpg Raúl Alberto Lastiri 13 Jul 1973 12 Oct 1973 FJL For Cámpora
Interim
41 Peron 1974.jpg Juan Perón 12 Oct 1973 30 Jun 1974 PJ Third term, died in office
42 Isabelita.jpg Isabel Perón 30 Jun 1974 24 Mar 1976 PJ Ítalo Argentino Lúder served as acting President from September 13, 1975 until October 16, 1975.

Deposed in a coup d'état

1976 military coup, known as Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, the last coup of this kind recorded in Argentine history to this day:

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
Military Junta 24 Mar 1976 29 Mar 1976 Mil
43 Jorge Rafael Videla.jpg Jorge Rafael Videla 29 Mar 1976 29 Mar 1981 Mil De facto
44 REViola.jpg Roberto Eduardo Viola 29 Mar 1980 12 Dec 1981 Mil De facto, resigned
45 Galtieri.jpg Leopoldo Galtieri 22 Dec 1981 17 Jun 1982 De facto
46 RBignone.jpg Reynaldo Bignone 1 Jul 1982 10 Dec 1983 Mil De facto

The year 1983 recorded the last transition from military to civil elected authorities in Argentine history, also known as the 'Return of democracy':

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
47 Alfonsin 1983.jpg Raúl Alfonsín 10 Dec 1983 8 Jul 1989 Unión Cívica Radical Resigned
48 Menem con banda presidencial.jpg Carlos Menem 8 Jul 1989 8 Jul 1995 PJ First term

A new constitutional amendment in 1994 re-enabled presidential reelection (abolished in 1957), leading to a second term of the current president. The succeeding president, Fernando de la Rúa, resigned due to the Argentine economic crisis, leading to a line of interim presidents, concluding in the election of the current president as of 2007:

# Picture Name Term start Term end Affiliation Notes
49 Menem con banda presidencial.jpg Carlos Menem 8 Jul 1995 10 Dec 1999 PJ Second term
50 Fernando de la Rúa con bastón y banda de presidente.jpg Fernando de la Rúa 10 Dec 1999 20 Dec 2001 UCR / Alianza Resigned
Ramón Puerta.jpg Ramón Puerta 21 Dec 2001 22 Dec 2001 PJ Interim
51 Arodriguezsaa.jpg Adolfo Rodríguez Saá 22 Dec 2001 30 Dec 2001 PJ Elected by Congress Assembled; resigned
Eduardo Camaño.jpg Eduardo Camaño 31 Dec 2001 1 Jan 2002 PJ Interim
52 Duhalde23012007.jpg Eduardo Duhalde 2 Jan 2002 25 May 2003 PJ Elected by Congress Assembled; resigned
53 Kirchner marzo 2007 Congreso.jpg Néstor Kirchner 25 May 2003 10 Dec 2007 Frente para la Victoria
54 Cristina Fernández de Kirchner - Foto Oficial 2.jpg Cristina Fernández 10 Dec 2007 Frente para la Victoria Incumbent

Affiliations


AL Alianza Alliance for Work, Justice and Education, centre-left coalition
Aut Autonomista (Autonomist)
CC Concordancista (Concordance)
Fed Federal (Federalist)
Con Conciliador (Conciliator)
Lib Liberal
Mil Military
MPF Movimiento Popular Fueguino (Tierra del Fuego Popular Movement)
PAN Partido Autonomista Nacional (National Autonomist Party)
PC Partido Conservador (Conservative Party)
PL Partido Laborista (Labor Party) from 1947: PP
PJ Partido Justicialista (Justicialist Party) centrist, personalist, ex-Partido Peronista
PP Partido Peronista (Peronist Party) conservative, Juan Perón personalist
UC Unión Cívica (Civic Union)
UCR Unión Cívica Radical (Radical Civic Union)
UCRI Unión Cívica Radical Intransigente (Radical Civic Union-Intransigent)
UCRP Unión Cívica Radical del Pueblo (Radical Civic Union of the People)
Uni Unitario (Unitarian)
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See also

References

  1. ^ Alfonsín vuelve a la Casa Rosada para inaugurar su propia estatua
  2. ^ Quieren quitar los nombres de militares de las calles
  3. ^ Los protocolos y las decisiones políticas
  4. ^ Luna, Félix (2004). "Consecuencias de la asonada" (in (Spanish)). Grandes protagonistas de la historia argentina: Mariano Moreno. Buenos Aires: Planeta. p. 25. ISBN 950-49-1248-6. "Spanish: El joven abogado sigue fiel a su posición, y sabe que el sector juvenil y republicano del partido patriota lo apoya. Promueve la constitución de una Junta de gobierno autónoma que, enarbolando la máscara de sumisión a Fernando VII, respete la voluntad popular.
    English: The young lawyer remains true to his position, and knows that the young and republican sector of the patriotic party supports him. He promotes the making of an autonomous government Junta that, raising the mask of submission to Ferdinand VII, honours the popular will."
     
  5. ^ Pigna, Felipe (2007). "La Revolución de Mayo" (in (Spanish)). Los mitos de la historia argentina (26 ed.). Argentina: Grupo Editorial Norma. p. 243. ISBN 987-545-149-5. "Spanish: La llamada "Máscara de Fernando" era, contrariamente a lo que muchos creen, un acto de clara independencia. Por aquellos días nadie en su sano juicio podía suponer que Napoleón sería derrotado ni que Fernando volvería al trono español y recuperaría sus colonias americanas. Por lo tanto, prometer fidelidad a un rey fantasma -y no a un Consejo de Regencia existente- era toda una declaración de principios que abría el camino hacia una voluntad independentista que no podía explicitarse por las presiones de Gran Bretaña.
    English: The so-called "Mask of Ferdiand" was, contrary to common belief, a clear independentist act. By those days nobody in his sane mind could asume that Napoleon would be defeated nor that Ferdinand would return to the Spanish throne and retake his american colonies. Thus, to promise fidelity to a ghost king -and not to an existent Regency Council- was a great declaration of principles that paved the way to an independentist will that couldn't be explicited because of British pressures."
      }}
  6. ^ Halperín Donghi, Tulio (1999). Historia contemporánea de América Latina (6º ed.). Buenos Aires: Alianza. p. 96. ISBN 950-40-0019-3. "Spanish: ¿Hasta qué punto era sincera esta imagen que la revolución presentaba de sí misma? Exigir una respuesta clara significa acaso no situarse en la perspectiva de 1810. Sin duda había razones para que un ideario independentista maduro prefiriese ocultarse a exibirse: junto al vigor de la tradición de lealismo monárquico entre las masas populares (...) pesaba la coyuntura internacional que obligaba a contar con la benevolencia inglesa.
    English: How much sincere was this image that the Revolution showed about itself? To demand a clear answer means perhaps not understanding the 1810 perspective. Undoubtedly there were reasons why a mature independist ideology would prefer to conceal rather than to exhibit itself: besides the strenght of the monarchic loyalty tradition among the popular masses (...) weighted the international conjuncture that forced to count with the British benevolence."
     
  7. ^ Biography of Bernardino Rivadavia

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