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List of Roman laws: Wikis

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This is a partial list of Roman laws. A law (Latin lex) is usually named for the sponsoring legislator and designated by the adjectival form of his family or gens name (nomen gentilicum). Because the noun lex (plural leges) is of feminine grammatical gender, its adjective is also feminine in form. When a law is the initiative of the two consuls, it is given the name of both, with the gens of the senior consul first. Sometimes a law is further specified by a short phrase describing the content of the law, to distinguish that law from others sponsored by members of the same family.

Some laws listed have been made after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, but they were heavily influenced by Roman laws that were made before.

Contents

Roman laws

  • Lex Acilia Calpurnia (67 BC) – permanent exclusion from office in cases of electoral corruption
  • Lex Acilia de intercalando (191 BC) – adjustment of the calendar
  • Lex Acilia repetundarum (123 BC) – repetundae procedures for jurors in courts overseeing senatorial class to prevent corruption abroad
  • Lex Aebutia de formulis (c. 150 BC) – authorized praetor's discretion to be introduced into the court of the praetor urbanus, praetor able to remodel private law of Rome
  • Lex Aebutia de magistratibus extraordinariis (154 BC?) – proposer of extra-ordinary magistracy cannot hold it
  • Lex Aelia et Fufia (c. 150 BC?) – two laws probably regulating auspices
  • Lex Aelia Sentia (AD 4) – manumissions of slaves
  • Lex Aemilia – distribution of freedmen among tribes
  • Lex Aemilia De Censoribus (c. 433 BC) – reduced the terms of censors to a year and a half
  • Lex Ampia (64 BC) – allowed Pompey to wear the crown of bay at the Ludi Circenses
  • Lex Antonia de Termessibus (72 BC) – alliance with Termessus
  • Leges Antoniae – measures of Mark Antony against dictatorship etc
  • Lex Apuleia  – gave a surety the right to take action against his co-sureties for whatever he paid above his share
  • Lex Apuleia Agraria (103 BC and 100 BC) – measures of the tribune Saturninus
  • Lex Aquilia (possibly 286 BC, at least before 3rd century BC) – provided compensation to the owners of property injured by someone's fault
  • Lex Aternia-Tarpeia (454 BC) – allowed magistrates to fine citizens, but set maximum fines
  • Lex Atilia Marcia (312 BC) – empowered the people to elect sixteen Military Tribunes for each of four legions
  • Lex Atinia (149 BC) – Tribunes of the plebs automatically promoted to the senate
  • Lex Atinia de usucapione (197 BC or 149 BC) – dealing with ownership
  • Lex Aufeia – settlement of Asia c. 124 BC
  • Lex Aufidia de ambitu (61 BC) – candidate who promises money and does not pay it should be unpunished
  • Lex Aurelia de tribunicia potestate (75 BC)
  • Lex Aurelia iudiciaria (70 BC) – judices should be chosen from senators, equites and tribuni aerarii
  • Lex Baebia (192 BC) – set number of praetors to alternate, but was never observed
  • Lex Caecilia De Censoria (54 BC) – repealed a law passed by the tribune Clodius in 58 BC, which had regulated the Censors
  • Lex Caecilia De Vectigalibus (62 BC) – released lands and harbors in Italy from the payment of taxes
  • Lex Caecilia Didia (98 BC) – Required laws to proposed at least three market days before any vote. Also forbade Omnibus bills, which are bills with a large amount of unrelated material.
  • Lex Calpurnia (149 BC) – establishes a permanent extortion court
  • Lex Canuleia (445 BC) – allows patricians and plebeians to intermarry
  • Lex Cassia (137 BC) – introduces secret votes in court jury decisions
  • Lex Cassia (104 BC) – required any senator to be expelled from the senate if they had been convicted of a crime, or if their power (imperium) had been revoked while serving as a magistrate
  • Lex Cassia (44 BC?) – allowed Julius Caesar to add new individuals to the patrician (aristocratic) class
  • Lex Cassia Terentia Frumentaria (73 BC) – required the distribution of corn among the poor citizens
  • Lex Cincia (204 BC) – tort reform concerning the payment of lawyers
  • Lex citationis (AD 426) – during court proceedings, only five Roman lawyers could be cited
  • Lex Claudia (218 BC) – prohibits senators from participating in overseas trade, obsolete by the time of Cicero
