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This is a list of inventors from the  Russian Federation,  Soviet Union,  Russian Empire, Russia01.gifTsardom of Russia, and Russia01.gifGrand Duchy of Moscow, including both ethnic Russians and other ethnicities. This list as well includes those, who was born in Russia or its predecessor states, but later emigrated, and those, who was born elsewhere but immigrated to the country or worked there for considerable time (making inventions on Russian soil).

For the full plain list of Russian inventors in Wikipedia, see Category:Russian inventors.

Alphabetical list

Contents: Top · 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Bruno-abakanowicz.png Bruno Abakanowicz
(1852–1900)
 Russian Empire
(Poland/Lithuania)
Integraph, spirograph, parabolagraph[1]
Spirograph designs
Vitaly Abalakov
(1906–1986)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
camming devices, Abalakov thread (V-thread) gearless ice climbing anchor [2][3]
Hovannes Adamian
(1879–1932)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(Armenia/Azerbaijan/Germany)
tricolor principle of the color television[4]
Anatoly Petrovich Alexandrov.jpg Anatoly Alexandrov
(1903–1994)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
anti-mine demagnetising of ships, naval nuclear reactors (including one for the first nuclear icebreaker)[5][6]
Alexandre Alexeieff
(1901–1982)
 Russian Empire
 France
pinscreen animation (with his wife Claire Parker)[7]
AlekseevRE bust.jpg Rostislav Alexeyev
(1916–1980)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
ekranoplan, Soviet high-speed hydrofoils[8][9]
Zhores Alferov.jpg Zhores Alferov
(born 1930)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
heterotransistor (with Herbert Kroemer), continuous-wave-operating diode laser (with Dmitri Garbuzov)[10][11]
Genrich Altshuller
(1926–1998)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
TRIZ ("The Theory of Solving Inventor's Problems")[12]
Structure of TRIZ
Andreev vas.jpg Vasily Andreyev
(1861–1918)
 Russian Empire
standard balalaika[13][14]
A souvenir balalaika
Olegantonov.jpg Oleg Antonov
(1906–1984)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
An-series aircraft, including Antonov A-40 winged tank and Antonov An-124 (the largest serial cargo aircraft, later modified to world's largest fixed-wing aircraft Antonov An-225)[15]
Arcimovich.jpg Lev Artsimovich
(1909–1973)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first tokamak[16]
Tokamak draw

B

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Georgy Babakin
(1914–1971)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first soft landing space vehicle (Luna 9)[17]
Luna 9 spacecraft
WRossineSelfPortrait1907.jpg Vladimir Baranov-Rossine
(1888–1944)
 Russian Empire
 France
(Ukraine)
(self-portrait)
Optophonic Piano, pointillist or dynamic military camouflage[18]
Vladimir Barmin
(1909–1993)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
first rocket launch complex (Baikonur spaceport)[19]
Basov.jpg Nikolay Basov
(1922–2001)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
co-inventor of laser and maser[20]
Laser beams
Stamp behterev.jpg Vladimir Bekhterev
(1857–1927)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Bekhterev’s Mixture (a medicine with a sedative effect)[21]
Stamp Soviet Union 1991 CPA 5183.jpg Nikolay Benardos
(1842–1905)
 Russian Empire
arc welding (specifically carbon arc welding, the first arc welding method)[22]
The first arc welding method, ElectroHephaestus
Bereznyak isayev bakhchivadzhi bolkhovitinov.jpg Alexander Bereznyak
(1912–1974)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(left on photo)
first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Isaev)[23]
Georgy Beriev
(1903–1979)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(Georgian origin)
Be-series amphibious aircraft[24]
Fyodor Blinov.jpg Fyodor Blinov
(1827–1902)
 Russian Empire
first tracked vehicle (a wagon on continuous tracks), steam-powered caterpillar tractor[25][26]
Blinov's caterpillar steam tractor
Sam Born
 Russian Empire
 United States
lollipop-making machine[27]
A particularly large lollipop
Sergey Brin, Web 2.0 Conference.jpg Sergey Brin
(born 1973)
 Soviet Union
 United States
with Larry Page, invented Google web search engine[28]
Mikhail Britnev
(1822–1889)
 Russian Empire
first metal-hull icebreaker (Pilot)[29]
Icebreaker Pilot on a postage stamp
Budker gersh.jpg Gersh Budker
(1918–1977)
 Soviet Union
electron cooling, co-inventor of collider[30][31]
Butlerov A.png Aleksandr Butlerov
(1828–1886)
 Russian Empire
hexamine, formaldehyde, formose reaction (the synthesis of sugar)[32]
Formaldehyde formula

C

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Vladimir Chelomey
(1914–1984)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first space station (Salyut 1), further space stations of Salyut series, Proton rocket (the most used heavy lift launch system)[33]
Salyut 1 with docked Soyuz 10 spacecraft
Cerenkov.jpg Pavel Cherenkov
(1904–1990)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Cherenkov detector[34]
Evgeniy Chertovsky
(born 1902)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
pressure suit[35]
Alexander Chizhevsky
(1897–1964)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
air ionizer (Chizhevsky's chandelier)[36]
A modern air ionizer
Andrey Chokhov
(c. 1545 – 1629)
Russia01.gif Grand Duchy of Moscow
Russia01.gif Tsardom of Russia
Tsar Cannon, the largest howitzer ever made[37]

