List of Super Bowl champions: Wikis

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A silver trophy in the shape of an American football—an elliptical shape with pointed ends—standing on a pedestal of the same metal.
The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy.

The Super Bowl is an annual American football game that determines the champion of the National Football League (NFL). The contest is held in an American city that is chosen three to four years beforehand,[1] usually in warm-weather or domed sites.[2] Since 1971, the winner of the American Football Conference (AFC) Championship Game has faced the winner of the National Football Conference (NFC) Championship Game in the culmination of the NFL playoffs. Before the 1970 merger between the American Football League (AFL) and the National Football League (NFL), the two leagues met in a World Championship Game and Super Bowl III in 1969 was the first Super Bowl that carried the "Super Bowl" moniker at the time of the game.[3] The NFC leads in Super Bowl wins with 22, while the AFC has won 21. Seventeen different franchises, including teams that relocated to another city, have won the Super Bowl. [4] The NFL and AFL each won two World Championships.[4]

The Pittsburgh Steelers have won the most Super Bowls with six championships (record 6-1) versus both the Dallas Cowboys and San Francisco 49ers with five wins each (Cowboys 5-3; 49ers a perfect 5-0). Dallas has had the most Super Bowl appearances, playing in eight. The Buffalo Bills, Denver Broncos, and Minnesota Vikings each have lost a record four Super Bowls. Buffalo and Minnesota are both 0–4 in the Super Bowl. Five active NFL teams have yet to appear in a Super Bowl: the Cleveland Browns, Detroit Lions, Houston Texans (2002 expansion team), Jacksonville Jaguars (1995 expansion team), and New Orleans Saints.[5] The Kansas City Chiefs and New York Jets have not appeared in the Super Bowl since the AFL–NFL merger in 1970.[6]

Contents

Super Bowls by game

Numbers in parentheses in the table are as of the date of that Super Bowl and are used as follows:

