List of Presidents of Brazil: Wikis

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Brazil

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Brazil



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This is a list of Presidents of Brazil.

Contents

Old republic (1889-1930)

In 1889 the Republic started with a coup d'état led by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, who deposed the Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro II and formed a provisional government. Two years later, in 1891, a constitution was written, based on the federal republic of the United States of America and the country itself was named the Republic of the United States of Brazil. Deodoro was elected constitutional president by the Constituent Congress in the same year, immediately after the promulgation of the Constitution, but resigned ten months later after a coup d'état in which he dissolved Congress was reversed. Then, Floriano Peixoto, Deodoro's vice-president and an opponent of the coup, was inaugurated. Peixoto was succeeded by the first elected president in Brazil, Prudente de Morais.

Although it was theoretically a constitutional democracy, the Old Republic was characterized by the power of regional oligarchies and the strict alternation of power between the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. The vote in the countryside was often controlled by the local land owner, and less than 6% of the population had the right to vote due to literacy requirements. Also, only wealthy individuals could vote or stand for election.

In 1930, when Brazil was suffering the effects of the Wall Street Crash of 1929, a revolution broke out in the country and the old republic ended. The president Washington Luís, who was supported by São Paulo oligarchies, broke the rule of alternation between São Paulo and Minas and supported a candidate who was also from São Paulo, Júlio Prestes. Prestes won the election, but Washington Luís was deposed three weeks before the end of his term and Prestes was never inaugurated.

President Picture Took office Left office Vice President(s) Political Party
Deodoro da Fonseca Deodoro da Fonseca por Valle.jpg 15 November 1889 23 November 1891 Floriano Peixoto Military/Republican
Floriano Peixoto Florianovieirapeixoto.jpg 23 November 1891 15 November 1894 vacant Military/Republican
Prudente de Morais Prudentedemorais.jpg 15 November 1894 15 November 1898 Manuel Vitorino Republican Party of São Paulo
Campos Sales Campos Sales.jpg 15 November 1898 15 November 1902 Rosa e Silva Republican Party of São Paulo
Rodrigues Alves (1st time) FranciscodePaulaRodriguesAlves.jpg 15 November 1902 15 November 1906 Silviano Brandão
Afonso Pena
Republican Party of São Paulo
Afonso Pena Afonso Pena.jpg 15 November 1906 14 June 1909[1] Nilo Peçanha Republican Party of Minas Gerais
Nilo Peçanha Nilo Peçanha 02.jpg 14 June 1909 15 November 1910 vacant Republican Party of Niteroi
Hermes da Fonseca HermesFonseca.jpg 15 November 1910 15 November 1914 Venceslau Brás Military
Venceslau Brás Venceslau Brás (retrato oval).jpg 15 November 1914 15 November 1918 Urbano Santos Republican Party of Minas Gerais
Rodrigues Alves (2nd time) FranciscodePaulaRodriguesAlves.jpg 15 November 1918 16 January 1919 Delfim Moreira Republican Party of São Paulo
Delfim Moreira (acting (for Alves to 16 January 1919)) Delfim Moreira.jpg 15 November 1918 28 July 1919 vacant Republican Party of Minas Gerais
Epitácio Pessoa Epitacio2.jpg 28 July 1919 15 November 1922
Bueno de Paiva
Republican Party of Minas Gerais
Artur Bernardes ArturBernardes1.jpg 15 November 1922 15 November 1926 Estacio Coimbra Republican Party of Minas Gerais
Washington Luís Presidentwashluis.jpg 15 November 1926 24 October 1930 Melo Viana Republican Party of São Paulo

Vargas era (1930-1945)

President Picture Took office Left office Vice President(s) Political Party
Augusto Fragoso Tasso Fragoso.jpg 24 October 1930 3 November 1930 vacant Military
Mena Barreto Mena Barreto.jpg
Isaías de Noronha Isaías de Noronha.jpg
Getúlio Vargas (1st time) Getulio.gif 3 November 1930 29 October 1945 vacant[2] Non-party
José Linhares JoseLinhares.jpg 29 October 1945 31 January 1946 vacant Non-party

The republic of 1946

In 1945, Vargas was deposed by a military coup led by two ex-supporters. Nevertheless, he would be elected president once again and his influence in Brazilian politics would remain until the end of the second republic. In this period, three parties dominated the national politics. Two were pro-Vargas – in the left, PTB and in the center-right, PSD – and another anti-Vargas, the rightist UDN.

This period was very unstable. In 1954, Vargas committed suicide during a crisis that threatened his government and he was followed by a series of short-term presidents. In 1961, UDN elected the party's first president, Jânio Quadros, who resigned seven months later. In that time, the president and the vice-president were voted separately. The vice-president was a political enemy of Jânio Quadros, the leftist João Goulart. A brief crisis had taken place, and the solution was a parliamentarism system, in which Goulart was inaugurated with reduced powers. A plebiscite in 1963 restored presidentialism and a military coup deposed Goulart in 1964, starting the military dictatorship.

