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List of World War I aces credited with 10 victories: Wikis

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The term "ace" (now commonly flying ace) was first used by French newspapers during World War I, describing Adolphe Pégoud as l'as (the ace), after he downed five German aircraft.[1] At the beginning of World War I air combat had not been invented and aircraft were for reconnaissance only.[2] When aircraft began to shoot or force down other aircraft, systems to count "air victories" were subsequently developed.[3]

In the early stages of military aviation, different air services evolved different methods of assigning credit for aerial victories. None of these scoring systems were ironclad and they were all subject to flux. The actual number of air victories required to officially qualify as an "ace" varied.[4]

The Germans, who did not use the term "ace" but referred to German pilots who had shot down 10 aircraft as Überkanone (big gun), gave credit to a single pilot with each downing of a particular enemy aircraft, and then only after visual verification of the wreckage of the fallen craft or its occupant(s).[5] The French Armee de l'Air system also only counted aircraft destroyed, but granted full credit to every pilot or aerial gunner participating in a victory, which could sometimes be several individuals.[6][7] Most other nations (including the United States) adopted the French system. British aircraft often fought over German territory, and could not follow the German practice of visual verification of the wreckage of the fallen craft or its occupant(s).[8] Early fighting often only resulted in an opponent being forced to retreat or land ("driven down") within its own territory. Therefore, British practice awarded credit for combats endorsed as "decisive" by the commanding officer of his squadron; this could include German planes "driven down" or aircraft last seen "out of control" but not verified to have crashed.[9][10] Russian scores sometimes reflected defeats without destruction of the foe.[11] The term "ace" was never used officially by the British.[12]

While "ace" status was most often won by fighter pilots, bomber and reconnaissance crews, and observers in two-crew aircraft such as the Bristol F.2b (Bristol Fighter), also destroyed enemy aircraft. On both sides, if a two-crew aircraft destroyed an aircraft, both crew were credited with a victory. Because pilots usually teamed with differing observer/gunners in two-seater aircraft, an observer might be an ace when his pilot was not.[13]

List of aces by victory count:main

+20 • 15–19 • 11–14 • 10 • 9 • 8 • 7 • 6 • 5

Contents

Legend

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Abbreviations

      This along with †, indicates that the pilot was either killed in action (KIA), missing in action (MIA), died of wounds (DOW) or killed in a flying accident (KIFA) during World War I.

Awards

Award* indicates a bar is added to the ribbon for holders of the award who received a second award.
Award** and Award*** indicates a second or third bar is added to the ribbon for holders of the award and bar who received a third or fourth award.

Allies

Award Title Notes
AFC Air Force Cross Issued for acts of gallantry while flying on non-active operations to warrant officers and officers of the Royal Air Force[14]
CBE Order of the British Empire An order of chivalry established by George V of the United Kingdom
CdeG Croix de guerre A military decoration of France, also commonly bestowed to foreign military forces allied to France
BCdeG Croix de guerre A military decoration of Belgium, also commonly bestowed to foreign military forces allied to Belgium
CdeLd'H Croix de Légion d'honneur A decoration of France awarded for excellent civil or military conduct delivered, upon official investigation
CG Croce di Guerra A military decoration of Italy
DCM Distinguished Conduct Medal The second-level military decoration awarded other ranks of the British Army
DFC Distinguished Flying Cross Awarded to Royal Air Force commissioned officers and Warrant Officers "in recognition of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy in the air"[15]
DFC(US) Distinguished Flying Cross (United States) Awarded to any officer or enlisted member of the US armed forces who "distinguishes himself or herself by heroism or extraordinary achievement while participating in aerial flight"[16]
DFM Distinguished Flying Medal Awarded to military below commissioned rank, "in recognition of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy in the air"[15]
DSC Distinguished Service Cross Granted "in recognition of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy at sea."[17]
DSO Distinguished Service Order Awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat[18]
DSM Distinguished Service Medal Other Ranks equivalent to the Distinguished Service Cross[17]
DSM(US) Distinguished Service Medal (United States) Awarded for "exceptionally meritorious service to the government of the United States"[19]
MC Military Cross Awarded to "all ranks of the RN, RM, Army, and RAF in recognition of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy on land."[20]
MOH Medal of Honor The highest military decoration awarded by the United States government[21]
MiD Mentioned in Despatches Awarded for gallantry or otherwise commendable service
MM Military Medal Other Ranks equivalent to the Military Cross[20]
MM(Fr) Médaille militaire A decoration of the French Republic
MMV Medal of Military Valor Italian award
OB Order of the Bath The fourth-most senior of the British Orders of Chivalry
OC Order of the Crown (Belgium) A national decoration of Belgium
OLII Order of Leopold II Awarded for meritorious service to the Sovereign of Belgium
OR Order of the Redeemer Awarded to those who have defended the interests of Greece in time of war
OSA Order of St. Anna A Holstein and then Russian order of chivalry
OSG Order of St. George Awarded to military officers and generals only, for the display of highest valour and skills in the face of an exterior enemy
OSR Order of the Star of Romania Romania's highest civil order
OSS Order of Saint Stanislaus Russian Order for a distinguished career in civil or military service
OSV Order of St. Vladimir An Imperial Russian Order
OWE Order of the White Eagle Awarded in recognition of significant service, both military and civil, in the interests of Poland
Cr St Geo Cross of St. George Awarded to non-commissioned officers, soldiers and sailors for extreme bravery in face of the enemy
VC Victoria Cross Highest British military decoration, awarded for valour in the face of the enemy[22]