  • Winning team and Losing team columns indicate the number of times that team has appeared in a Super Bowl.
  • Venue column indicates number of times that stadium has hosted a Super Bowl.
  • City column indicates number of times that that metropolitan area has hosted a Super Bowl.
National Football League (NFL, 1967–1970) American Football League (AFL, 1967–1970)
NFL Champion AFL Champion^
National Football Conference (NFC, 1971–present) American Football Conference (AFC, 1971–present)
NFC Champion* AFC Champion
Game Date Winning team Score Losing team Venue City Reference
I 01967-01-15 January 15, 1967 Green Bay Packers 35–10 Kansas City Chiefs^ Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Los Angeles, California[note 1] [7]
II 01968-01-14 January 14, 1968 Green Bay Packers (2) 33–14 Oakland Raiders^ Orange Bowl Miami, Florida[note 2] [8]
III 01969-01-12 January 12, 1969 New York Jets^ 16–7  Baltimore Colts Orange Bowl (2) Miami, Florida (2)[note 2] [9]
IV 01970-01-11 January 11, 1970 Kansas City Chiefs^ (2) 23–7  Minnesota Vikings Tulane Stadium New Orleans, Louisiana [10]
V 01971-01-17 January 17, 1971 Baltimore Colts (2) 16–13  Dallas Cowboys* Orange Bowl (3) Miami, Florida (3)
VI 01972-01-16 January 16, 1972 Dallas Cowboys* (2) 24–3  Miami Dolphins Tulane Stadium (2) New Orleans, Louisiana (2) [11]
VII 01973-01-14 January 14, 1973 Miami Dolphins (2) 14–7  Washington Redskins* Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum (2) Los Angeles, California (2)[note 1] [12]
VIII 01974-01-13 January 13, 1974 Miami Dolphins (3) 24–7  Minnesota Vikings* (2) Rice Stadium Houston, Texas [13]
IX 01975-01-12 January 12, 1975 Pittsburgh Steelers 16–6  Minnesota Vikings* (3) Tulane Stadium (3) New Orleans, Louisiana (3) [14]
X 01976-01-18 January 18, 1976 Pittsburgh Steelers (2) 21–17 Dallas Cowboys* (3)[note 3] Orange Bowl (4) Miami, Florida (4)[note 2] [15]
XI 01977-01-09 January 9, 1977 Oakland Raiders (2) 32–14 Minnesota Vikings* (4) Rose Bowl Pasadena, California (3)[note 1] [16]
XII 01978-01-15 January 15, 1978 Dallas Cowboys* (4) 27–10 Denver Broncos Superdome New Orleans, Louisiana (4) [17]
XIII 01979-01-21 January 21, 1979 Pittsburgh Steelers (3) 35–31 Dallas Cowboys* (5) Orange Bowl (5) Miami, Florida (5)[note 2] [18]
XIV 01980-01-20 January 20, 1980 Pittsburgh Steelers (4) 31–19 Los Angeles Rams* Rose Bowl (2) Pasadena, California (4)[note 1] [19]
XV 01981-01-25 January 25, 1981 Oakland Raiders (3)[note 3] 27–10 Philadelphia Eagles* Superdome (2) New Orleans, Louisiana (5) [20]
XVI 01982-01-24 January 24, 1982 San Francisco 49ers* 26–21 Cincinnati Bengals Pontiac Silverdome Pontiac, Michigan[note 1] [21]
XVII 01983-01-30 January 30, 1983 Washington Redskins* (2) 27–17 Miami Dolphins (4) Rose Bowl (3) Pasadena, California (5)[note 1] [22]
XVIII 01984-01-22 January 22, 1984 Los Angeles Raiders (4) 38–9  Washington Redskins* (3) Tampa Stadium Tampa, Florida [23]
XIX 01985-01-20 January 20, 1985 San Francisco 49ers* (2) 38–16 Miami Dolphins (5) Stanford Stadium Stanford, California [24]
XX 01986-01-26 January 26, 1986 Chicago Bears* 46–10 New England Patriots[note 3] Superdome (3) New Orleans, Louisiana (6) [25]
XXI 01987-01-25 January 25, 1987 New York Giants* 39–20 Denver Broncos (2) Rose Bowl (4) Pasadena, California (6)[note 1] [26]
XXII 01988-01-31 January 31, 1988 Washington Redskins* (4) 42–10 Denver Broncos (3) Jack Murphy Stadium[note 4] San Diego, California [27]