President Picture Took office Left office Vice President(s) Political Party
Gaspar Dutra Eurico Gaspar Dutra.jpg 31 January 1946 31 January 1951 Nereu Ramos Military/Social Democratic Party
Getúlio Vargas (2nd time) Getulio.gif 31 January 1951 24 August 1954[3] Café Filho Brazilian Labour Party
Café Filho Café Filho.jpg 24 August 1954 9 November 1955[4] vacant Brazilian Labour Party
Carlos Luz CarlosLuz.jpg 9 November 1955 11 November 1955[5] vacant Social Democratic Party
Nereu Ramos Nereu.gif 11 November 1955[6] 31 January 1956 vacant Social Democratic Party
Juscelino Kubitschek Juscelino.jpg 31 January 1956 31 January 1961 João Goulart Social Democratic Party
Jânio Quadros Janio1.jpg 31 January 1961 25 August 1961[4] João Goulart Non-party
Ranieri Mazzilli (1st time) Mazzilli.jpg 25 August 1961[7] 7 September 1961 vacant Social Democratic Party
João Goulart Jango.jpg 7 September 1961 1 April 1964 vacant Brazilian Labour Party

The military dictatorship (1964-1985)

President Picture Took office Left office Vice President(s) Political Party
Ranieri Mazzilli (2nd time) Mazzilli.jpg 2 April 1964[8] 15 April 1964 vacant Social Democratic Party
Castelo Branco Castelobranco.jpg 15 April 1964 15 March 1967 José Maria Alckmin Non-party
Costa e Silva Costa e Silva.jpg 15 March 1967 31 August 1969[9] Pedro Aleixo National Renewal Alliance Party
Augusto Rademaker, Aurélio de Lira, Márcio Melo [10] Juntagovernativa1969.png 31 August 1969 30 October 1969 vacant National Renewal Alliance Party
Emilio Medici Garrastazu médici.jpg 30 October 1969 15 March 1974 Augusto Rademaker National Renewal Alliance Party
Ernesto Geisel Ernesto Geisel.jpg 15 March 1974 15 March 1979 Adalberto Pereira dos Santos National Renewal Alliance Party
João Figueiredo Figueiredo.gif 15 March 1979 15 March 1985 Aureliano Chaves Democratic Social Party

The new republic (1985-present)

Brazilian Presidential Standard

In the early 1980s the military government started a process of gradual political opening, called abertura, the final goal of which was the democracy. When the term of the last military president ended, however, no direct elections for president was taken.

Tancredo Neves, who had been prime-minister during the presidency of João Goulart, was chosen to be the candidate of PMDB, the major opposition party, but he was also supported by a large political spectrum, even including a significant part of the ARENA, the party that supported the military presidents. Tancredo was elected by the Electoral College, but died before he could be inaugurated. The first civilian president since 1964 was Tancredo's running mate, José Sarney, himself an ex-member of ARENA. In 1988, a new democratic Constitution was passed, and democracy was consolidated.

In 1989, the first elections for president under the new Constitution were held and the young Fernando Collor was elected for a five-years term - the first president to be elected by direct popular ballot since the military coup. He was inaugurated in 1990 and in 1992 he became the first president in Brazil impeached due to corruption.

In 1995, Fernando Henrique Cardoso was inaugurated for a four-year term, but in 1997 an Amendment was passed and allowed him to be the first president in Brazil to be reelected.

In 2003, the current president, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva was inaugurated.

President Picture Took office Left office Vice President(s) Political Party
Tancredo Neves Tancredo Neves.jpg 15 March 1985 21 April 1985[11] José Sarney Brazilian Democratic Movement Party
José Sarney Sarneyoficial.jpg 15 March 1985[12] 15 March 1990 vacant Brazilian Democratic Movement Party
Fernando Collor Fernando collor.jpg 15 March 1990 29 December 1992[13] Itamar Franco Party of National Reconstruction
Itamar Franco Itamar.jpg 29 December 1992 (acting from 2 October) 1 January 1995 vacant Brazilian Democratic Movement Party
Fernando Henrique Cardoso Fhc-color.jpg 1 January 1995 1 January 2003 Marco Maciel Brazilian Social Democracy Party
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Lula - foto oficial05012007.jpg 1 January 2003 incumbent, term ends 1 January 2011 José Alencar Workers' Party

Notes

  1. ^ Died in office.
  2. ^ The office of the vice-president was abolished during Vargas' tenure.
  3. ^ Committed suicide.
  4. ^ a b Resigned from office.
  5. ^ Deposed.
  6. ^ President of the Senate. Assumed presidency after Luz's deposition.
  7. ^ Acting president following Quadros' resignation. Vice-President João Goulart was on an official visit to China.
  8. ^ Acting president following the 1964 coup d'état.
  9. ^ Removed from office and replaced by a military junta after suffering a cerebral thrombosis.
  10. ^ Military junta.
  11. ^ Died before taking office. José Sarney acted as president from the day of Neves' would-be inauguration to the day he died.
  12. ^ Acting president until 22 April 1985.
  13. ^ Impeached from office.

See also

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