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List of Prime Ministers of Portugal: Wikis

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Portugal

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Politics and government of
Portugal



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In Portugal, the post of Prime Minister (primeiro-ministro, Portuguese pronunciation: [pɾiˈmɐiɾu mɨˈniʃtɾu] or [miˈniʃtɾu]) is the head of the country's Government. He/she coordinates the actions of all ministers, represents the Government as a whole, reports his actions and is controlled by the Assembly of the Republic, and keeps the President of the Republic informed.

There is no limit to the number of mandates as Prime Minister. He/she is appointed by the President of the Republic, after the legislative elections and after an audience with every leader of a party represented at the Assembly. It is usual for the leader of the party which receives a plurality of votes in the elections to be named Prime Minister.

Contents

History

Before the Carnation Revolution of 1974 the competences of the Prime Minister were different. Since the 1820 Liberal Revolution of Porto, liberalism and parliamentarism were installed in the country. In the first liberal period, there were three to six secretaries of state with equal position in the hierarchy, but with the Secretary of State of Internal Affairs of the Kingdom (usually known by Minister of the Kingdom) occupying a prominent position. Occasionally there was a Minister Assistant to the Dispatch, a coordinator of all secretaries of state, and with a post similar to that of a prime minister. After a brief absolutistic restoration, the second liberalism started. With the beginning of the Constitutional Monarchy, post of President of the Council of Ministers was created. The Presidents of the Council were clearly the heads of government of the kingdom holding the executive power that absolutistic monarchs had, but were restricted by the controlling power of a National Congress.

With the advent of the Republic in the 5 October 1910 revolution, the Prime Minister was renamed President of the Ministry. During this period the heads of government were under the strong power of the parliament and often fell due to parliamentary turmoils and social instability. With the 28 May 1926 coup d'état, and eventually, after the formation of the Estado Novo quasi-fascist dictatorial regime of António de Oliveira Salazar, the Prime Minister was again named President of the Council of Ministers, and was nominally the most important figure in the country. First Salazar and then Marcello Caetano occupied this post for almost 42 years. With the Carnation Revolution came the Prime Minister, which replaced the President of the Council.

Numbering

The numbering of the Prime Ministers starts with the first President of the Council of Ministers of the constitutional monarchy. A second column is added after the establishment of the Republic, numbering the Prime Ministers from there to the present day. Another column is added for the numbering inside the three regimes: First Republic, the Second Republic and Third Republic, with a fourth column in the Second Republic to mark the numbering of Prime Ministers since the 1926 revolution that established the National Dictatorship and since the replacement of the National Dictatorship with the Salazarist Estado Novo. In the Third Republic, a fourth column is also used to distinguish the prime ministers of the provisional governments that existed during the period immediately following the Carnation Revolution of 1974 from the prime ministers that assumed office after the entry into force of Portugal's current democratic Constitution adopted 1976. The numbering of the Constitutional Governments since the first elections held under the 1976 Constitution is used in Portugal as the official numbering of succeeding Cabinets.

Constitutional Monarchy

      No party       Chartist/Chamorro       Chamorro       Septemberist       Chartist       Regenerator       Historic       Reformist       Regenerator/Historic       Progressist       Liberal Regenerator