XXIII 01989-01-22 January 22, 1989 San Francisco 49ers* (3) 20–16 Cincinnati Bengals (2) Joe Robbie Stadium[note 4] Miami, Florida (6)[note 2] [28]
XXIV 01990-01-28 January 28, 1990 San Francisco 49ers* (4) 55–10 Denver Broncos (4) Superdome (4) New Orleans, Louisiana (7) [29]
XXV 01991-01-27 January 27, 1991 New York Giants* (2) 20–19 Buffalo Bills Tampa Stadium (2) Tampa, Florida (2) [30]
XXVI 01992-01-26 January 26, 1992 Washington Redskins* (5) 37–24 Buffalo Bills (2) Metrodome Minneapolis, Minnesota [31]
XXVII 01993-01-31 January 31, 1993 Dallas Cowboys* (6) 52–17 Buffalo Bills (3)[note 3] Rose Bowl (5) Pasadena, California (7)[note 1] [32]
XXVIII 01994-01-30 January 30, 1994 Dallas Cowboys* (7) 30–13 Buffalo Bills (4) Georgia Dome Atlanta, Georgia [33]
XXIX 01995-01-29 January 29, 1995 San Francisco 49ers* (5) 49–26 San Diego Chargers Joe Robbie Stadium (2)[note 4] Miami, Florida (7)[note 2] [34]
XXX 01996-01-28 January 28, 1996 Dallas Cowboys* (8) 27–17 Pittsburgh Steelers (5) Sun Devil Stadium Tempe, Arizona[note 1] [35]
XXXI 01997-01-26 January 26, 1997 Green Bay Packers* (3) 35–21 New England Patriots (2) Superdome (5) New Orleans, Louisiana (8) [36]
XXXII 01998-01-25 January 25, 1998 Denver Broncos (5)[note 3] 31–24 Green Bay Packers* (4) Qualcomm Stadium (2)[note 4] San Diego, California (2) [37]
XXXIII 01999-01-31 January 31, 1999 Denver Broncos (6) 34–19 Atlanta Falcons* Pro Player Stadium (3)[note 4] Miami, Florida (8)[note 2] [38]
XXXIV 02000-01-30 January 30, 2000 St. Louis Rams* (2) 23–16 Tennessee Titans[note 3] Georgia Dome (2) Atlanta, Georgia (2) [39]
XXXV 02001-01-28 January 28, 2001 Baltimore Ravens[note 3] 34–7  New York Giants* (3) Raymond James Stadium Tampa, Florida (3) [40]
XXXVI 02002-02-03 February 3, 2002 New England Patriots (3) 20–17 St. Louis Rams* (3) Superdome (6) New Orleans, Louisiana (9) [41]
XXXVII 02003-01-26 January 26, 2003 Tampa Bay Buccaneers* 48–21 Oakland Raiders (5) Qualcomm Stadium (3)[note 4] San Diego, California (3) [42]
XXXVIII 02004-02-01 February 1, 2004 New England Patriots (4) 32–29 Carolina Panthers* Reliant Stadium Houston, Texas (2) [43]
XXXIX 02005-02-06 February 6, 2005 New England Patriots (5) 24–21 Philadelphia Eagles* (2) ALLTEL Stadium Jacksonville, Florida [44]
XL 02006-02-05 February 5, 2006 Pittsburgh Steelers (6)[note 3] 21–10 Seattle Seahawks* Ford Field Detroit, Michigan (2)[note 1] [45]
XLI 02007-02-04 February 4, 2007 Indianapolis Colts (3) 29–17 Chicago Bears* (2) Dolphin Stadium (4)[note 4] Miami, Florida (9)[note 2] [50]
XLII 02008-02-03 February 3, 2008 New York Giants* (3)[note 3] 17–14 New England Patriots (6) University of Phoenix Stadium Glendale, Arizona (2)[note 1] [55]
XLIII 02009-02-01 February 1, 2009 Pittsburgh Steelers (7) 27–23 Arizona Cardinals* Raymond James Stadium (2) Tampa, Florida (4) [56]
XLIV 02010-02-07 February 7, 2010 2009–10 NFC Champion* at 2009–10 AFC Champion To be determined Land Shark Stadium[47] (5)[note 4] Miami, Florida (10)[note 2] [57]
XLV 02011-02-06 February 6, 2011 2010–11 AFC Champion at 2010–11 NFC Champion* To be determined Cowboys Stadium Arlington, Texas [57]
XLVI 02012-02-05 February 5, 2012 2011–12 NFC Champion* at 2011–12 AFC Champion To be determined Lucas Oil Stadium Indianapolis, Indiana [57]
XLVII 02013-02-03 February 3, 2013 2012–13 AFC Champion at 2012–13 NFC Champion* To be determined Superdome (7) New Orleans, Louisiana (10) [57][58]