D

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Vasily Degtyaryov.jpg Vasily Degtyaryov
(1880–1949)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first self-loading carbine, Degtyaryov-series firearms, co-developer of Fedorov Avtomat (the first self-loading rifle)[38]
Degtyaryov with his DA-2 aircraft machine gun
Yuri Denisyuk
(1927–2006)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
3D holography[39]
Denisyuk holography scheme
Aleksandr Dianin
(1851–1918)
 Russian Empire
Bisphenol A, Dianin's compound[40]
Bisphenol A formula
Doliwo-Dobrowolsky.jpg Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky
(1862–1919)
 Russian Empire
(Poland, Germany)
three-phase electric power (first 3-phase hydroelectric power plant, 3-phase electrical generator, 3-phase motor and 3-phase transformer)[41]
3-phase electrical generator on exhibition in Frankfurt,1891
Dollejal.jpg Nikolay Dollezhal
(1899–2000)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
AM-1 reactor for the first nuclear power plant and other RBMK-type reactors, pressurized water reactor (VVER)[42]

E

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Ivan Elmanov
 Russian Empire
first monorail (the so-called "Road on Pillars" near Moscow, with horse-drawn carriages)[43]

F

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Karl Gustavovich Faberge.jpg Peter Carl Fabergé
(1846–1920)
 Russian Empire
Fabergé Eggs[44]
Nicolas Florine
(1891–1972)
 Russian Empire
 Belgium
(born in Georgia)
first tandem rotor helicopter to fly freely[45]
A modern tandem rotor helicopter
Ivan fedorov monument lviv 20060602.jpg Ivan Fyodorov
(c. 1510 – 1583)
Russia01.gif Grand Duchy of Moscow
Russia01.gif Tsardom of Russia
Coat of Arms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.svg Poland-Lithuania
invented multibarreled mortar, introduced printing in Russia[46]
Fedorov depicted in his typography
Svyatoslav Fyodorov
(1927–2000)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
radial keratotomy[47]
Vladimir Fyodorov.JPG Vladimir Fyodorov
(1874–1966)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Fedorov Avtomat (first self-loading battle rifle, arguably the first assault rifle)[48]

G

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Boris Borisovich Galitzine
(1862–1916)
 Russian Empire
electromagnetic seismograph[49]
An electric seismograph
8141.jpg Dmitri Garbuzov
(1940–2006)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
 United States
continuous-wave-operating diode lasers (together with Zhores Alferov), high-power diode lasers[50]
Georgy Gause
(1910–1986)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
gramicidin S, neomycin, lincomycin and other antibiotics[51]
Gramicidin S formula
E. K. Gauzen
 Russian Empire
early diving costume[52][53]
A Soviet diving helmet
Andrey Geim
(born 1958)
 Soviet Union
 United Kingdom
graphene[54]
Graphene structure
Nestor Genko
(1839–1904)
 Russian Empire
Genko's Forest Belt (the first large-scale windbreak system)[55]
Stalin over the map of windbreaks in the Volga region
RR5110-0084R.gif Valentyn Glushko
(1908–1989)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
hypergolic propellant, Soviet rocket engines (including world's most powerful liquid-fuel rocket engine RD-170)[56]
Leonid Gobyato.jpg Leonid Gobyato
(1875–1915)
 Russian Empire
first modern man-portable mortar[57]
Gobyato's mortar
Igor Gorynin.jpg Igor Gorynin
(born 1926)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
weldable titanium alloys, high strength aluminium alloys, radiation-hardened steels[58] [59]
Boris Grabovsky
(1901–1966)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
cathode commutator, an early electronic TV pickup tube[60][61]
Mikoyan-Gurevich.jpg Mikhail Gurevich
(1893–1976)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(left on photo)
MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Artem Mikoyan)[62]

H

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Waldemar Haffkine
(1860–1930)
 Russian Empire
 Switzerland
developed and used first vaccines against cholera and bubonic plague[63][64]
An injection of anti-plague vaccine

I

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Ilizarov.jpg Gavriil Ilizarov
(1921–1992)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
Ilizarov apparatus, external fixation, distraction osteogenesis[65][66][67]
Sergey Ilyushin
(1894–1977)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Il-series fighter aircraft, including Ilyushin Il-2 bomber (the most produced military aircraft in history) [68]
Il-2 bombers over Berlin in 1945
Bereznyak isayev bakhchivadzhi bolkhovitinov.jpg Aleksei Isaev
(1908–1971)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(second left on photo)
first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Bereznyak)[23]
Isidore
Russia01.gif Grand Duchy of Moscow
Russian vodka[69]

J

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Moritz Hermann von Jacobi 1856.jpg Boris Jacobi
(1801–1874)
 Prussia
 Russian Empire
electrotyping (an application of electroplating to typography), electric boat[70]

