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Luxembourg

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Politics and government of
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The Prime Minister of Luxembourg is the head of government in Luxembourg.

Since 1989, the title of Prime Minister has been an official one,[1] although the head of the government had been unofficially known by that name for some time. Between 1857 and 1989, the Prime Minister went by the name of the President of the Government,[2] with the exception of the 25-day premiership of Mathias Mongenast.[3] Before 1857, the Prime Minister was the President of the Council. In addition to these titles, the Prime Minister uses the title Minister of State, although this is usually relegated to a secondary title.

This is a list of Prime Ministers and governments since the post was founded, in 1848. In larger font are the dates of the Prime Ministers entering and leaving office. The smaller dates, during the respective premierships, are those of the Prime Ministers' governments. Luxembourg has a collegial governmental system; often, the government will present its resignation, only for the successor government to include many, if not most, of the previous ministers serving under the same Prime Minister. Each of the smaller dates reflects a change in the government without a change of Prime Minister.

Contents

The era of independents

From the promulgation of the first constitution, in 1848, until the early twentieth century, Luxembourgian politics was dominated by independent politicians and statesmen.[4] The prerogative powers of the Grand Duke remained undiluted, and, as such, the monarch actively chose and personally appointed the Prime Minister. As a result, the Prime Minister was often a moderate, without any strong affiliation to either of the two major ideological factions in the Chamber of Deputies: the secularist liberals and the Catholic conservatives.

In the early twentieth century, the emergence of socialism as a third force in Luxembourgian politics ended the dominance of independents, and further politicised the government of the country.[4] This did not affect the Prime Minister's position until 1915, when the long-serving Paul Eyschen died in office. His death created a struggle for power between the main factions, leading to the establishment of the formalised party system.[5]

Prime Minister Start date End date Notes
G T I de la Fontaine 1 August 1848 6 December 1848 First Prime Minister
1 1 August 1848 6 December 1848 Vote of no confidence[6]
Jean-Jacques Willmar 6 December 1848 23 September 1853
1 6 December 1848 23 September 1853 Fired by the Governor[7]
Mathias Simons 23 September 1853 26 September 1860
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
23 September 1853
23 September 1854
24 May 1856
2 June 1857
29 November 1857
12 November 1858
23 June 1859
15 July 1859
23 September 1854
24 May 1856
2 June 1857
29 November 1857
12 November 1858
23 June 1859
15 July 1859
26 September 1860


Government launches Coup of 1856
Last as President of the Council (except Mongenast)
First as President of the Government


Resigned[8]
Baron de Tornaco 26 September 1860 3 December 1867
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
26 September 1860
9 September 1863
31 March 1864
26 January 1866
3 December 1866
14 December 1866
18 June 1867
9 September 1863
31 March 1864
26 January 1866
3 December 1866
14 December 1866
18 June 1867
3 December 1867




Shortest cabinet
Luxembourg Crisis erupts
Treaty of London; Vote of no confidence[9]
Emmanuel Servais 3 December 1867 26 December 1874
1
2
3
4
5
3 December 1867
30 September 1869
12 October 1869
7 February 1870
25 May 1873
30 September 1869
12 October 1869
7 February 1870
25 May 1873
26 December 1874




Resigned[10]
Baron de Blochausen 26 December 1874 20 February 1885
1
2
3
4
5
6
26 December 1874
26 April 1874
8 July 1876
6 August 1878
21 September 1882
12 October 1882
26 April 1874
8 July 1876
6 August 1878
21 September 1882
12 October 1882
20 February 1885





Fired by the Grand Duke[11]
Édouard Thilges 20 February 1885 22 September 1888
1 20 February 1885 22 September 1888 Resigned[12]
Paul Eyschen 22 September 1888 11 October 1915 Longest premiership
1
2
3
4
5
6
22 September 1888
26 October 1892
23 June 1896
25 October 1905
9 January 1910
3 March 1915
26 October 1892
23 June 1896
25 October 1905
9 January 1910
3 March 1915
11 October 1915


Longest cabinet

Occupied by Germany on 2 August 1914
Died in office[5]
Mathias Mongenast 12 October 1915 6 November 1915 Shortest premiership
1 12 October 1915 6 November 1915 As President of the Council; resigned[3]
Hubert Loutsch 6 November 1915 24 February 1916
1 6 November 1915 24 February 1916 Minority government;[13] Vote of no confidence[13]
Victor Thorn 24 February 1916 19 June 1917
1 24 February 1916 19 June 1917 National Union Government; resigned[14]
Léon Kauffman 19 June 1917 28 September 1918
1 19 June 1917 28 September 1918 Resigned[15]

The party system

In 1918, towards the end of the First World War, a new Chamber of Deputies was elected with the explicit ambition of reviewing the constitution.[15] To this end, formalised parties were formed by the main political blocs, so as to increase their bargaining power in the negotiations. The revisions to the constitution introduced universal suffrage and compulsory voting, adopted proportional representation, and limited the sovereignty of the monarch.

Since the foundation of the party system, only one cabinet (between 1921 and 1925) has not included members of more than one party. Most of the time, governments are grand coalitions of the two largest parties, no matter their ideology; this has made Luxembourg one of the most stable democracies in the world.[16] Two cabinets (between 1945 and 1947) included members of every party represented in the Chamber of Deputies.

During the occupation of Luxembourg by Nazi Germany, Luxembourg was governed by a Nazi Party official, Gustav Simon. Pierre Dupong continued to lead the government in exile in the United Kingdom until the liberation of Luxembourg in December 1944, whereupon the constitutional Luxembourg government returned to the Grand Duchy. Thus, although Luxembourg was formally annexed on 30 August 1942, the Prime Minister of the government in exile, Pierre Dupong, is assumed to have remained Prime Minister throughout.

