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President of the
Russian Federation
Standard of the President of the Russian Federation.svg
Official Standard
Incumbent
Dmitry Medvedev

since 7 May 2008
Appointer Direct popular vote
Term length Six years, renewable once,
consecutively
Inaugural holder Boris Yeltsin
Formation 10 July 1991
Website (Russian) kremlin.ru/
(English) kremlin.ru/eng/

This is a list of Presidents of the Russian Federation formed in 1993 after the fall of the Soviet Union. This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as President of the Russian Federation following the ratification of the Russian Constitution, which took effect in 1993.

Contents

Brief history

Yeltsin came to power with a wave of high expectations. On 12 June 1991 he was elected president of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic with 57% of the vote, becoming the first popularly elected president.[1] But Yeltsin never recovered his popularity after a series of economic and political crises in Russia in the 1990s. The Yeltsin era was marked by widespread corruption, economic collapse, and enormous political and social problems.[2] By the time he left office, Yeltsin had an approval rating of two percent by some estimates.[3]

Throughout his presidential terms and into his second term as Prime Minister, Putin has enjoyed high approval ratings amongst the Russian public. During his eight years in office, the economy bounced back from crisis, seeing GDP increase six-fold (72% in PPP),[4] poverty cut more than half[5] and average monthly salaries increase from $80 to $640, or by 150% in real rates.[6] At the same time, his conduct in office has been questioned by domestic dissenters, as well as foreign governments and human rights organizations, for his handling of internal conflicts in Chechnya and Dagestan, his record on internal human rights and freedoms, his relations with former Soviet Republics, and his relations with the so-called oligarchs: Russian businessmen with a high degree of power and influence within both the Russian Government and economy (See Criticism of Vladimir Putin). This was seen by the Kremlin as a series of anti-Russian propaganda attacks orchestrated by western opponents and exiled oligarchs.[7]

Medvedev was appointed First Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian government on 14 November 2005. Formerly Vladimir Putin's chief of staff, he was also the Chairman of Gazprom's board of directors, a post he had held, for the second time, since 2000. On 10 December 2007, he was informally endorsed as a candidate for the forthcoming presidential elections by the largest Russian political party, United Russia, and officially endorsed on 17 December 2007. Medvedev's candidacy was supported by former President Vladimir Putin and pro-presidential parties.[8] A technocrat and political appointee, Medvedev had never held elective office before 2008.

Presidents

For Russian leaders prior to this ratification, see Leaders of the Soviet Union, and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

      Supported by the Democratic Party of Russia       Supported by the United Russia       Our Home – Russia       Non-partisan without support

# Name Picture Took office Left office Political Party Term
1 Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin Борис Николаевич Ельцин.jpg 10 July 1991
(Inaugurated)
9 August 1996 None
(Supported by the Democratic Party of Russia)
1
9 August 1996
(Inaugurated)
5 November 1996 None 2
Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin
(Acting)[9][10][11]
Viktor Chernomyrdin-1.jpg 5 November 1996 6 November 1996 Our Home – Russia
1 Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin Борис Николаевич Ельцин.jpg 6 November 1996 31 December 1999
(Resign)
None
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin
(Acting)[11]
Vladimir Putin official portrait.jpg 31 December 1999 7 May 2000 None
2 Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin 7 May 2000
(Inaugurated)
7 May 2004 3
7 May 2004
(Inaugurated)
7 May 2008 4
3 Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev Dmitry Medvedev official large photo -1.jpg 7 May 2008
(Inaugurated)
Incumbent
End of term: 7 May 2012
None
(Supported by the United Russia)
5

See also

References

  1. ^ "Transcripts of 'Insight' on CNN". CNN. 2002-10-07. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0210/07/i_ins.01.html. Retrieved 2007-07-17.  
  2. ^ "Transcripts of 'Insight' on CNN". CNN. 2002-10-07. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0210/07/i_ins.01.html. Retrieved 2007-07-17.  
  3. ^ "Transcripts of 'Insight' on CNN". CNN. 2002-10-07. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0210/07/i_ins.01.html. Retrieved 2007-07-17.  
  4. ^ GDP of Russia from 1992 to 2007 International Monetary Fund Retrieved on 12 May 2008
  5. ^ Putin’s Eight Years Kommersant Retrieved on 4 May 2008
  6. ^ Putin visions new development plans for Russia China View Retrieved on 8 May 2008
  7. ^ Sergey Morozov, "Putin's Diplomacy: Russian Judo on World Tatami". - Saint Petersburg, publishing house "Krylov", 2008. - 288 pp. ISBN 978-5-9717-0630-4. Chapter "Dracula, Rotten Meat and Dr. Evil", p. 130: "... in the Kremlin they thought that Russia has become a subject of a series of political propaganda attacks orchestrated by the West and exiled oligarchs.", p. 139, Dmitry Peskov: "Things we observe in the British media relate more to a usual human hysteria rather than to journalism... President regards this calmly, understanding at the same time that this has nothing to do with journalism and analytics."
  8. ^ Putin sees Medvedev as successor BBC News
  9. ^ Hoffman, David (1996-11-06). "Yeltsin Heart Operation Called a Success". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/russiagov/stories/success110696.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-10.  
  10. ^ Decree of President of Russian Federation No. 1378 of 19 September 1996; Temporary discharge of duty of President of Russian Federation
  11. ^ a b As Prime Minister

External links

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