List of Presidents of the United States: Wikis

  
  
  
  

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The White House, the president's official residence and center of the administration
.Under the U.S. Constitution, the President of the United States is the head of state and the head of government of the United States.^ Constitution of the United States, art.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ President of the United States is elected.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ See also the analysis of all these charters given by Mr. Story, Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, in the Introduction to his "Commentary on the Constitution of the United States."
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.As chief of the executive branch and head of the federal government as a whole, the presidency is the highest political office in the United States by influence and recognition.^ Dollar limits on expenditures by candidates for office of President of the United States.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The president is also the Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. armed forces.^ Statement by Assistant to the President for Press Relations Fitzwater on the Deployment of United States Armed Forces to Honduras .

^ He is the commander of the militia, and head of the armed force.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You are fucking ANTI-AMERICAN if you don't support OUR president...How could you possibly be so ANTI-AMERICAN as to complain about a duly elected commander in chief?
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

.The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by an Electoral College (or by the House of Representatives should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person).^ Death of Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates Not Receiving a Majority of Electoral College Votes Before the House and Senate Meet to Select Them When the candidates for President and Vice President do not receive the required majority of 270 Electoral College votes out of a total 538 Electoral votes, the House of Representatives is to choose a President from among the three persons having the highest number of Electoral College votes, and the Senate is to choose a Vice President from the two persons having the highest numbers of votes.\32\ Thus, if one of the top three presidential candidates were to die, the House could do no more than make its decision among the survivors.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ If both the President-elect and the Vice President-elect were to die or fail to qualify, then the Speaker of the House would act as President in accordance with the provisions of the Presidential Succession Act of 1947, as amended.\31\ If a winning candidate were to die after the Electoral College met and cast the required majority of votes for him, and before the meeting of Congress to count the votes, the Congress would have no discretion and would be required to declare the actual votes at the time they were cast was valid and ergo declare that the deceased candidate had received a majority of the votes.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Death of a President-Elect and Vice-President Elect Before Inauguration Once the Electoral College has met and the votes have been cast and transmitted sealed to the President of the Senate, the President-elect and Vice President-elect, if they have received a majority of the electoral votes, would be replaced due to any death in accordance with section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment which provides: If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died, the Vice President-elect shall become President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected to the office of the president more than twice.^ Dollar limits on expenditures by candidates for office of President of the United States.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the United States.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution of the United States, art.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[1] .Upon death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent president, the Vice President assumes the office.^ Upon such determination, the Vice President is to assume the powers and duties of the office as acting-President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Vice President would become President in the case of the death, resignation or removal from office of the President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as president following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect on March 4, 1789. For American leaders before this ratification, see President of the Continental Congress.^ Dollar limits on expenditures by candidates for office of President of the United States.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Constitution of the United States, art.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The list does not include any Acting Presidents under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Constitution of the United States, art.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution of the United States, sects.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.There have been forty-three people sworn into office, and forty-four presidencies, due to the fact that Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the twenty-second and the twenty-fourth president.^ The House of Representatives is named by the people, the Senate by the legislators of each State; the former is directly elected, the latter is elected by an elected body; the term for which the representatives are chosen is only two years, that of the senators is six.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Twenty-fifth Amendment, section one provides: ``In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.''
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Any expenditure under this paragraph shall be in addition to any expenditure by a national committee of a political party serving as the principal campaign committee of a candidate for the office of President of the United States.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt), one resigned (Richard Nixon), and four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley, and John F. Kennedy).^ The Twenty-fifth Amendment, section one provides: ``In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.''