# Took office Left office Party
Constitutional Monarchy – Second Liberalism (1834-1910)
1
Pedro de Sousa Holstein, Marquess of Palmela 24 September 1834 4 May 1835 Chartist/"Chamorro"
2
Vitório Maria Francisco de Sousa Coutinho Teixeira de Andrade Barbosa, Count of Linhares 4 May 1835 27 May 1835 "Chamorro"
3
João Carlos Saldanha de Oliveira e Daun, Marquess of Saldanha 27 May 1835 18 November 1835 Independent
4
José Jorge Loureiro 18 November 1835 20 April 1836 Independent
5
António José de Sousa Manoel de Menezes Severim de Noronha, Duke of Terceira and Marquess of Vila Flor 20 April 1836 10 September 1836 "Chamorro"
6
José Manuel da Cunha Faro Menezes Portugal Gama Carneiro e Sousa, Count of Lumiares 10 September 1836 4 November 1836 Septemberist
7
José Bernardino de Portugal e Castro, Marquess of Valença and Count of Vimioso 4 November 1836 5 November 1836 Independent
8
Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, Viscount of Sá da Bandeira 5 November 1836 1 June 1837 Septemberist
9
António Dias de Oliveira 1 June 1837 2 August 1837 Septemberist
10
Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, Viscount of Sá da Bandeira 2 August 1837 18 April 1839 Septemberist
11
Rodrigo Pinto Pizarro de Almeida Carvalhais, Baron of Ribeira de Sabrosa 18 April 1839 26 November 1839 Septemberist
12
José Lúcio Travassos Valdez, Count of Bonfim 26 November 1839 9 June 1841 Septemberist
13
Joaquim António de Aguiar 9 June 1841 7 February 1842 Septemberist
14
Pedro de Sousa Holstein, Marquess of Palmela 7 February 1842 9 February 1842 Independent
15
António José de Sousa Manoel de Menezes Severim de Noronha, Duke of Terceira 9 February 1842 20 May 1846 Chartist
16
Pedro de Sousa Holstein, Marquess of Palmela 20 May 1846 6 October 1846 Chartist
17
João Carlos Saldanha de Oliveira e Daun, Duke of Saldanha 6 October 1846 18 June 1849 Chartist
18
António Bernardo da Costa Cabral, Count of Tomar 18 June 1849 26 April 1851 Chartist
19
António José de Sousa Manoel de Menezes Severim de Noronha, Duke of Terceira and Marquess of Vila Flor 26 April 1851 1 May 1851 Regenerator
20
João Carlos Saldanha de Oliveira e Daun, Duke of Saldanha 1 May 1851 6 June 1856 Regenerator
21
Nuno José Severo de Mendonça Rolim de Moura Barreto, Marquess of Loulé 6 June 1856 16 March 1859 Historic
22
António José de Sousa Manoel de Menezes Severim de Noronha, Duke of Terceira and Marquess of Vila Flor 16 March 1859 1 May 1860 Regenerator
23
Joaquim António de Aguiar 1 May 1860 4 July 1860 Regenerator
24
Nuno José Severo de Mendonça Rolim de Moura Barreto, Duke of Loulé 4 July 1860 17 April 1865 Historic
25
Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, Marquess of Sá da Bandeira 17 April 1865 4 September 1865 Reformist
26
Joaquim António de Aguiar 4 September 1865 4 January 1868 Regenerator (together with the Historic Party)
27
File:Avila e António José de Ávila, Count of Ávila 4 January 1868 22 July 1868 Independent
28
Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, Marquess of Sá da Bandeira 22 July 1868 11 August 1869 Reformist
29
Nuno José Severo de Mendonça Rolim de Moura Barreto, Duke of Loulé 11 August 1869 19 May 1870 Historic
30
João Carlos Saldanha de Oliveira Daun, 1st Duke of Saldanha 19 May 1870 29 August 1870 Regenerator
31
Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, Marquess of Sá da Bandeira 29 August 1870 29 October 1870 Reformist
32
File:Avila e António José de Ávila, Marquess of Ávila 29 October 1870 13 September 1871 Reformist
33
António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo 13 September 1871 6 March 1877 Regenerator
34
File:Avila e António José de Ávila, Marquess of Ávila 6 March 1877 26 January 1878 Reformist
35
António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo 26 January 1878 29 May 1879 Regenerator
36
[[File:|50px]] Anselmo José Braamcamp de Almeida Castelo Branco 29 May 1879 23 March 1881 Progressist
37
António Rodrigues Sampaio 23 March 1881 14 November 1881 Regenerator
38
António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo 14 November 1881 16 February 1886 Regenerator
39
José Luciano de Castro Pereira Côrte-Real 16 February 1886 14 January 1890 Progressist
40
António de Serpa Pimentel 14 January 1890 11 October 1890 Regenerator
41
João Crisóstomo de Abreu e Sousa 11 October 1890 18 January 1892 Independent
42
José Dias Ferreira 18 January 1892 22 February 1893 Independent
43
Ernesto Rudolfo Hintze Ribeiro 22 February 1893 5 February 1897 Regenerator
44
José Luciano de Castro Pereira Côrte-Real 5 February 1897 26 July 1900 Progressist
45
Ernesto Rudolfo Hintze Ribeiro 26 July 1900 20 October 1904 Regenerator
46
José Luciano de Castro Pereira Côrte-Real 20 October 1904 19 March 1906 Progressist
47
Ernesto Rudolfo Hintze Ribeiro 19 March 1906 19 May 1906 Regenerator
48
João Ferreira Franco Pinto Castelo-Branco 19 May 1906 4 February 1908 Liberal Regenerator
49
Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do Amaral 4 February 1908 26 December 1908 Independent
50
Artur Alberto de Campos Henriques 26 December 1908 11 April 1909 Independent
(Regenerator and Progressist)
51
Sebastião Custódio de Sousa Teles 11 April 1909 14 May 1909 Independent
52
File:Wenceslau Pereira de Wenceslau de Sousa Pereira de Lima 14 May 1909 22 December 1909 Independent
53
Francisco António da Veiga Beirão 22 December 1909 26 June 1910 Regenerator
54
António Teixeira de Sousa 26 June 1910 5 October 1910 Regenerator