Central Powers

HOH House Order of Hohenzollern An order of chivalry of the House of Hohenzollern
IC Iron Cross A military decoration of the Kingdom of Prussia, later Germany
MMC(AH) Military Merit Cross (Austria–Hungary) A military decoration of the Empire of Austria-Hungary
MMC(P) Military Merit Cross (Prussia) The highest bravery award of the Kingdom of Prussia for non-commissioned officers and enlisted soldiers
MMM Military Merit Medal (Austria–Hungary) A military decoration of the Empire of Austria–Hungary
MFB Medal for Bravery An Austria–Hungary military decoration
MOMJ Military Order of Max Joseph The highest purely military order of the Kingdom of Bavaria
MOSH Military Order of St. Henry A military order of the Kingdom of Saxony
OIC Order of the Iron Crown An Imperial Austrian order
OL Order of Leopold An Austrian order instituted to reward bravery in the face of the enemy
PLM Pour le Mérite The Kingdom of Prussia's highest military order until the end of World War I[23]
WB Wound Badge Awarded for wounded or frost-bitten soldiers of the Imperial German Army

Composition of ace population

- [27]

References

  1. ^ Maksel, Rebecca (7 April 2008). "What does it take to become an "ace"?". Need to Know. Air & Space Magazine. http://www.airspacemag.com/need-to-know/Aces_High.html. Retrieved 20 October 2009. 
  2. ^ Shores, 2001. p. 6
  3. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 7
  4. ^ Kennett, 1999. p. 163
  5. ^ Franks, 2001. p. 7
  6. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 44
  7. ^ "World War I Aerial Victory Credits". Air Force Historical Reasearch Agency. http://www.afhra.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=11417. Retrieved 20 October 2009. 
  8. ^ Shores, 2001. p. 47
  9. ^ Shores, 2001. p. 48
  10. ^ Franks, 2000. pp. 7–8, 15–16
  11. ^ Franks, 2000. p. 83
  12. ^ Maksel, Rebecca (7 April 2008). "What does it take to become an "ace"?". Need to Know. Air & Space Magazine. http://www.airspacemag.com/need-to-know/Aces_High.html. Retrieved 07 November 2009. "Raymond Toliver and Trevor Constable's 1965 book, Fighter Aces, notes that although the British, like the Americans, never officially accepted the term [ace]..." 
  13. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 10
  14. ^ "Air Force Cross". UK Ministry of Defence. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceFor/Veterans/Medals/AirForceCross.htm. Retrieved 07 November 2009. 
  15. ^ a b "Distinguished Flying Cross". UK Ministry of Defence. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceFor/Veterans/Medals/DistinguishedFlyingCross.htm. Retrieved 07 November 2009. 
  16. ^ "Distinguished Flying Cross". www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil. http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Awards/DFC1.html. Retrieved 08 November 2009. 
  17. ^ a b "Distinguished Service Cross". UK Ministry of Defence. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceFor/Veterans/Medals/DistinguishedServiceCross.htm. Retrieved 07 November 2009. 
  18. ^ "Distinguished Service Order". UK Ministry of Defence. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceFor/Veterans/Medals/DistinguishedServiceOrder.htm. Retrieved 09 December 2009. 
  19. ^ "Distinguished Service Medal". www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil. http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Awards/DISTINGUISHED%20SERVICE%20MEDAL1.htm. Retrieved 08 December 2009. 
  20. ^ a b "Military Cross (MC)". UK Ministry of Defence. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceFor/Veterans/Medals/MilitaryCrossmc.htm. Retrieved 07 November 2009. 
  21. ^ "The Medal of Honor". Congressional Medal of Honor Society. http://www.cmohs.org/. Retrieved 08 December 2009. 
  22. ^ "Victoria Cross". UK Ministry of Defence. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceFor/Veterans/Medals/VictoriaCross.htm. Retrieved 09 December 2009. 
  23. ^ "pourlemerite.org". pourlemerite.org. http://www.pourlemerite.org/. Retrieved 20 October 2009. 
  24. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 62
  25. ^ Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. p. 63
  26. ^ Note: May be as high as 19. Franks, Bailey, Guest, 1993. pp. 64–65
  27. ^ http://www.theaerodrome.com/aces/by_score.php?q=10&Submit=Search