Prime Minister Party Start date End date Coalition members Notes
Émile Reuter PD 28 September 1918 20 March 1925 First party government
1
2
3
28 September 1918
5 January 1920
15 April 1921
5 January 1920
15 April 1921
20 March 1925
PD, LL
PD, LL
PD
Armistice; constitution amended;[15] 1919 election

Only one-party cabinet; 1922 election; resigned[17]
Pierre Prüm PNI 20 March 1925 16 July 1926 Only PNI premiership
1 20 March 1925 16 July 1926 PNI, PRS 1925 election; resigned[18]
Joseph Bech (1st time) PD 16 July 1926 5 November 1937
1
2
3
16 July 1926
11 April 1932
27 December 1936
11 April 1932
27 December 1936
5 November 1937
PD, LdG
PD, PRL
PD, PRL
Longest party cabinet; 1928 and 1931 elections
1934 election
1937 election; resigned[19]
Pierre Dupong PD 5 November 1937 23 December 1953
1
2
3
4
5 November 1937
7 February 1938
6 April 1940
10 May 1940
7 February 1938
6 April 1940
10 May 1940
23 November 1944
PD, POL, PRL
PD, POL
PD, POL
PD, POL

World War II; Luxembourg remained neutral[20]
Emergency government
Nazi occupation; government in exile
CSV
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
23 November 1944
23 February 1945
21 April 1945
14 November 1945
29 August 1946
1 March 1947
14 July 1948
3 July 1951
23 February 1945
21 April 1945
14 November 1945
29 August 1946
1 March 1947
14 July 1948
3 July 1951
23 December 1953
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP, GD, KPL
CSV, LSAP, GD, KPL
CSV, LSAP, GD
CSV, LSAP, GD
CSV, LSAP
Liberation Government[21]
Liberation Government; neutrality ended[22]
Liberation Government; 1945 election
National Union Government[23]
National Union Government
1948 election
1951 election
Died in office[24]
Joseph Bech (2nd time) CSV 29 December 1953 29 March 1958
1
2
29 December 1953
29 June 1954
29 June 1954
29 March 1958
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
1954 election
Resigned[25]
Pierre Frieden CSV 29 March 1958 23 February 1959
1 29 March 1958 23 February 1959 CSV, LSAP 1959 election; died in office[26]
Pierre Werner (1st time) CSV 2 March 1959 15 June 1974 Longest party premiership
1
2
3
4
5
6
2 March 1959
15 July 1964
3 January 1967
6 February 1969
5 July 1971
19 September 1972
15 July 1964
3 January 1967
6 February 1969
5 July 1971
19 September 1972
15 June 1974
CSV, LSAP, DP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, DP
CSV, DP
CSV, DP
1964 election

1968 election


1974 election; defeated[27]
Gaston Thorn DP 15 June 1974 16 July 1979 Only DP premiership
1
2
3
15 June 1974
21 July 1976
16 September 1977
21 July 1976
16 September 1977
16 July 1979
DP, LSAP
DP, LSAP
DP, LSAP


1979 election; defeated[28]
Pierre Werner (2nd time) CSV 16 July 1979 20 July 1984
1
2
3
4
16 July 1979
3 March 1980
22 November 1980
21 December 1982
3 March 1980
22 November 1980
21 December 1982
20 July 1984
CSV, DP
CSV, DP
CSV, DP
CSV, DP



1984 election; retired[29]
Jacques Santer CSV 20 July 1984 26 January 1995
1
2
3
4
20 July 1984
14 July 1989
9 December 1992
13 July 1994
14 July 1989
9 December 1992
13 July 1994
26 January 1995
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
Last as President of the Government; 1989 election
First as Prime Minister
1994 election
Appointed EC President[30]
Jean-Claude Juncker CSV 26 January 1995 Present day
1
2
3
4
5
26 January 1995
4 February 1998
7 August 1999
31 July 2004
23 July 2009
4 February 1998
7 August 1999
31 July 2004
23 July 2009
Present day
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, DP
CSV, LSAP
CSV, LSAP

1999 election
2004 election
2009 election

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Thewes (2003), p.209
  2. ^ Thewes (2003), p.21
  3. ^ a b Thewes (2003), p.65
  4. ^ a b Thewes (2003), p.8
  5. ^ a b Thewes (2003), p.64
  6. ^ Thewes (2003), p.16
  7. ^ Thewes (2003), p.20
  8. ^ Thewes (2003), p.28
  9. ^ Thewes (2003), p.34
  10. ^ Thewes (2003), p.42
  11. ^ Thewes (2003), p.48
  12. ^ Thewes (2003), p.52
  13. ^ a b Thewes (2003), p.66
  14. ^ Thewes (2003), p.69
  15. ^ a b c Thewes (2003), p.76
  16. ^ Weston, Steve (2 March 2003). "Luxembourg Country Commercial Guide FY 2003: Political Environment". http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/inimr-ri.nsf/fr/gr106260f.html. Retrieved 28 June 2006.  
  17. ^ Thewes (2003), p.88
  18. ^ Thewes (2003), p.90
  19. ^ Thewes (2003), p.104
  20. ^ Thewes (2003), p.107
  21. ^ Thewes (2003), p.115
  22. ^ Thewes (2003), p.118
  23. ^ Thewes (2003), p.122
  24. ^ Thewes (2003), p.140
  25. ^ Thewes (2003), p.148
  26. ^ Thewes (2003), p.151
  27. ^ Thewes (2003), p.182
  28. ^ Thewes (2003), p.192
  29. ^ Thewes (2003), p.204
  30. ^ Thewes (2003), p.222

References








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