Super Bowl appearances by team

NFL/NFC* teams (22 wins) AFL^/AFC teams (21 wins)
NFL/AFC team[note 5]
Appearances Team Wins Losses Winning percentage Season(s)[note 6]
8 Dallas Cowboys* 5 3 .625 1970,* 1971,* 1975,*[note 3] 1977,* 1978,* 1992,* 1993,* 1995*
7 Pittsburgh Steelers[note 5] 6 1 .857 1974, 1975, 1978, 1979, 1995, 2005,[note 3] 2008
6 New England Patriots 3 3 .500 1985,[note 3] 1996, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2007
6 Denver Broncos 2 4 .333 1977, 1986, 1987, 1989, 1997,[note 3] 1998
5 San Francisco 49ers* 5 0 1.000 1981,* 1984,* 1988,* 1989,* 1994*
5 Washington Redskins* 3 2 .600 1972,* 1982,* 1983,* 1987,* 1991*
5 Los Angeles/Oakland Raiders^† 3 2 .600 1967,^ 1976, 1980,[note 3] 1983, 2002
5 Miami Dolphins 2 3 .400 1971,1972, 1973, 1982, 1984,
4 Green Bay Packers‡* 3 1 .750 1966, 1967, 1996,* 1997*
4 New York Giants* 3 1 .750 1986,* 1990,* 2000,* 2007*[note 3]
4 Minnesota Vikings‡* 0 4 .000 1969, 1973,* 1974,* 1976*
4 Buffalo Bills 0 4 .000 1990, 1991, 1992,[note 3] 1993
3 Baltimore/Indianapolis Colts‡†[note 5] 2 1 .667 1968, 1970, 2006
3 Los Angeles/St. Louis Rams* 1 2 .333 1979,* 1999,* 2001*
2 Kansas City Chiefs^ 1 1 .500 1966,^ 1969^
2 Chicago Bears* 1 1 .500 1985,* 2006*
2 Cincinnati Bengals 0 2 .000 1981, 1988
2 Philadelphia Eagles* 0 2 .000 1980,* 2004*
1 New York Jets^ 1 0 1.000 1968^
1 Baltimore Ravens 1 0 1.000 2000[note 3]
1 Tampa Bay Buccaneers*[note 7] 1 0 1.000 2002*
1 San Diego Chargers 0 1 .000 1994
1 Atlanta Falcons* 0 1 .000 1998*
1 Houston/Tennessee Oilers/Tennessee Titans 0 1 .000 1999[note 3]
1 Carolina Panthers* 0 1 .000 2003*
1 Seattle Seahawks*[note 7] 0 1 .000 2005*
1 Chicago/St. Louis/Phoenix/Arizona Cardinals* 0 1 .000 2008*
0 Detroit Lions* 0 0 --- N/A
0 Cleveland Browns[note 5] 0 0 --- N/A
0 Jacksonville Jaguars 0 0 --- N/A
0 New Orleans Saints* 0 0 --- N/A
0 Houston Texans 0 0 --- N/A
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Teams with no Super Bowl appearances

In addition, the following teams have had Super Bowl appearances, but whose last championship occurred prior to 1966:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Both Los Angeles and Pasadena, California are in the Greater Los Angeles Area,[51] Pontiac, Michigan is a suburb of Detroit, Michigan,[52] and both Tempe, Arizona and Glendale, Arizona are suburbs of Phoenix, Arizona.[53][54]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Miami Gardens was incorporated as a suburb of Miami in 2003. Prior to that, it was an unincorporated area of Miami-Dade County but the stadium had a Miami address.[49]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Wild card qualifier.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Qualcomm Stadium was originally known as San Diego Stadium and Jack Murphy Stadium.[46] Dolphin Stadium has also been variously known over the years as Joe Robbie Stadium, Pro Player Stadium, and Dolphins Stadium (with a plural and/or possessive "s".) Its subsequent name of Dolphin Stadium (with no "s") was also the original name it was given when first built. It is currently known as Land Shark Stadium.[47][48]
  5. ^ a b c d The Colts are the only team that played a pre AFL-NFL merger Super Bowl for the NFL, and then moved to the AFC in 1970. Although members of the old NFL before the 1970 merger, the Steelers and Browns did not play in a Super Bowl before moving to the AFC post-merger.
  6. ^ Bold years indicate winning seasons.
  7. ^ a b The Seahawks switched conferences with the Buccaneers in 1976 but switched back to the NFC in 2002 due to an NFL realignment plan after the Houston Texans were admitted. They reached the Super Bowl for the first time in 2005.