  • Leges Clodiae (58 BC) – a series of laws passed by the tribune Publius Clodius Pulcher
  • Lex Cornelia Annalis (81 BC) – a sanction law for Sulla's past acts; part of his program to strengthen the Senate
  • Lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficiis (80 BC) – dealing with injuries and deaths obtained by magic
  • Lex Curiata (59 BC) – law to enable the Patrician P. Clodius Pulcher to be adopted into the Plebeian gens Fonteia, in order to apply for the popular tribunate
  • Lex Domitia de sacerdotis (104 BC) – establishes election of pontifex maximus, until then chosen by the college of priests
  • Lex Fufia (c. 150 BC) – substitute with the Lex Aelia in place of the obsolete patrum auctoritas
  • Lex Fufia Caninia (2 BC) – limitation of manumission
  • Lex Gabinia (67 BC) – Pompey has special powers in the Mediterranean to fight against pirates
  • Lex Gabinia tabellaria (139 BC) – introduces secret votes in election for magistrate offices
  • Lex Gellia Cornelia (72 BC) – consuls of this year authorized Pompey to confer Roman citizenship to the deserving. Pompey's clientela and Spaniards were the beneficiaries
  • Leges Genuciae (342 BC) – no man can hold the same office before 10 years have elapsed from the first election
  • Lex Hadriana (?) – Hadrian's law that enabled permanent tenants to develop land, it was an extension of the Lex Marciana
  • Lex Hieronica (240 BC) – taxation of Sicily
  • Lex Hortensia (287 BC) – plebiscites approved by the Assembly of the People gain the status of law
  • Lex Icilia (454 BC) – gave land to plebeians
  • Lex Iulia (90 BC) – brought by consul L. Caesar, offered citizenship to all Italians who had not raised arms against Rome in the Italian War (Social War)
  • Lex Iulia de Adulteriis Coercendis (18 BC) – made conjugal unfaithfulness a public as well as a private offense, with banishment a possible penalty
  • Lex Iulia de Maritandis Ordinibus (18 BC) – marrying-age celibates and young widows that would not marry were barred from receiving inheritances and from attending public games
  • Lex Iulia de Repetundis (59 BC) – regarding extortion in the provinces
  • Lex Iulia Municipalis (45 BC) – set regulations for the Italian municipalities
  • Lex Iunia Norbana (c. 19 BC) – regarding status of freedmen
  • Leges Juliae (18 BC) – regarding marriage
  • Lex Junia Licinia that was a reinforcement law done in 62 BC to back up the original Lex Caecilia Didia law of 98 BC.
  • Lex Licinia Mucia (95 BC) – removed Latins and Italians from Rome
  • Lex Licinia Pompeia (55 BC) – Pompey and Crassus set forth to prolong Caesar's proconsulship in both the Gauls for another 5 years
  • Lex Licinia Sextia (367 BC) – resumes consulship, requires plebeian as a consul; aka Leges Liciniae Sextiae
  • Lex Maenia (after 293 BC) – plebeian achievement, it carried the principle of Lex Pubilia to elections
  • Lex Maenia Sestia (452 BC) – scale for fines, 1 ox = 12 sheep = 100 lb. of bronze
  • Lex de Maiestate (?) – treason law passed by Sulla to regulate the activities of pro-magistrates in their provinces, especially unapproved war and unauthorized travel
  • Lex Manciana (around Flavian dynasty) – dealt with imperial and private cases in North Africa, regulated relations between cultivators and the proprietors
  • Lex Manilia (66 BC) – Pompey's actions against Mithridates
  • Lex Minucia (216 BC) – appointment of three finance commissioners
  • Lex Ogulnia (300 BC) – the priesthoods are open to plebeians
  • Lex Oppia (215 BC) – limited female adornment
  • Lex Ovinia (318 BC) – transferred the right to appoint Senators from the Consuls to the Censors
  • Les Papia de Peregrinis (65 BC) – challenged false claims of citizenship and deported foreigners from Rome
  • Lex Papia Poppaea (AD 9) – regarding marriage
  • Lex Papiria de dedicationibus (c. 304 BC) – forbade consecration of real property without approval of the popular assembly
  • Lex Papiria Julia (430 BC) – made payment of fines in bronze mandatory
  • Lex de Permutatione Provinciae (44 BC) – Marcus Antonius set this law which gave him a five year's command in Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul in lieu of Macedon. Also gave authorization to transfer Caesar's legions from Macedon to the new provinces.
  • Lex Petronia (?) – concerning slaves
