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List of Spanish monarchs: Wikis

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Spain

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This is a list of Spanish monarchs that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the world. The monarchs of the Spanish throne, as well as of the Portuguese throne, were the following:

These lineages were eventually united by the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. Although their kingdoms continued to be separate, with their personal union they ruled them together as one dominion. Ferdinand also conquered the southern part of Navarre and annexed it to what was to become Spain. Isabella left her kingdom to her daughter Joanna of Castile. Ferdinand served as her regent during her insanity; though rebuffed by the Castilian nobility and replaced by Joanna's husband Philip the Handsome, he resumed his regency after Philip's death. In 1516, after Ferdinand II's death, his daughter Joanna inherited the kingdom of Aragon, but was kept prisoner at Tordesillas as insane. As Joanna's son, the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, did not want to be merely a regent, he was proclaimed king of Castile and Aragon jointly with his mother in Brussels. Subsequently, Castilian and Aragonese Cortes alleged oath to him as co-king with his mother. Upon her death, he became sole King of Castile and Aragon, and the thrones were thereafter united permanently.

Contents

Kingdom of Spain (1516–1873)

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House of Habsburg / House of Austria

Under Joanna and Charles I, the two thrones of Castile and Aragon were finally united under one monarch.

# Name Started Ended Spanish Name Title Relationship with predecessor(s)
1 Charles I
with Joanna (died April 12, 1555)
Emperor charles v.png March 14, 1516 January 16, 1556 Carlos I Holy Roman Emperor,

King of the Romans, Italy and Spain,
Archduke of Austria,
(Titular) Duke of Burgundy

son and co-monarch of Joanna; grandson of Isabella I and Ferdinand II
2 Philip II Alonso Sánchez Coello 002.jpg January 16, 1556 September 13, 1598 Felipe II King of Spain, Portugal, and Naples

King consort of England and Ireland;
Ruler of the Spanish Netherlands;
Duke of Milan

son of Charles I
3 Philip III PhilipIIISpain.jpg September 13, 1598 March 31, 1621 Felipe III King of Spain and Portugal son of Philip II
4 Philip IV Philip IV of Spain.jpg March 31, 1621 September 17, 1665 Felipe IV King of Spain and (until 1640) Portugal son of Philip III
5 Charles II Charles II (1670-80).jpg September 17, 1665 November 1, 1700 Carlos II King of Spain
Ruler of the Spanish Netherlands
son of Philip IV

House of Bourbon

In the year 1700 Charles II died. Charles' will named the 16-year old Philip, the grandson of Charles' sister Maria Theresa of Spain, as his successor.[1] Upon any possible refusal the Crown of Spain would be offered next to Philip's younger brother Charles, duc de Berry, or, next, to Archduke Charles of Austria.[1]

Both claimants, Philip and Charles, had a legal right to the Spanish throne due to the fact that Philip's grandfather, King Louis XIV of France and Charles's father, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, were sons of Charles' aunts, Anne of Austria and Maria Anna of Austria. Philip had the better claim because his grandmother and great-grandmother were older than Leopold's. However, the Austrian branch claimed that Philip's grandmother had renounced the Spanish throne for herself and her descendants as part of her marriage contract. This was countered by the French branch's claim that it was on the basis of a dowry that had never been paid.[2]

After a long council meeting where the Dauphin spoke up in favour of his son's rights, it was agreed that Philip would ascend the throne but would forever renounce his claim to the throne of France for himself and his descendants.[3] Following this war broke out and Archduke Charles was also proclaimed king of Spain, as Charles III opposite to Philip V.[4]

# Name Started Ended Spanish Name Title Relationship with predecessor(s)
6 Philip V Felipe V; Rey de España.jpg November 16, 1700 January 14, 1724 (abdicated) Felipe V King of Spain Great Grandson of Philip IV, via his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa of Spain
7 Louis I Louis, King of Spain.jpg January 14, 1724 August 31, 1724 Luis I King of Spain Son of Philip V
8 Philip V Felipe V; Rey de España.jpg September 6, 1724 July 9, 1746 Felipe V King of Spain Father of Louis I
9 Ferdinand VI Ferdinand VI 2.jpg July 9, 1746 August 10, 1759 Fernando VI King of Spain Son of Philip V
10 Charles III Charles III of Spain.jpg August 10, 1759 December 14, 1788 Carlos III King of Spain, Naples and Sicily

Duke of Parma

Son of Philip V
11 Charles IV Charles IV of Spain.jpg December 14, 1788 March 19, 1808 Carlos IV King of Spain Son of Charles III
12 Ferdinand VII Fernando VII.jpg March 19, 1808 May 6, 1808 Fernando VII King of Spain Son of Charles IV

House of Bonaparte

The only monarch from this dynasty was Joseph, imposed by his brother Emperor Napoleon I of France after the kings Charles IV and Ferdinand VII abdicated. The title used by Joseph was King of the Spains and the Indias, by the Grace of God and the Constitution of the State. He was also later given all of the titles of the previous kings.