References

  1. ^ Forbes, Gordon (1990-11-08). "The process of choosing a host city". USA Today: p. 4C.  
  2. ^ "Super Bowl cities are far and few between". The Florida Times-Union. http://www.jacksonville.com/tu-online/stories/020407/jag_7751185.shit. Retrieved 2008-01-13.  
  3. ^ Culture in History Of The Nfl
  4. ^ a b "Super Bowl History". NFL.com. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history. Retrieved 2008-01-13.  
  5. ^ Mittler, Doug. "Eight Men Out: With the Cardinals and Rays out of the way, only eight teams remain without an appearance on their sport's biggest stage". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/espnmag/story?id=3869696. Retrieved 2009-01-31.  
  6. ^ Neumann, Thomas (2008-09-17). "Page 2's ultimate NFL power rankings, Nos. 21–32". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?page=nflrankings/21-32/080917. Retrieved 2009-09-07.  
  7. ^ Maule, Tex (1967-01-23). "Bread-and-butter Packers". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1079480/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  
  8. ^ "Super Bowl 2: Lombardi's Starr Rises". Sporting News. 1968-01-14. http://www.sportingnews.com/archives/superbowl/2.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  
  9. ^ "Super Bowl 3: The Broadway Joe Show". Sporting News. 1969-01-12. http://www.sportingnews.com/archives/superbowl/3.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  
  10. ^ "Super Bowl History: Super Bowl IV". CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/htdocs/sports/football/history/superbowl_04.html. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  
  11. ^ Maule, Tex (1972-01-24). "A Cowboy Stampede". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1085727/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  
  12. ^ Maule, Tex (1973-01-22). "17–0–0". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1086962/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  
  13. ^ Maule, Tex (1974-01-21). "It Was The Day Of The Dolphins". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1142520/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  
  14. ^ Jenkins, Dan (1975-01-20). "Pittsburgh Punches It Out". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1089436/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-25.  
  15. ^ Jenkins, Dan (1976-01-26). "Dallas Feels The Steeler Crunch". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1090680/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  16. ^ Jenkins, Dan (1977-01-17). "The Raiders Were All Suped Up". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1091964/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  17. ^ "Super Bowl 12: Orange Crushed". Sporting News. 1978-01-15. http://www.sportingnews.com/archives/superbowl/12.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  18. ^ "Super Bowl 13: Dumb Like a F–O–X". Sporting News. 1979-01-21. http://www.sportingnews.com/archives/superbowl/13.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  19. ^ "Super Bowl XIV: Pittsburgh Steelers 31, Los Angeles Rams 19". Pro Football Reference. Sports Reference LLC. http://www.pro-football-reference.com/super-bowl/xiv.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  20. ^ "Super Bowl Summaries: Super Bowl XV". CNN Sports Illustrated. Time Warner. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/football/nfl/superbowl/summaries/sb15.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  21. ^ "Super Bowl 16: 49ers Strike It Rich". Sporting News. 1982-01-24. http://www.sportingnews.com/archives/superbowl/16.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  22. ^ Zimmerman, Paul (1983-02-07). "Hail To The Redskins!". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1120483/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  23. ^ Zimmerman, Paul (1984-01-30). "A Runaway For The Raiders". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1121674/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  24. ^ Zimmerman, Paul (1985-01-28). "The Niners Were Never Finer". Sports Illustrated. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1119083/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  25. ^ Magee, Jerry (2007-01-28). "'85 Bears never lost in shuffle". The San Diego Union-Tribune. http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20070128/news_1s28bears.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  26. ^ "Super Bowl XXI: New York Giants 39, Denver Broncos 20". Pro Football Reference. Sports Reference LLC. http://www.pro-football-reference.com/super-bowl/xxi.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  27. ^ "Super Bowl Summaries: Super Bowl XXII". CNN Sports Illustrated. Time Warner. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/football/nfl/superbowl/summaries/sb22.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  28. ^ Almond, Elliott (1989-01-23). "49ers Defeat Bengals, 20–16, in Super Bowl". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1989-01-23/news/mn-671_1_super-bowl-record. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  29. ^ "Super Bowl 24: 49ers Pound Outmanned Broncos". Sporting News. 1990-01-28. http://www.sportingnews.com/archives/superbowl/24.html. Retrieved 2009-08-26.  