K

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Michael Kalashikov.jpg Mikhail Kalashnikov
(born 1919)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
AK-47 and AK-74 assault rifles (produced more than all other types of assault rifles combined)[71]
AK-47 assault rifle
Nikolay Kamov
(1902–1973)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
armored military autogyro, Ka-series coaxial rotor helicopters[72]
KustodiyevSemenov Kapitsa.JPG Pyotr Kapitsa
(1894–1984)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(left on portrait by Boris Kustodiev, with Nikolay Semyonov right)
first ultrastrong magnetic field creating techniques, basic low-temperature physics inventions[73]
The liquid helium in the superfluid phase
Georgii Karpechenko
(1899–1941)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
rabbage (the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding)[74][75]
Radis.JPG
Eugene Kaspersky 2007.jpg Yevgeny Kaspersky
(born 1965)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
Kaspersky Anti-Virus, Kaspersky Internet Security, Kaspersky Mobile Security anti-virus products[76]
Adolphe Kégresse
(1879–1943)
 France
 Russian Empire
Kégresse track (first half-track and first off-road vehicle with continuous track), dual clutch transmission[77]
Mstislav Keldysh Moscow.jpg Mstislav Keldysh
(1911–1978)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(Latvia)
co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Tikhonravov
Sputnik 1 replica
Alexander Kemurdzhian
(1921–2003)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
first space exploration rover (Lunokhod)
Kerim Kerimov
(1917–2003)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
(Azerbaijan)
co-developer of human spaceflight, space dock, space station
Vostok 1 mission insignia
Yulii Borisovich Khariton 1924.jpg Yulii Khariton
(1904–1996)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
chief designer of the Soviet atomic bomb, co-developer of the Tsar Bomb
Joe One, the first Soviet atomic test.
Anatoly Kharlampiev
(1906–1979)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Sambo (martial art)[78]
Sport sambo
Khrenov.jpg Konstantin Khrenov
(1894–1984)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
underwater welding[79]
Semyon Kirlian
(1898–1978)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Kirlian photography
Kirlian photo of two coins
Knunyants ivan lydvigovitch.JPG Ivan Knunyants
(1906–1990)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(Armenia)
capron, Nylon 6, polyamide-6
Caprolactam is used to synthesize Nylon 6
Konstantin Konstantinov.jpg Konstantin Konstantinov
(1817–19 – 1871)
 Russian Empire
device for measuring flight speed of projectiles, ballistic rocket pendulum, launch pad, rocket-making machine
Trajectory of a bullet
Sergey Korolyov 140-190 for collage.jpg Sergey Korolyov
(1907–1966)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(born in Ukraine)
first successful intercontinental ballistic missile (R-7 Semyorka), R-7 rocket family, Sputniks (including the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite), Vostok program (including the first human spaceflight)
Vostok spacecraft model
Korotkov.jpeg Nikolai Korotkov
(1874–1920)
 Russian Empire
auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement
Korsakov01.jpg Semen Korsakov
(1787–1853)
 Russian Empire
punch card for information storage
Korsakov's linear homeoscope
Koshkin, 1898-1940.jpg Mikhail Koshkin
(1898–1940)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
T-34 medium tank, the best and most produced tank of World War II[80]
Ognjeslav Kostovic.jpg Ogneslav Stepanovich Kostovich
(1851–1916)
 Serbia
 Russian Empire
arborite (high-strength plywood)[81][82]
Gleb Kotelnikov.jpg Gleb Kotelnikov
(1872–1944)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
knapsack parachute
A modern knapsack parachute packed
Alexey Krylov 1910s.JPG Alexei Krylov
(1863–1945)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
gyroscopic damping of ships
Kulibin I P.jpg Ivan Kulibin
(1735–1818)
 Russian Empire
egg-shaped clock, candle searchlight, elevator using screw mechanisms, self-rolling carriage (for the first time featuring a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing), an early optical telegraph[83][84][85]
Kulibin's project of the one-arch bridge over Neva.
Young Igor Kurchatov.jpg Igor Kurchatov
(1903–1960)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first nuclear power plant, first nuclear reactors for submarines and surface ships

L

Portrait Person Inventions Image
DALachinov.gif Dmitry Lachinov
(1842–1902)
 Russian Empire
mercury pump, economizer for electricity consumption, electrical insulation tester, optical dynamometer, photometer, elecrolyser[86]
The details of electrical insulation tester depicted in a Lachinov's book
Semjon Lawotschkin.jpg Semyon Lavochkin
(1900–1960)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
La-series aircraft, the first operational surface-to-air missile S-25 Berkut
Nikolai Lebedenko
 Russian Empire
Tsar Tank, the largest armored vehicle in history[87]
Sergey Lebedev.jpg Sergei Lebedev
(1874–1934)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
commercially viable synthetic rubber
Lisitsyns,
Ivan Fyodorovich
and his brother
Nazar Fyodorovich
 Russian Empire
samovar[88]
A typical samovar
Lodygin portrait.jpg Alexander Lodygin
(1847–1923)
 Russian Empire
 United States
electrical filament, incandescent light bulb with tungsten filament
Lodygin's lamp draw
Lomonosovportrait.jpg Mikhail Lomonosov
(1711–1765)
Russia01.gif Tsardom of Russia
 Russian Empire
night vision telescope, off-axis reflecting telescope, coaxial rotor, original Russian hard-paste porcelain (together with Dmitry Vinogradov), re-discovery of smalt[89]
Lomonosov's drawings for his discovery of Venus atmosphere
Oleg losev.jpg Oleg Losev
(1903–1942)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
light-emitting diode
Red, green and blue LEDs
Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy
(1909–2001)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
Buran (spacecraft), Spiral project[90][91]
Buran carried by the An-225
Arkhip Lyulka
(1908–1984)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first double jet turbofan engine, other Soviet aircraft engines[92]