  • Lex Plautia de Reditu Lepidanorum (70 BC) – granted a pardon to Lepidus' former associates
  • Lex Plautia Judiciaria (?) – chose jurors from other classes, not just the Equites
  • Lex Plautia Papiria (89 BC) – granted citizenship to Roman allies
  • Lex Poetelia Papiria (326 BC) – regarding debt-slavery
  • Lex Porcia (I) (199 BC) – proposed by tribune P. Porcius Laeca to give right of appeal in capital cases
  • Lex Porcia (II) (195 BC) – M. Porcius Cato prohibited scourging of citizens without appeal
  • Lex Porcia (III) (184 BC) – consul L. Porcius Licinus safeguarded citizens from summary execution on military service, all dealing with right of appeal (provocatio)
  • Lex Pompeia (89 BC) – regarding citizenship rights in Gaul
  • Leges provinciae (146 BC) – a set of laws designed to regulate and organize the administration of Roman provinces
  • Lex Publilia (339 BC) – restricted patrum auctoritas
  • Lex Pupia (72/61 BC) – Senate could not meet on Comitiales Dies
  • Lex Romana Burgundionum – one of the law tables for Romans after the fall of Western Roman Empire
  • Lex Romana Visigothorum (AD 506) – one of the law tables for Romans after the fall of Western Roman Empire
  • Lex Roscia (49 BC) – Caesar proposed, full Latin Rights on the people of Transalpine Gaul
  • Lex Roscia theatralis (67 BC) – allocated a place in Roman theaters to the equestrian order
  • Lex Rubria (122 BC) – authorized a colony on the ruins of Carthage
  • Lex Sacrata (494 BC) – law after first secession of the plebeians that either affirmed the sacrosanctity of the tribunes or established the plebeians as a sworn confederacy against patricians
  • Lex Scantinia (c. 149 BC) – a law possibly regulating sexual behavior, including pederasty, adultery and passivity
  • Leges Semproniae Agrariae (133 BC) – set of laws issued by Tiberius Gracchus to redistribute land among the poor; repealed after his assassination
  • Lex Servilia Caepio (106 BC) – some control of the court de rebus repentundis was handed back to senators from the equites
  • Lex Servilia Glaucia (100 BC?) – provided allotments for veterans on land in southern Gaul
  • Lex Terentia Cassia (73 BC) – safeguarded Rome's grain supply and distributed grain at reduced rates
  • Lex Titia (43 BC) – gave Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus full powers to defeat the assassins of Julius Caesar; legalized the second triumvirate
  • Lex Trebonia (55 BC) – organization of the provinces
  • Lex Tullia (63 BC) – passed by Cicero in his consulship to regulate election fraud (see ambitus)
  • Lex Valeria (maybe in 509 BC and 449 BC or 300 BC) – it granted every Roman citizen legal right to appeal against a capital sentence, defined and confirmed the right of appeal (provocatio)
  • Lex Valeria (82 BC) – appointed Sulla dictator
  • Lex Valeria Cornelia (AD 5) – regarding voting in the Comitia Centuriata
  • Leges Valeria Horatiae (449 BC) – regarding the rights of the plebs
  • Leges Valeria Publicola (449 BC) – grants the right to appeal to the People of any decision of magistrates
  • Lex Vatinia (59 BC) – gave Julius Caesar governorship of Cisalpine Gaul and of Illyricum for five years
  • Lex Villia annalis (180 BC) – established minimum ages for the cursus honorum offices; determined an interval of two years between offices
  • Lex Voconia (169 BC) – disallowed women from being the main heir to a dead man's estate, including cases were there were no male relatives alive

General denominations

  • Lex Agraria – A law regulating distribution of public lands
  • Lex annalis – qualifications for magistracies
  • Lex ambitu – Laws involving electoral bribery and corruption; see ambitus
  • Lex Curiata de Imperio – Law that Comitia Curiata used to ratify the choice of a new king, also confirmed Octavian's adoption as Caesar's son in 43 BC
  • Lex frumentaria – A law regulating price of grain
  • Lex sumptuaria – A law regulating the use of luxury items and public manifestations of wealth

The conclusions of the Senate

Other

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Notes

  • Note 1 – The word Republic derives from the Latin res publica (literally, public affairs). The Romans often wrote the two words as one, respublica and inflected both words.

See also

External links


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