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The taking of the oath of office by an individual specified in the list in paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be held to constitute his resignation from the office by virtue of the holding of which he qualifies to act as President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The names of presidential electors, presented in one certificate of nomination, shall be arranged in a group enclosed in brackets under the designation of the office of President and Vice President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The first president was George Washington, who was inaugurated in 1789 after a unanimous Electoral College vote.^ A vote for the candidates for President and Vice President are votes for the electors.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Vice President-elect dies between the meeting of the Electoral College in December and Inauguration Day on January 20 the vacancy would likewise be filled after the inauguration of the President, in accordance with Section 2 of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The presidential electors at large shall cast their ballots for the presidential and vice-presidential candidates who received the largest number of votes in the State.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office at 31 days in 1841. At over twelve years, Franklin D. Roosevelt spent the longest time in office, and is the only president to serve more than two terms; he died shortly into his fourth term in 1945. The current president is Barack Obama; he assumed the office on January 20, 2009, and is the first African American president and the first president born outside the Contiguous United States, being born in Hawaii.^ Obama is not president until January 20th.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dollar limits on expenditures by candidates for office of President of the United States.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Thank you for being the 44th President of the United States, Barack Obama, and the American public for making it so.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Presidents

Parties
      Independent       Federalist       Democratic-Republican       Democratic       Whig       Republican
Presidency[n 1] President Took office Left office Party Vice President Term
1 Washington (3).jpg George Washington
[2][3][4][5]
April 30, 1789 March 4, 1797 Independent John Adams 1
2
2 Adamstrumbull.jpg John Adams
[6][7][8][9]
March 4, 1797 March 4, 1801 Federalist Thomas Jefferson 3
3 Tj3.gif Thomas Jefferson
[10][11][12][13]
March 4, 1801 March 4, 1809 Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr 4
George Clinton 5
4 James Madison.jpg James Madison
[14][15][16][17]
March 4, 1809 March 4, 1817 Democratic-Republican George Clinton[n 2]
March 4, 1809 – April 20, 1812
6
vacant[n 3]
April 20, 1812 – March 4, 1813
Elbridge Gerry[n 2]
March 4, 1813 – November 23, 1814
7
vacant [n 3]
November 23, 1814 – March 4, 1817
5 Jm5.gif James Monroe
[18][19][20][21]
March 4, 1817 March 4, 1825 Democratic-Republican Daniel D. Tompkins 8
9
6 Ja6.gif John Quincy Adams
[22][23][24][25]
March 4, 1825 March 4, 1829 Democratic-Republican
National Republican
John C. Calhoun 10
7 Andrew jackson head.gif Andrew Jackson
[26][27][28][29]
March 4, 1829 March 4, 1837 Democratic John C. Calhoun [n 4]
March 4, 1829 – December 28, 1832
11
vacant[n 3]
December 28, 1832 – March 4, 1833
Martin Van Buren 12
8 Mb8.gif Martin Van Buren
[30][31][32][33]
March 4, 1837 March 4, 1841 Democratic Richard Mentor Johnson 13
9 Wh9.gif William Henry Harrison
[34][35][36][37]
March 4, 1841 April 4, 1841[n 2] Whig John Tyler 14
10[n 5] WHOportTyler.jpg John Tyler
[38][39][40][41]
April 4, 1841 March 4, 1845 Whig
April 4, 1841 – September 13, 1841
vacant [n 3]
Independent[n 6]
September 13, 1841 – March 4, 1845
11 Jp11.gif James K. Polk
[42][43][44][45]
March 4, 1845 March 4, 1849 Democratic George M. Dallas 15
12 Zachary Taylor 2.jpg Zachary Taylor
[46][47][48][49]
March 4, 1849 July 9, 1850[n 2] Whig Millard Fillmore 16
13 Millard Fillmore.gif Millard Fillmore
[50][51][52][53]
July 9, 1850 March 4, 1853 Whig vacant [n 3]
14 美国总统皮尔斯.gif Franklin Pierce
[54][55][56][57]
March 4, 1853 March 4, 1857 Democratic William R. King[n 2]
March 4, 1853 – April 18, 1853
17
vacant [n 3]
April 18, 1853 – March 4, 1857
15 Jb15.gif James Buchanan
[58][59][60][61]
March 4, 1857 March 4, 1861 Democratic John C. Breckinridge 18
16 Al16.jpg Abraham Lincoln
[62][63][64][65]
March 4, 1861 April 15, 1865[n 7] Republican
National Union[n 8]
Hannibal Hamlin 19
Andrew Johnson 20
17 Aj17.gif Andrew Johnson
[66][67][68][69]
April 15, 1865 March 4, 1869 Democratic
National Union[n 8]
vacant [n 3]
National Union[n 8]
Independent[n 9]
18 Ug18.gif Ulysses S. Grant
[70][71][72][73]
March 4, 1869 March 4, 1877 Republican Schuyler Colfax 21
Henry Wilson[n 2]
March 4, 1873 – November 22, 1875
22
vacant [n 3]