M

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Aleksandr Makarov
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
 Germany
orbitrap[93]
Ion trajectories in an Orbitrap
SO Makarov 01.jpg Stepan Makarov
(1849–1904)
 Russian Empire
Icebreaker Yermak, the first true icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice
Icebreaker Yermak on the Baltic Sea before 1917
Machno.jpg Nestor Makhno
(1888–1934)
 Russian Empire
 France
(Ukraine)
tachanka
Victor Makeev
(1924–1985)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first submarine-launched ballistic missile
Scheme of R-27 missile of Makeev
Dmitri Maxutow Leutnant.jpg Dmitri Maksutov
(1896–1964)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Maksutov telescope
Sergey Malyutin.jpg Sergey Malyutin
(1859–1937)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(self-portrait)
matryoshka doll (together with craftsman Vasily Zvyozdochkin)[94]
Original matryoshka doll by Malyutin and Zvyozdochkin
Boris Mamyrin
(1919–2007)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
reflectron (ion mirror)[95]
Ilya Mechnikov (Nobel 1908).png Ilya Mechnikov
(1845–1916)
 Russian Empire
 France
probiotics
Japanese Yakult probiotic
DIMendeleevCab.jpg Dmitri Mendeleev
(1834–1907)
 Russian Empire
Periodic table, pycnometer, pyrocollodion, also credited with determining the ideal vodka proof as 38% (later rounded to 40%)
Mikoyan-Gurevich.jpg Artem Mikoyan
(1905–1970)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(Armenia)
(right on photo)
MiG-series fighter aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Mikhail Gurevich)[62]
Alexander Mikulin
(1895–1985)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Mikulin AM-34 and other Soviet aircraft engines, co-developer of the Tsar Tank[96][87]
Mikulin and his staff presenting Mikulin AM-34
Mikhail Mil
(1909–1970)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Mi-series helicopter aircraft, including Mil Mi-8 (the world's most-produced helicopter) and Mil Mi-12 (the world's largest helicopter)
Pavel Molchanov
(1893–1941)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
radiosonde
Alexander Morozov
(1904–1979)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
T-54/55 (the most produced tank in history), co-developer of T-34[97][98]
Mosin.jpg Sergei Mosin
(1849–1902)
 Russian Empire
Mosin–Nagant rifle, one of the most produced ever
Motorins,
Ivan Feodorovich
(1660s – 1735)
and his son
Mikhail Ivanovich
(?–1750)
Russia01.gif Tsardom of Russia
 Russian Empire
Tsar Bell, the largest bell in the world[99]
Yevgeny Murzin
(1914–1970)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
ANS synthesizer

N

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Alexander Nadiradze
(1914–1987)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
(born in Georgia)
first mobile ICBM (RT-21 Temp 2S), first reliable mobile ICBM (RT-2PM Topol)[100]
Nartov.jpg Andrey Nartov
(1683–1756)
Russia01.gif Tsardom of Russia
 Russian Empire
first lathe with a mechanic cutting tool-supporting carriage and a set of gears, fast-fire battery on a rotating disc, screw mechanism for changing the artillery fire angle, gauge-boring lathe for cannon-making, early telescopic sight[101][102]
An old lathe (b marks the carriage)
Sergey Nepobedimiy
(born 1921)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
first supersonic anti-tank guided missile Sturm, other Soviet rocket weaponry[103]
Nikolai Nikitin
(1907–1973)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
prestressed concrete with wire ropes structure (Ostankino Tower), Nikitin-Travush 4000 project (precursor to X-Seed 4000)
540 metre Ostankino Tower in Moscow
Ludvig Emmanuel Nobel,.jpg Ludvig Nobel
(1831–1888)
 Sweden
 Russian Empire
first successful oil tanker[104]
A modern oil tanker

O

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Theophil Wilgodt Odhner
(1845–1903)
 Sweden
 Russian Empire
the Odhner Arithmometer (a mechanical pinwheel calculator)
Lucien Olivier
(1838–1883)
 Russian Empire
(Belgian or French origin)
Russian salad (Olivier salad)

P

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Alexey Pajitnov - 2575833305 (crop).jpg Alexey Pajitnov
(born 1956)
 Soviet Union
 United States
Tetris[105]
Tetris figures
Ivan Pavlov (Nobel).png Ivan Pavlov
(1849–1936)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
classical conditioning[106]
One of the Pavlov’s dogs with an implanted cannula.
Petljakow.jpg Vladimir Petlyakov
(1891–1942)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
heavy bomber
TB-3 heavy bomber
Ilya Repin Portrait of the Surgeon Nikolay Pirogov 1881.jpg Nikolay Pirogov
(1810–1881)
 Russian Empire
early use of ether as anaesthetic, first anaesthesia in a field operation, various kinds of surgical operations
Diethyl ether
Pirotsky.jpg Fyodor Pirotsky
(1845–1898)
 Russian Empire
electric tram
Miller's line where Pirotsky's tram was tested
Nikolai Polikarpov.jpg Nikolai Polikarpov
(1892–1944)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Po-series aircraft, including Polikarpov Po-2 Kukuruznik (world's most produced biplane)
Ivan polzunov.jpeg Ivan Polzunov
(1728–1766)
 Russian Empire
first two-cylinder steam engine
Polzunov's steam engine
Pomortsev.jpg Mikhail Pomortsev
(1851–1916)
 Russian Empire
nephoscope
Nephoscope measures the parameters of clouds
Popov.jpg Alexander Popov
(1859–1906)
 Russian Empire
lightning detector (the first lightning prediction system and also first radio receiver), co-inventor of radio
Popov and his radio
Nikolay Popov
(1931–2008)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
first fully gas turbine main battle tank (T-80)[107]
Porokhovschikov.jpg Aleksandr Porokhovschikov
(1892 – 1941–43)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Vezdekhod (the first prototype tank, or tankette, and the first continuous track amphibious ATV)[108]
Vezdekhod tank in 1915
SEV-3 and Seversky.jpg Alexander Procofieff de Seversky
(1894–1974)
 Russian Empire
 United States
ionocraft, first gyroscopically stabilized bombsight, also developed air-to-air refueling
Aleksandr Prokhorov.jpg Alexander Prokhorov
(1916–2002)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
co-inventor of laser and maser
Laser beams
Petro prokopovich.jpg Petro Prokopovych
(1775–1850)
 Russian Empire
(Ukraine)
early beehive frame, queen excluder and other beekeeping novelties
A shallow super frame filled with honey
Sergei-Prokudin-Gorski-Larg.jpg Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky
(1863–1944)
 Russian Empire
 France
early colour photography method based on three colour channels, also colour film slides and colour motion pictures