# Name Started Ended Spanish Name Title Relationship with predecessor(s)
13 Joseph I Joseph-Bonaparte.jpg June 6, 1808 December 11, 1813 (abdicated) José I King of Spain
King of Naples and Sicily and the Indies
Comte de Survilliers

House of Borbon (first restoration)

Charles IV's eldest son was restored to the throne. Again the title used was king of Castile, Leon, Aragon,… by the Grace of God.

# Name Started Ended Spanish Name Title Relationship with predecessor(s)
14 Ferdinand VII Fernando VII.jpg December 11, 1813 September 29, 1833 Fernando VII King of Spain Son of Charles IV
15 Isabella II IsabellaII.png September 29, 1833 September 30, 1868 (abdicated) Isabel II Queen of Spain Daughter of Ferdinand VII

House of Savoy

After the Spanish Revolution of 1868 deposed Isabella II, there was established a provisional government and a regency headed by Francisco Serrano y Domínguez from October 8, 1868 until January 2, 1871, while a new monarch was sought. Amadeo was elected as king and the new title used was King of Spain, by the Grace of God and will of nation.

# Name Started Ended Spanish Name Title Relationship with predecessor(s)
16 Amadeo Amadeo I Rey de España.jpg December 4, 1870 February 11, 1873 Amadeo I King of Spain

First Spanish Republic (1873–1874)

See President of Spain

Kingdom of Spain (1874–1931)

House of Borbon (second restoration)

Isabella II's eldest son was restored to the throne as she had abdicated in his favour in 1870. Constitutional king of Spain.

# Name Started Ended Spanish Name Title Relationship with predecessor(s)
17 Alfonso XII Alfonso XII.png December 29, 1874 November 25, 1885 Alfonso XII King of Spain Son of Isabella II
18 Alfonso XIII Alfonso XIII de España (cropped).jpg May 17, 1886 April 14, 1931 Alfonso XIII King of Spain Posthumous son of Alfonso XII

Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939)

See President of Spain

Francoist Spain (1936–1975)

On October 1, 1936 General Francisco Franco was proclaimed Head of State (Caudillo) in the parts of Spain controlled by the Nationalists (nacionales) after the Spanish Civil War broke out. After the end of war on April 1, 1939 General Franco took control of the whole of Spain. In 1947, Franco proclaimed the restoration of the monarchy, but did not allow the pretender, Juan de Borbón, Count of Barcelona, to take the throne. In 1969, Franco declared that Juan Carlos, the Count of Barcelona's son, would be his successor. After Franco's death in 1975, Juan Carlos succeeded him as the King of Spain.

Kingdom of Spain (1975–present)

House of Borbon (third restoration)

Alfonso XIII's claim descended (due to his two eldest sons' renunciations) to his third son, Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, who was passed over in favour of his eldest son, whose title is King of Spain. The Count of Barcelona renounced his claims in favour of his son in 1977, two years after Franco's death and Juan Carlos's accession.

# Name Started Ended Spanish Name Title Relationship with predecessor(s)
19 Juan Carlos I Juan Carlos da Espanha.jpg November 22, 1975 Incumbent Juan Carlos I King of Spain Grandson of Alfonso XIII, via his son Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Kamen, Henry. "Philip V of Spain:: The King who Reigned Twice", p.6. Published by Yale University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-300-08718-7
  2. ^ Durant, Will. "The Age of Louis XIV", p.699. Simon and Schuster, New York 1963.
  3. ^ Kamen, Henry. "Philip V of Spain:: The King who Reigned Twice", p.158. Published by Yale University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-300-08718-7
  4. ^ He was proclaimed in Viena, LoveToKnow Free Online Encyclopedia, and also in Madrid in the years 1706 y 1710.

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