November 22, 1875 – March 4, 1877
19 Rhayes.png Rutherford B. Hayes
[74][75][76][77]
March 4, 1877 March 4, 1881 Republican William A. Wheeler 23
20 James Garfield portrait.jpg James A. Garfield
[78][79][80][81]
March 4, 1881 September 19, 1881[n 7] Republican Chester A. Arthur 24
21 Ca21.gif Chester A. Arthur
[82][83][84][85]
September 19, 1881 March 4, 1885 Republican vacant [n 3]
22 Grover Cleveland portrait2.jpg Grover Cleveland
[86][87][88][89]
March 4, 1885 March 4, 1889 Democratic Thomas A. Hendricks[n 2]
March 4, 1885 – November 25, 1885
25
vacant [n 3]
November 25, 1885 – March 4, 1889
23 Bharrison.PNG Benjamin Harrison
[90][91][92][93]
March 4, 1889 March 4, 1893 Republican Levi P. Morton 26
24 Grover Cleveland, painting by Anders Zorn.jpg Grover Cleveland
(second term)
[86][87][88][89]
March 4, 1893 March 4, 1897 Democratic Adlai E. Stevenson I 27
25 Wm25.gif William McKinley
[94][95][96][97]
March 4, 1897 September 14, 1901[n 7] Republican Garret Hobart[n 2]
March 4, 1897 – November 21, 1899
28
vacant [n 3]
November 21, 1899 – March 4, 1901
Theodore Roosevelt 29
26 TRSargent.jpg Theodore Roosevelt
[98][99][100][101]
September 14, 1901 March 4, 1909 Republican vacant [n 3]
Charles W. Fairbanks 30
27 TaftOfficial Portrait.jpg William Howard Taft
[102][103][104][105]
March 4, 1909 March 4, 1913 Republican James S. Sherman[n 2]
March 4, 1909 – October 30, 1912
31
vacant [n 3]
October 30, 1912 – March 4, 1913
28 Ww28.gif Woodrow Wilson
[106][107][108][109]
March 4, 1913 March 4, 1921 Democratic Thomas R. Marshall 32
33
29 Wh29.gif Warren G. Harding
[110][111][112][113]
March 4, 1921 August 2, 1923[n 2] Republican Calvin Coolidge 34
30 CoolidgeWHPortrait.gif Calvin Coolidge
[114][115][116][117]
August 2, 1923 March 4, 1929 Republican vacant [n 3]
Charles G. Dawes 35
31 Hhover.gif Herbert Hoover
[118][119][120][121]
March 4, 1929 March 4, 1933 Republican Charles Curtis 36
32 Fdrpics.gif Franklin D. Roosevelt
[122][123][124][125]
March 4, 1933 April 12, 1945[n 2] Democratic John Nance Garner 37[n 10]
38
Henry A. Wallace 39
Harry S. Truman 40
33 HarryTruman.jpg Harry S. Truman
[126][127][128][129]
April 12, 1945 January 20, 1953 Democratic vacant [n 3]
Alben W. Barkley 41
34 Dwight D. Eisenhower, official Presidential portrait.jpg Dwight D. Eisenhower
[130][131][132][133]
January 20, 1953 January 20, 1961 Republican Richard Nixon 42
43
35 John F Kennedy Official Portrait.jpg John F. Kennedy
[134][135][136][137]
January 20, 1961 November 22, 1963[n 7] Democratic Lyndon B. Johnson 44
36 Lyndon B. Johnson - portrait.gif Lyndon B. Johnson
[138][139][140][141]
November 22, 1963 January 20, 1969 Democratic vacant [n 3]
Hubert Humphrey 45
37 Rn37.gif Richard Nixon
[142][143][144][145]
January 20, 1969 August 9, 1974[n 4] Republican Spiro Agnew[n 4]
January 20, 1969 – October 10, 1973
46
47
vacant [n 3]
October 10, 1973 – December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974
38 Gerald R. Ford - portrait.jpg Gerald Ford
[146][147][148][149]
August 9, 1974 January 20, 1977 Republican vacant [n 3]
August 9, 1974 – December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974 – January 20, 1977
39 James E. Carter - portrait.gif Jimmy Carter
[150][151][152][153]
January 20, 1977 January 20, 1981 Democratic Walter Mondale 48
40 REAGANWH.jpg Ronald Reagan
[154][155][156][157]
January 20, 1981 January 20, 1989 Republican George H. W. Bush 49
50
41 George H. W. Bush - portrait by Herbert Abrams (1994).jpg George H. W. Bush
[158][159][160][161]
January 20, 1989 January 20, 1993 Republican Dan Quayle 51
42 Clinton.jpg Bill Clinton
[162][163][164][165]
January 20, 1993 January 20, 2001 Democratic Al Gore 52
53
43 Official painting of George W. Bush.jpg George W. Bush
[166][167][168][169]
January 20, 2001 January 20, 2009 Republican Dick Cheney 54
55
44 Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg Barack Obama
[170][171][172][173]
January 20, 2009 Incumbent   Democratic   Joe Biden 56

Notes

  1. ^ A presidency is defined as consecutive time in office served by a single person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Gerald Ford assumed the presidency after the resignation of Richard Nixon, serving out the remainder of what would have been Nixon's second term. The fact that Ford was not voted into office does not affect the numbering, which makes him the 38th president. In addition, under this numbering, Grover Cleveland is counted as having two separate presidencies, having served two non-consecutive terms.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Died in office of natural causes.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967, there was no provision for filling a vacancy in the Vice Presidency. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill such a vacancy under the provisions of the Twenty-fifth Amendment when he appointed Gerald Ford. Ford later became the second president to fill a vice presidential vacancy when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him.