R

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Peter der-Grosse 1838.jpg Peter I of Russia
(1672–1725)
Russia01.gifTsardom of Russia
 Russian Empire
sounding line with separating plummet[109]
Sounding line throwing
Ida Rosenthal
(1886–1973)
 Russian Empire
 United States
(born in Belarus, Jewish descent)
modern brassiere (Maidenform), the standard of cup sizes, nursing bra, full-figured bra, the first seamed uplift bra (all with her husband William)[110][111][112]
A modern brassiere
Boris Rosing
(1869–1933)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first TV system using cathode ray tube on the receiving side[113][114]
Eugene Roshal
(born 1972)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
FAR file manager, RAR file format, WinRAR file archiver[115]
FAR Manager screenshot

S

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Alexander Sablukov
(1783–1857)
 Russian Empire
centrifugal fan
Components of a centrifugal fan
Sakharov 1943.jpg Andrei Sakharov
(1921–1989)
 Soviet Union
explosively pumped flux compression generator, co-developer of the Tsar Bomb, co-developer of tokamak
Franz San Galli.jpg Franz San Galli
(1824–1908)
 Russian Empire
(Italian and German descent, born in Poland)
radiator, modern central heating[116][117]
A household radiator
USSR stamp P.L.Shilling 1982 6k.jpg Pavel Schilling
(1780–1836)
 Russian Empire
(Estonia)
first electromagnetic telegraph, naval mine with an electric fuse
Cooke and Wheatstone's telegraph, inspired by Schilling's one
Severin Guy Illich.png Guy Severin
(1926–2008)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
extra-vehicular activity supporting system[118]
Alexey Leonov, the first human to make a spacewalk (Voskhod 2 flight)
Leonty Shamshurenkov
(1687–1758)
Russia01.gif Tsardom of Russia
 Russian Empire
a device for lifting the Tsar Bell, the first self-propelling carriage (a precursor to both bicycle and automobile), projects of an original odometer and self-propelling sledge[119][84]
A reconstruction of Shamshurenkov's self-running carriage
Shilovsky.png Pyotr Shilovsky
(1871 – after 1924)
 Russian Empire
 United Kingdom
gyrocar[120]
Shilovsky's gyrocar in 1914, London
Vladimir Grigoryevich Shukhov 1891.jpg Vladimir Shukhov
(1853–1939)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
thermal cracking (Shukhov cracking process), thin-shell structure, tensile structure, hyperboloid structure, gridshell, the first modern elevated oil pipeline, cylindric oil depot[121]
Sikorsky crop.jpg Igor Sikorsky
(1889–1972)
 Russian Empire
 United States
first four-engine fixed-wing aircraft (Russky Vityaz), first airliner and purpose-designed bomber (Ilya Muromets), modern helicopter, Sikorsky-series helicopters
Sikorsky Skycrane carrying a house
Vladimir Simonov
(born 1935)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
APS Underwater Assault Rifle, SPP-1 underwater pistol[122][123]
Slavyanov.jpg Nikolay Slavyanov
(1854–1897)
 Russian Empire
shielded metal arc welding[124]
Alexander Smakula
(1900–1983)
 Russian Empire
 United States
(Ukraine)
anti-reflective coating
Multicoated photographic lens
Igor Spassky.gif Igor Spassky
(born 1926)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
Sea Launch platform
Starevich 1.jpg Ladislas Starevich
(1882–1965)
 Russian Empire
 France
(Polish descent)
puppet animation, live-action/animated film[125][126]
Scene from The Cameraman's Revenge animation (1911)
Boris Stechkin
(1891–1969)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
co-developer of Sikorsky Ilya Muromets and Lebedenko's Tsar Tank, developer of many Soviet heat and aircraft engines[127][87]
Alexander stoletov.jpg Aleksandr Stoletov
(1839–1896)
 Russian Empire
first solar cell based on the outer photoelectric effect
A modern solar cell
Pavel Sukhoi.jpg Pavel Sukhoi
(1895–1975)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Su-series fighter aircraft
Andrei Sychra
(1773–76 – 1850)
 Russian Empire
(born in Lithuania, Czech ancestry)
Russian seven-string guitar
Vladimir Syromyatnikov
(1933–2006)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
Androgynous Peripheral Attach System and other spacecraft docking mechanisms
The original APAS-75 docking unit draw