  30. ^ "Super Bowl XXV". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxv. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  31. ^ "Super Bowl XXVI". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxvi. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  32. ^ "Super Bowl XXVII". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxvii. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  33. ^ "Super Bowl XXVIII". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxviii. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  34. ^ "Super Bowl XXIX". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxix. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  35. ^ "Super Bowl XXX". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxx. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  36. ^ "Super Bowl XXXI". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxxi. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  37. ^ "Super Bowl XXXII". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxxii. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  38. ^ "Super Bowl XXXIII". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxxiii. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  39. ^ "Super Bowl XXXIV". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxxiv. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  40. ^ "Super Bowl XXXV". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxxv. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  41. ^ "Super Bowl XXXVI". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxxvi. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  42. ^ "Super Bowl XXXVII". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxxvii. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  43. ^ "Super Bowl XXXVIII". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxxviii. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  44. ^ "Super Bowl XXXIX". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxxxix. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  45. ^ "Super Bowl XL". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxl. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  46. ^ Levine, Stuart (2008-12-22). "15 years after the NFL left L.A., SoCal fans bolt to Qualcomm". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/travel/news/story?id=3774016. Retrieved 2009-08-24.  
  47. ^ a b "Ross said the agreement to change the name from Dolphin Stadium is for this season only and expires before the stadium plays host to the Super Bowl in February." "Dolphins' home renamed Land Shark Stadium in deal with singer Buffett". Associated Press. 2009-05-10. http://www.nfl.com/news/story?id=09000d5d810340fb&template=without-video-with-comments&confirm=true. Retrieved 2009-05-11.  
  48. ^ "Land Shark Stadium". ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/travel/stadium/index?stadium=mlb_2771. Retrieved 2009-08-24.  
  49. ^ Klitzing, Michael (2006-07-10). "Special report: The Stadium Dilemma". North County Times. http://www.nctimes.com/articles/2006/07/10/sports/professional/chargers/23_09_087_9_06.txt. Retrieved 2008-03-16.  
  50. ^ "Super Bowl XLI". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/history/recap/sbxli. Retrieved 2008-03-27.  
  51. ^ "Pasadena, California". U.S. Census. Federal government of the United States. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=Search&geo_id=&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=Pasadena&_cityTown=Pasadena&_state=04000US06&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010. Retrieved 2008-03-30.  
  52. ^ "Pontiac, Michigan". U.S. Census. Federal government of the United States. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=Search&geo_id=&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=Pontiac&_cityTown=Pontiac&_state=04000US26&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010. Retrieved 2008-03-30.  
  53. ^ "Glendale, Arizona". U.S. Census. Federal government of the United States. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=Search&geo_id=&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=Glendale&_cityTown=Glendale&_state=04000US04&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010. Retrieved 2008-03-30.  
  54. ^ "Tempe, Arizona". U.S. Census. Federal government of the United States. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=Search&geo_id=&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=Tempe&_cityTown=Tempe&_state=04000US04&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010. Retrieved 2008-03-30.  
  55. ^ "Super Bowl XLII". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/gamecenter/recap?game_id=29526&displayPage=tab_recap&season=2007&week=POST21. Retrieved 2009-07-28.  
  56. ^ "Super Bowl XLIII". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/gamecenter/recap?game_id=54465&displayPage=tab_recap&season=2008&week=POST21. Retrieved 2009-07-28.  
  57. ^ a b c d AP (2009-06-09). "Indianapolis ahead of curve in preparations for Super Bowl XLVI in 2012". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/news/story?id=09000d5d810bdf46&template=without-video-with-comments&confirm=true. Retrieved 2009-07-28.  
  58. ^ "Super Bowl will return to New Orleans in 2013". NFL. http://www.nfl.com/news/story?id=09000d5d810681fc&template=without-video-with-comments&confirm=true. Retrieved 2009-05-20.  
  59. ^ "Detroit Lions Franchise Encyclopedia". Pro Football Reference. Sports Reference LLC. http://www.pro-football-reference.com/teams/det/. Retrieved 2009-08-27.  
  60. ^ "Cleveland Browns Franchise Encyclopedia". Pro Football Reference. Sports Reference LLC. http://www.pro-football-reference.com/teams/cle/. Retrieved 2009-08-27.  
  61. ^ "Year By Year Season Results". Cleveland Browns. http://www.clevelandbrowns.com/team/history/results.php. Retrieved 2009-08-28.  
  62. ^ Romano, John (1996-08-04). "Rams fear Phillips is a perpetual faux pas Series: NFL". St. Petersburg Times: p. 9C.  
  63. ^ "Jacksonville Jaguars Franchise Encyclopedia". Pro Football Reference. Sports Reference LLC. http://www.pro-football-reference.com/teams/jax/. Retrieved 2009-08-27.  
  64. ^ "New Orleans Saints Franchise Encyclopedia". Pro Football Reference. Sports Reference LLC. http://www.pro-football-reference.com/teams/nor/. Retrieved 2009-08-27.  
  65. ^ "Houston Texans Franchise Encyclopedia". Pro Football Reference. Sports Reference LLC. http://www.pro-football-reference.com/teams/htx/. Retrieved 2009-08-27.  

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