  4. ^ a b c Resigned.
  5. ^ Being the first vice president to assume the presidency, Tyler set a precedent that a vice president who assumes the office of president becomes a fully functioning president who has his own presidency, as opposed to just a caretaker president. His political opponents attempted to refer to him as "Acting President", but he refused to allow that. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution put Tyler's precedent into the Constitution.
  6. ^ Former Democrat who ran for Vice President on Whig ticket. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841.
  7. ^ a b c d Assassinated.
  8. ^ a b c Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were, respectively, a Republican and a Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.
  9. ^ Andrew Johnson did not identify with the two main parties while president and tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union label. His failure to build a true National Union Party made Johnson without a party.
  10. ^ This term was shortened by 43 days due to the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution going into effect, moving inauguration day from March 4 to January 20.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_amendments_11-27.html. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
  2. ^ The White House (March 12, 2007). "Biography of George Washington". Whitehouse.gov. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewashington/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  3. ^ "The First President: 1789–1797 George Washington "Father of his Country"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/washington_george.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  4. ^ "George Washington – Independent Party – 1st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/washington. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  5. ^ "George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/gwashington.asp. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  6. ^ "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnadams/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  7. ^ "The Second President: 1797–1801 John Adams "Following in the Footsteps"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/adams_john.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  8. ^ "John Adams – Federalist Party – 2nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/adams. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  9. ^ "John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=2. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  10. ^ "Biography of Thomas Jefferson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/thomasjefferson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  11. ^ "The Third President: 1801–1809 Thomas Jefferson "The Renaissance Leader"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/jefferson_thomas.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  12. ^ "Thomas Jefferson – Democratic-Republican Party – 3rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/jefferson. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  13. ^ "Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=3. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  14. ^ "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesmadison/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  15. ^ "The Fourth President: 1809–1817 James Madison "The Nation Builder"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/madison_james.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  16. ^ "James Madison – Democratic-Republican Party – 4th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/madison. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  17. ^ "James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=4. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesmonroe/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  19. ^ "The Fifth President: 1817–1825 James Monroe "The Era of Good Feelings"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/monroe_james.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  20. ^ "James Monroe – Democratic-Republican Party – 5th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/monroe. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  21. ^ "James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=5. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  22. ^ "Biography of John Quincy Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnquincyadams/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  23. ^ "The Sixth President: 1825–1829 John Quincy Adams "Born to Lead"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/adams_johnquincy.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  24. ^ "John Quincy Adams – Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, WHIG Party – 6th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/johnqadams. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  25. ^ "John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=6. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  26. ^ "Biography of Andrew Jackson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewjackson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  27. ^ "The Seventh President: 1829–1837 Andrew Jackson "Old Hickory"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/jackson_andrew.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  28. ^ "Andrew Jackson – Democratic-Republican Party – 7th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/jackson. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  29. ^ "Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=7. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Biography of Martin Van Buren". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/martinvanburen/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  31. ^ "The Eighth President: 1837–1841 Martin Van Buren "The Red Fox"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/vanburen_martin.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  32. ^ "Martin Van Buren – Democratic-Republican, Democratic, and Free Soil Party – 8th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/vanburen. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
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  42. ^ "Biography of James Polk". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamespolk/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  46. ^ "Biography of Zachary Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/zacharytaylor/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  47. ^ "The Twelfth President: 1849–1850 Zachary Taylor "Old Rough-and-Ready"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/taylor_zachary.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  49. ^ "Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=12. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  50. ^ "Biography of Millard Fillmore". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/millardfillmore/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  53. ^ "Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=13. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  54. ^ "Biography of Franklin Pierce". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklinpierce/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  61. ^ "James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=15. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  62. ^ "Biography of Abraham Lincoln". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/abrahamlincoln/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  63. ^ "The Sixteenth President: 1861–1865 Abraham Lincoln "The Great Emancipator"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/lincoln_abraham.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  74. ^ "Biography of Rutherford B. Hayes". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/rutherfordbhayes/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  82. ^ "Biography of Chester Arthur". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/chesterarthur/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  94. ^ "Biography of William McKinley". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williammckinley/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  98. ^ "Biography of Theodore Roosevelt". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/theodoreroosevelt/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  102. ^ "Biography of William Howard Taft". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamhowardtaft/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  106. ^ "Biography of Woodrow Wilson". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/woodrowwilson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  110. ^ "Biography of Warren G. Harding". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/warrenharding/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  114. ^ "Biography of Calvin Coolidge". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/calvincoolidge/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  117. ^ "Calvin Coolidge (July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=29. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  118. ^ "Biography of Herbert Hoover". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/herberthoover/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  119. ^ "The Thirty-First President: 1929–1933 Herbert Clark Hoover "The Great Engineer"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/hoover_herbert.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  120. ^ "Herbert Hoover – Republican Party – 31st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  121. ^ "Herbert Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=30. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  122. ^ "Biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt". Whitehouse.gov. March 20, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklindroosevelt/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  123. ^ "The Thirty-Second President: 1933–1945 Franklin Delano Roosevelt "New Dealer and Global Warrior"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/roosevelt_franklin.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  124. ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt – Democratic Party – 32nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/fdr. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  125. ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=31. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  126. ^ "Biography of Harry S Truman". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/harrystruman/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  129. ^ "Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=32. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  130. ^ "Biography of Dwight D. Eisenhower". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/dwightdeisenhower/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  131. ^ "The Thirty-Fourth President: 1953–1961 Dwight David Eisenhower "I Like Ike"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/eisenhower_dwight.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  133. ^ "Dwight D. Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=33. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  134. ^ "Biography of John F. Kennedy". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  135. ^ "The Thirty-Five President: 1961–1963 John Fitzgerald Kennedy "Inspiring A Generation"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/kennedy_john.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  136. ^ "John F. Kennedy – Democratic Party – 35th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/kennedy. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  137. ^ "John F. Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=34. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  138. ^ "Biography of Lyndon B. Johnson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/lyndonjohnson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  139. ^ "The Thirty-Sixth President: 1963–1969 Lyndon Baines Johnson "So Close To Greatness"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/johnson_lyndon.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  141. ^ "Lyndon B. Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=35. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  142. ^ "Richard M. Nixon". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/richardnixon/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  143. ^ "The Thirty-Seventh President: 1969–1974 Richard Milhous Nixon "The Road to Watergate"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/nixon_richard.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  144. ^ "Richard Nixon – Republican Party – 37th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/nixon. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  145. ^ "Richard M. Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=36. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  146. ^ "Biography of Gerald R. Ford". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/geraldford/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  147. ^ "The Thirty-Eighth President: 1974–1977 Gerald Rudolph Ford "A Time for Healing"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/ford_gerald.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  149. ^ "Gerald R. Ford (July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=37. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  150. ^ "Biography of Jimmy Carter". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jimmycarter. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  151. ^ "The Thirty-Ninth President: 1977–1981 James Earl Carter "Not a Politician"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/carter_jimmy.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  152. ^ "Jimmy Carter – Democratic Party – 39th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ford. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  153. ^ "Jimmy Carter (October 1, 1924 – )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=38. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  154. ^ "Biography of Ronald Reagan". Whitehouse.gov. June 25, 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ronaldreagan/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  155. ^ "The Fortieth President: 1981–1989 Ronald Wilson Reagan "The Great Communicator"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/reagan_ronald.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  156. ^ "Ronald Reagan – Republican Party – 40th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ford. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  157. ^ "Ronald Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=39. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  158. ^ "Biography of George Herbert Walker Bush". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgehwbush/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  159. ^ "The Forty-First President: 1989–1993 George Herbert Walker Bush "The Last Cold Warrior"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/bush_george_sr.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  162. ^ "Biography of William J. Clinton". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamjclinton/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  163. ^ "The Forty-Second President: 1993–2001 William Jefferson Clinton "Prosperity And Turmoil"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/clinton_bill.shtml. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  164. ^ "Bill Clinton – Democratic Party – 42nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/billclinton. Retrieved January 12 2009. 
  165. ^ "Bill Clinton (August 19, 1946 – )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=41. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  166. ^ "Biography of President George W. Bush". Whitehouse.gov. February 25, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewbush/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  170. ^ "President Barack Obama". Whitehouse.gov. January 20, 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/president_obama/. Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
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