First Republic

      No party       Republican       Democratic       Sacred Union       National Republican/Sidonist       Liberal Republican       National Reconstitution Republican       Nationalist Republican       Democratic Leftwing Republican

# President of the Ministry Took office Left office Party
First Republic (1910-1926)
55
1
File:Teofilo Joaquim Teófilo Fernandes Braga 5 October 1910 24 August 1911 Republican
56
2
João Pinheiro Chagas 4 September 1911 13 November 1911 Republican
57
3
Augusto César de Almeida de Vasconcelos Correia 13 November 1911 16 June 1912 Republican
58
4
Duarte Leite Pereira da Silva 16 June 1912 9 January 1913 Republican
59
5
Afonso Augusto da Costa 9 January 1913 9 February 1914 Democratic
60
6
Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães 9 February 1914 12 December 1914 Democratic
61
7
"Vítor Hugo" de Azevedo Coutinho 12 December 1914 28 January 1915 Democratic
62
8
Joaquim Pereira Pimenta de Castro 28 January 1915 14 May 1915 Independent
-
  Constitutional Junta composed of:
José Norton de Matos
António Maria da Silva
José de Freitas Ribeiro
Alfredo de Sá Cardoso
Álvaro de Castro
14 May 1915 15 May 1915 Independent
-
João Pinheiro Chagas
(did not take office)
15 May 1915 17 May 1915 Independent
63
9
José Augusto Soares Ribeiro de Castro 17 May 1915 29 November 1915 Democratic
64
10
Afonso Augusto da Costa 29 November 1915 16 March 1916 Democratic
65
11
António José de Almeida 16 March 1916 25 April 1917 Sacred Union
(Evolutionist Republican
together with the Democrats)
66
12
Afonso Augusto da Costa 25 April 1917 7 October 1917 Democratic
-
-
José Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton de Matos
(interim)
7 October 1917 25 October 1917 Democratic
-
-
Afonso Augusto da Costa 25 October 1917 17 November 1917 Democratic
-
-
José Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton de Matos
(interim)
17 November 1917 8 December 1917 Democratic
67
13
Sidónio Bernardino Cardoso da Silva Pais 8 December 1917 14 December 1918 National Republican
68
14
João do Canto e Castro da Silva Antunes Júnior 14 December 1918 23 December 1918 National Republican
69
15
João Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa 23 December 1918 27 January 1919 National Republican
70
16
José Maria Mascarenhas Relvas 27 January 1919 30 March 1919 Independent
71
17
File:Domingos Leite Pereira Domingos Leite Pereira 30 March 1919 30 June 1919 Independent
72
18
Alfredo Ernesto de Sá Cardoso 30 June 1919 15 January 1920 Democratic
-
Francisco José Fernandes Costa
(did not take office)
15 January 1920
Liberal Republican
-
Alfredo Ernesto de Sá Cardoso
(reconducted)
15 January 1920 21 January 1920 Democratic
73
19
File:Domingos Leite Pereira Domingos Leite Pereira 21 January 1920 8 March 1920 Independent
74
20
António Maria Baptista 8 March 1920 6 June 1920 Democratic
75
21
José Ramos Preto 6 June 1920 26 June 1920 Democratic
76
22
António Maria da Silva 26 June 1920 19 July 1920 Democratic
(together with the Socialists
and Populars)
77
23
António Joaquim Granjo 19 July 1920 20 November 1920 Liberal Republican
(together with the National
Reconstitution Republicans)
78
24
Álvaro Xavier de Castro 20 November 1920 30 November 1920 National Reconstitution Republican
(together with the Democratics
and Populars)
79
25
Liberato Damião Ribeiro Pinto 30 November 1920 2 March 1921 Democratic
(together with National
Reconstitution Republicans
and Populars)
80
26
Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães 2 March 1921 23 May 1921 Democratic
(together with National
Reconstitution Republicans
and Populars)
81
27
Tomé José de Barros Queirós 23 May 1921 30 August 1921 Liberal Republican
82
28
António Joaquim Granjo 30 August 1921 19 October 1921 Liberal Republican
83
29
António Manuel Maria Coelho 19 October 1921 5 November 1921 Independent
84
30
Carlos Henrique da Silva Maia Pinto 5 November 1921 16 December 1921 Independent
85
31
Francisco Pinto da Cunha Leal 16 December 1921 7 February 1922 Independent
86
32
António Maria da Silva 7 February 1922 15 November 1923 Democratic
87
33
António Ginestal Machado 15 November 1923 18 December 1923 Nationalist Republican
88
34
Álvaro Xavier de Castro 18 December 1923 7 July 1924 Nationalist Republican
(together with the Democratics)
89
35
Alfredo Rodrigues Gaspar 7 July 1924 22 November 1924 Democratic
90
36
José Domingues dos Santos 22 November 1924 15 February 1925 Democratic Leftwing
Republican
91
37
Vitorino Máximo de Carvalho Guimarães 15 February 1925 1 July 1925 Democratic
92
38
António Maria da Silva 1 July 1925 1 August 1925 Democratic
93
39
File:Domingos Leite Pereira Domingos Leite Pereira 1 August 1925 18 December 1925 Democratic
94
40
António Maria da Silva 18 December 1925 30 May 1926 Democratic