T

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Igor Tamm.jpg Igor Tamm
(1895–1971)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
co-developer of tokamak
Tokamak draw
Leon Theremin.jpg Léon Theremin
(1896–1993)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 United States
 Russian Federation
theremin, burglar alarm, terpsitone, Rhythmicon (first drum machine), The Thing (listening device)
Etherwave Theremin
Mikhail Tikhonravov
(1900–1974)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Keldysh, designer of further Sputniks
Sputnik 1 orbiting the Earth
Gavriil Tikhov
(1875–1960)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
feathering spectrograph
Scheme of a spectrograph work
Tokarev Fedor.jpg Fedor Tokarev
(1871–1968)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
TT-33 semiautomatic handgun and SVT-40 self-loading rifle (main Soviet guns of World War II)
A Soviet soldier with TT-33
Yuri Trutnev
(born 1927)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
co-developer of the Tsar Bomb
Tsar Bomba-type casing on display at Sarov
Tsiolkovsky.jpg Konstantin Tsiolkovsky,
(1857–1935)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
spaceflight (theory principles that led to numerous inventions)
Tsiolkovsky's drawings of astronaut in space
Tswett 01.jpg Mikhail Tsvet
(1872–1919)
 Russian Empire
chromatography (specifically adsorption chromatography, the first chromatography method)
A modern gas chromatography system
Tupolev Alexei Andreyevich.jpg Alexei Tupolev
(1925–2001)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
the Tupolev Tu-144 (first supersonic passenger jet)
Andrei Tupolev
(1888–1972)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
turboprop powered long-range airliner (Tupolev Tu-114), turboprop strategic bomber (Tupolev Tu-95)

U

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Vladimir Utkin
(1923–2000)
 Soviet Union
 Russian Federation
railcar-launched ICBM (RT-23 Molodets), other Soviet rockets[128]
RT-23 in the St Petersburg railway museum

V

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Vladimir Vakhmistrov
(1897–1972)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
first bomber with a parasite aircraft (Zveno project)
Автопортрет. 1868.jpg Viktor Vasnetsov
(1848–1926)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
budenovka military hat
Red Army soldiers in budenovkas
Vladimir Veksler
(1907–1966)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
synchrophasotron, co-inventor of synchrotron[129][130]
A modern synchrotron scheme
Dmitry Vinogradov
(c.1720-5 – 1758)
 Russian Empire
original Russian hard-paste porcelain (together with Mikhail Lomonosov)
Modern production of Imperial Porcelain Factory co-founded by Vinogradov
Ivan Vyrodkov
(? – 1563–64)
Russia01.gif Grand Duchy of Moscow
Russia01.gif Tsardom of Russia
battery tower[131]
A battery tower was used in the Siege of Kazan

W

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Paul Walden.jpg Paul Walden
(1863–1957)
 Russian Empire
 Germany
(born in Latvia, Baltic German descent)
Walden inversion, Ethylammonium nitrate (the first room temperature ionic liquid)

Y

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Yablochkov 1.jpg Pavel Yablochkov
(1847–1894)
 Russian Empire
Yablochkov candle (first commercially viable electric carbon arc lamp)
Yablochkov demonstrates his illumination in Paris, 1878
Yakovlev2.jpg Alexander Yakovlev
(1906–1989)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
Yak-series aircraft, including Yakovlev Yak-40 (the first regional jet)
Yakovlev Yak-9, the main Soviet fighter of World War II
Yurkevich Normandia Model.jpg Vladimir Yourkevitch
(1885–1964)
 Russian Empire
 France
 United States
modern ship hull design
Sergei Yudin
(1891–1954)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
cadaveric blood transfusion and other medical operations[132]
World War II syringe for blood transfusion

Z

Portrait Person Inventions Image
Alexander Zalmanov
(1875–1965)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
turpentine bath
Cardiovuscular turpentine treatment statistics
1908-kl-t-zamenhof.jpg Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof
(1859–1917)
 Russian Empire
(Poland)
Esperanto language
Zelinsky.jpg Nikolay Zelinsky
(1861–1953)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
the first effective filtering activated charcoal gas mask in the world
A modern Russian gas mask
NikolaiYegorovichZhukovsky.jpg Nikolai Zhukovsky
(1847–1921)
 Russian Empire
 Russian SFSR
an early wind tunnel, co-developer of the Tsar Tank[133][87]
A modern wind tunnel
Zvorykin.jpg Vladimir Zvorykin
(1889–1982)
 Russian Empire
 United States
Iconoscope, kinescope
Zworykin's draft of a UV-microscope, similar to iconoscope
Zvyozdochkin.jpg Vasily Zvyozdochkin
(1876–1956)
 Russian Empire
 Soviet Union
matryoshka doll (together with painter Sergey Malyutin)[134]
Matryoshka doll taken apart