Second Republic (National Dictatorship and Estado Novo)

      No party       National Union/People's National Action

# President of the Council of Ministers Took office Left office Party
Ditadura Nacional – Military Dictatorship (1926-1932)
95
41
1
1
José Mendes Cabeçadas Júnior 30 May 1926 19 June 1926 None
96
42
2
2
Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa 19 June 1926 9 July 1926 None
97
43
3
3
[[File:|50px]] António Óscar Fragoso Carmona 9 July 1926 18 April 1928 None
98
44
4
4
José Vicente de Freitas 18 April 1928 8 July 1929 None
99
45
5
5
Artur Ivens Ferraz 8 July 1929 21 January 1930 None
100
46
6
6
Domingos Augusto Alves da Costa e Oliveira 21 January 1930 5 July 1932 National Union
Estado Novo – New State (1932-1974)
101
47
7
1
António de Oliveira Salazar 5 July 1932 25 September 1968 National Union
102
48
8
2
Marcello José das Neves Alves Caetano 25 September 1968 25 April 1974 National Union (since 1970,
renamed People's National Action

Third Republic

      No party       Socialist       Social Democratic       Democratic Alliance       Social Democratic/People's Party       Socialist/Social Democratic

# Prime Minister Took office Left office Party
Provisional Governments of the Revolutionary Period (1974-1976)
-
  National Salvation Junta
composed of:
António de Spínola
Francisco da Costa Gomes
Jaime Silvério Marques
Diogo Neto
Carlos Galvão de Melo
José Baptista Pinheiro de Azevedo
António Rosa Coutinho
25 April 1974 16 May 1974 None
103
49
1
1
Adelino da Palma Carlos 16 May 1974 18 July 1974 Independent
104
50
2
2
Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves 18 July 1974 19 September 1975 Independent
105
51
3
3
José Baptista Pinheiro de Azevedo 19 September 1975 23 June 1976 Independent
106
52
4
4
Vasco Fernando Leotte de Almeida e Costa
(interim[1])
23 June 1976 23 July 1976 Independent
Constitutional Governments (1976-Present)
107
53
5
1
Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares 23 July 1976 28 August 1978 Socialist (since 23 January
1977 together with the
Democratic and Social Centre)
108
54
6
2
Alfredo Jorge Nobre da Costa 28 August 1978 22 November 1978 Independent
(presidential nomination)
109
55
7
3
Carlos Alberto da Mota Pinto 22 November 1978 1 August 1979 Independent
(presidential nomination)
(Social Democratic)
110
56
8
4
Maria de Lourdes Ruivo da Silva de Matos Pintasilgo 1 August 1979 3 January 1980 Independent
(presidential nomination)
(later, Socialist)
111
57
9
5
Francisco Manuel Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro 3 January 1980 4 December 1980 Democratic Alliance
(Social Democratic)
112
58
10
6
Diogo Pinto de Freitas do Amaral
(interim)
4 December 1980 9 January 1981 Democratic Alliance
(Democratic and Social Centre)
113
59
11
7
Francisco José Pereira Pinto Balsemão 9 January 1981 9 June 1983 Democratic Alliance
(Social Democratic)
114
60
12
8
Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares 9 June 1983 6 November 1985 Socialist (together with the
Social Democratic Party)
115
61
13
9
Aníbal António Cavaco Silva 6 November 1985 28 October 1995 Social Democratic
116
62
14
10
António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres 28 October 1995 6 April 2002 Socialist
117
63
15
11
José Manuel Durão Barroso 6 April 2002 17 July 2004 Social Democratic
(together with the People's Party)
118
64
16
12
Pedro Miguel de Santana Lopes 17 July 2004 12 March 2005 Social Democratic
(together with the People's Party)
119
65
17
13
José Sócrates de Carvalho Pinto de Sousa 12 March 2005 Present Socialist

See also

Portugal portal

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