See also

References

  1. ^ Bruno Abdank-Abakanowicz (1886). Les intégraphes. Paris: Gauthier-Villars.  (French)
  2. ^ The Mechanical Advantage
  3. ^ Abalakov thread
  4. ^ Adamian in Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Russian)
  5. ^ Alexandrov's biography (Russian)
  6. ^ Alexandrov's biography (Russian)
  7. ^ Bendazzi, Giannalberto (1995). Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Cinema Animation. Paris, France: Indiana University Press. ISBN 2-910027-75-9
  8. ^ Biography of Alexeev
  9. ^ Alexeev's work on Ekranoplan
  10. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000 – Information for the Public
  11. ^ Alferov's authobiography at nobelprize.org
  12. ^ Altshuller's biography (Russian)
  13. ^ Vasily Andreyev article on the city site of Bezhetsk (Russian)
  14. ^ History of balalaika (Russian)
  15. ^ Antonov's biography (Russian)
  16. ^ Artsimovich's biography (Russian)
  17. ^ Babakin's Biography (Russian)
  18. ^ Baranoff-Rossiné biography
  19. ^ Barmin's biography (Russian)
  20. ^ Basov Nikolay Gennadiyevich
  21. ^ БЕХТЕРЕВА МИКСТУРА (MixturaBechtereva) at medicinelib.ru (Russian)
  22. ^ Biography of Bernardos by A. A. Chekanov (Russian)
  23. ^ a b Bereznyak-Isayev BI (Russian)
  24. ^ Beriev's biography (Russian)
  25. ^ The inventor of tractor (Russian)
  26. ^ Our armor is strong and our tanks are fast and our people are full of courage (Russian)
  27. ^ History of the Just Born
  28. ^ BBC Profile: The Google founders
  29. ^ Вестник Регистра морского судоходства России (Russian)
  30. ^ Academician Gersh Itckovich Budker (Russian)
  31. ^ The brief history of particle accelerators (Russian)
  32. ^ Read, J. (1935), Text-Book of Organic Chemistry, London: G Bell & Sons.
  33. ^ The history of Chelomey's OKB (Russian)
  34. ^ Cherenkov's biography at Nobelprize.org
  35. ^ Vita Germetika: A Brief History of Creating and Development of Soviet-Russian space suits (Russian)
  36. ^ Chizhevsky Science Center
  37. ^ Guinness Book of Records
  38. ^ Degtyaryov's biography (Russian)
  39. ^ Virtual Museum: Yuri Nikolaevich Denisyuk (Russian)
  40. ^ Michael D. Gordin, J. Chem Education 83 (2006), 561–565
  41. ^ Dolivo-Dobrovolsky in Great Soviet Encyvlopedia (Russian)
  42. ^ "Nikolay A. Dollezhal". Brief History. N.A. Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering. http://www.nikiet.ru/eng/history/dollezh.html. Retrieved 2008-05-11.  (Russian)
  43. ^ The Unknown Russian Monorail (Russian)
  44. ^ The House of Fabergé
  45. ^ Jean Boulet, Histoire de l'hélicoptère : racontée par ses pionniers, 1907–1956, Paris : Ed. France-Empire, 1982 (French)
  46. ^ Ivan Fyodorov's biography (Russian)
  47. ^ Ophthalmology for all (Russian)
  48. ^ C. Taylor The fighting rifle – A complete study of the rifle in combat, ISBN 0-87947-308-8
  49. ^ About Prince B. B. Galitzine by Alexey Krylov (Russian)
  50. ^ Investigation of the influence of the AlGaAs-GaAs heterostructure parameters on the laser threshold current and the realization of the continuous emission at the room temperature, Zh. I. Alferov, V.M. Andreev, D.Z. Garbuzov, and others, Sov. Phys. Semiconductors 4
  51. ^ Gause, GF. 1960. The search for new antibiotics. New Haven: Yale University Press. 97pp.
  52. ^ A Brief History of Diving (Russian)
  53. ^ History of diving in Russia (Russian)
  54. ^ It’s a thinner winner bbc.co.uk 19th October 2006
  55. ^ Genko's Forest Belt at the site dedicated to protected areas of Ulyanovsk Oblast (Russian)
  56. ^ "Valentin Glushko biography". Encyclopedia Astronautica. http://www.astronautix.com/astros/glushko.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  57. ^ Gobyato's biography (Russian)
  58. ^ Gorynin's biography on the web page of Prometey (Russian)
  59. ^ Igor Gorynin's article on Personalities of Saint Petersburg (Russian)
  60. ^ Early Television Foundation
  61. ^ Grabovsky Boris Pavlovich and his "Telephote". Myths and reality by Yury Rubchenko (Russian)
  62. ^ a b Migavia.ru - official site of MiG "OKB" successor enterprise
  63. ^ History of Haffkine Institute
  64. ^ Haffkine's biography (Russian)
  65. ^ A Genius of Osteogenesis (Russian)
  66. ^ Lee Beadling «Ilizarov discovered the miracle of distraction osteogenesis»
  67. ^ Leif Paringl Kristiansen «Reconstructive surgery of the human tibia by use of external ring fixator and the Ilizarov method» (with permission of Svetlana Ilizarov)
  68. ^ Ilyushin's biography at The Heroes of the Country site (Russian)
  69. ^ Pokhlebkin V. V. / Похлёбкин В. В. (2007). The history of vodka / История водки. Moscow: Tsentrpoligraph / Центрполиграф. pp. 272. ISBN 5-9524-1895-3. 
  70. ^ Jacobi's biography (Russian)
  71. ^ Poyer, Joe. The AK-47 and AK-74 Kalashnikov Rifles and Their Variations. North Cape Publications. 2004.
  72. ^ The history of the Kamov Design Bureau
  73. ^ Kapitsa's authobiography at nobelprize.org
  74. ^ Karpechenko, G.D., Polyploid hybrids of Raphanus sativus X Brassica oleracea L., Bull. Appl. Bot. 17:305-408 (1927)
  75. ^ Biotechnomogy timeline at bio.org
  76. ^ Kaspersky Lab
  77. ^ Citroën-Kegresse halftracks in the Polish Army
  78. ^ Creation of Sambo – by Michail Lukashev, first published in Physical Culture and Sport magazine N9-10/91.(Russian)
  79. ^ Khrenov's biography (Russian)
  80. ^ George Parada (n.d.), “Panzerkampfwagen T-34(r)” at Achtung Panzer! website, retrieved on 17 November 2008.
  81. ^ Ognjeslav Kostović - čovek koji je živeo u budućnosti (Serbian)
  82. ^ Manojlo srpski Ikar (Serbian)
  83. ^ Samokatka of Kulibin (Russian)
  84. ^ a b Коляски Шамшуренкова и самокатка Кулибина / The carriages of Shamshurenkov and samokatka of Kulibin (Russian)
  85. ^ Automobile Invention
  86. ^ Rzhosnitsky B. N. Dmitry Aleksandrovich Lachinov. Moscow-Leningrad: Gosenergoizdat, 1955 / Ржонсницкий Б. Н. Дмитрий Александрович Лачинов. — М.—Л.: Госэнергоиздат, 1955 (Russian)
  87. ^ a b c d Lebedenko (or Tsar) Tank
  88. ^ Самовары Лисицыных / Samovars of Lisitsyns at the site of Sloboda, a Tula-based newspaper (Russian)
  89. ^ Early helicopter technology
  90. ^ Lozino-Lozinskiy's biography at RussianSpaceWeb.com
  91. ^ Lozino-Lozinskiy's biography at Encyclopedia Astronautica
  92. ^ Lyulka's biography (Russian)
  93. ^ Hu Q, Noll RJ, Li H, Makarov A, Hardman M, Graham Cooks R (2005). "The Orbitrap: a new mass spectrometer". Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS 40 (4): 430–43. doi:10.1002/jms.856. PMID 15838939. 
  94. ^ Malyutin's biography (Russian)
  95. ^ Mamyrin, B. A.; Karataev, V. I.; Shmikk, D. V.; Zagulin, V. A. The mass-reflectron, a new nonmagnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer with high resolution Sov. Phys. JETP, 1973, 37, 45
  96. ^ Mikulin's biography at The Heroes of the Country (Russian)
  97. ^ Morozov's biography at the Heroes of the country (Russian)
  98. ^ Halberstadt, Hans Inside the Great Tanks The Crowood Press Ltd. Wiltshire, England 1997 94-96 ISBN 1-86126-270-1
    "The T-54/T-55 series is the hands down, all time most popular tank in history."
  99. ^ Slobodskoy, Archpriest Seraphim (1996), "Bells and Russian Orthodox Peals", The Law of God, Jordanville, N.Y.: Holy Trinity Monastery, p. 624, ISBN 0-88465-044-8 
  100. ^ Nadiradze's biography (Russian)
  101. ^ Nartov Andrey Konstantinovich (Russian)
  102. ^ Nartov's biography at hronos.km.ru (Russian)
  103. ^ Sergei Pavlovich Nepobedimiy at astronautix.com
  104. ^ Tolf, Robert W. (1976). "4: The World's First Oil Tankers". The Russian Rockefellers: The Saga of the Nobel Family and the Russian Oil Industry. Hoover Press. ISBN 0817965815. http://books.google.com/books?id=3DmsQLtWq1wC&pg=PR38&dq=%2BNobel+%2Btanker+%2BZoroaster&num=100&sig=CpA2y3iTadVv_iihDA5mp_sN92M#PPA50,M1. 
  105. ^ 4 maart 2009. "Tetris 1985 History of Games part 07". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zidxG-ah3y8. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  106. ^ Pavlov and, I. P. (1927/1960). Conditional Reflexes. New York: Dover Publications (the 1960 edition is an unaltered republication of the 1927 translation by Oxford University Press http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Pavlov/).
  107. ^ Chief designer of the T-80 tank dies (Russian)
  108. ^ The Vezdekhod – a legend of the Soviet military history
  109. ^ Monarchs can be good at anything (Russian)
  110. ^ Lin, Patricia. Ida Kaganovich Rosenthal
  111. ^ Maidenform Inc., company website, company history section. Retrieved June 2004 from http://www.maidenform.com/custserv/custserv.jsp?sectionId=33
  112. ^ http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Maidenform-Inc-Company-History.html
  113. ^ "History of the Cathode Ray Tube". About.com. http://inventors.about.com/od/cstartinventions/a/CathodeRayTube.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  114. ^ The beginnings of a blue screen (Russian)
  115. ^ Interview with Roshal (Russian)
  116. ^ Family Sangalli / San Galli
  117. ^ The hot boxes of San Galli (Russian)
  118. ^ Severin, Guy Ilich at the Russian Academy of Sciences website (Russian)
  119. ^ Leonty Luk'yanovich Shamshurenkov (Russian)
  120. ^ The Schilovski Gyrocar
  121. ^ Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov's biography at Shukhov Tower Foundation site.
  122. ^ SPP-1 (Russian)
  123. ^ Modern weapons of underwater fighters (Russian)
  124. ^ Slavyanov's biography (Russian)
  125. ^ An illustrated biography of Starevich (Spanish)
  126. ^ Entomology and Animation: A Portrait of an Early Master Ladislaw Starewicz (May 2000 6-page article from Animation World Magazine)
  127. ^ Stechkin's biography at The Heroes of the Country (Russian)
  128. ^ Utkin's biography at the Heroes of the Country site (Russian)
  129. ^ Who and when invented synchrophasotron? (Russian)
  130. ^ The brief history of particle accelerators (Russian)
  131. ^ Russian Fortresses, 1480–1682, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-916-9
  132. ^ Shamov V.N. The transfusion of stored cadaver blood Lancet 1937; 2, August 7:306–309
  133. ^ Zhukovsky's biography (Russian)
  134. ^ Vasily Zvyozdochkin – the farther of Russian Matryoshka (Russian)







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