Bibliography

  • Chant, Christopher (2002). Austro-Hungarian Aces of World War I. Osprey Aircraft of the Aces. 46. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1 84176 376 4. 
  • Franks, Norman; Bailey, Frank; Guest, Russell (1993). Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps 1914-1918. London: Grub Street. ISBN 0 948817 73 9. 
  • Franks, Norman (2000). Tony Holmes. ed. Nieuport Aces of World War I. Osprey Aircraft of the Aces. 33. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1 85532 961 1. 
  • Franks, Norman (2001). American Aces of World War I. Osprey Aircraft of the Aces. 42. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1 84176 375 6. 
  • Franks, Norman; VanWyngarden, Greg (2001b). Fokker Dr I Aces of World War I. Osprey Aircraft of the Aces. 40. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1 84176 223 7. 
  • Franks, Norman (2002). Tony Holmes. ed. Dolphin and Snipe Aces of World War I. Osprey Aircraft of the Aces. 48. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1 84176 317 9. 
  • Franks, Norman (2003). Sopwith Camel Aces of World War I. Osprey Aircraft of the Aces. 52. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1 84176 534 1. 
  • Franks, Norman (2004). Sopwith Triplane Aces of World War I. Osprey Aircraft of the Aces. 62. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1 84176 728 X. 
  • Franks, Norman (2007). SE5/5a Aces of World War I. Osprey Aircraft of the Aces. 78. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1 84603 180 X. 
  • Guttman, Jon (2002). Tony Holmes. ed. SPAD XII/XIII Aces of World War I. Osprey Aircraft of the Aces. 47. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1 84176 316 0. 
  • Guttman, Jon (2007). Bristol F2 Fighter Aces of World War I. Osprey Aircraft of the Aces. 79. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978 1 84603 201 1. 
  • Kennett, Lee B. (1999). The First Air War, 1914-1918. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0684871203. 
  • Newton, Dennis (1996). Australian Air Aces. Fyshwyck, ACT: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 1875671250. 
  • Shores, Christopher (2001). Mary Orr. ed. British and Empire Aces of World War I. Osprey Aircraft of the Aces. 45. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1 84176 377 2. 
  • Shores, Christopher; Franks, Norman; Guest, Russell (1990). Above the Trenches Supplement: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces, 1915-1920. London: Grub Street. ISBN 0948817194. 
  • Shores, Christopher; Franks, Norman; Guest, Russell (1996). Above the Trenches: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces, 1915-1920. London: Grub Street. ISBN 1898697396. 

Further reading

  • Toliver, Raymond F.; Constable, Trevor J. (1965). Fighter Aces. Macmillan. 

External links

Name Country Air service(s) Victories Notes
Laurence W. Allen  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Cross
Edgar O. Amm  South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Flying Cross with Bar, French Croix de Guerre, Belgian Croix de Guerre
Leopold Anslinger  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10[24] Iron Cross, Austro-Hungarian Military Merit Cross
Gordon Apps  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Flying Cross
Edward Dawson Atkinson  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Force Cross
Paul Aue  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10[25]
Dietrich Averes  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10[26]
Herbert H. Beddow  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10
Hilliard Brooke Bell  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Cross, Italian Medal for Military Valor
Hans Berr  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10 Pour le Mérite, Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Robert A. Birkbeck  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Flying Cross
Maurice Bizot  France Aéronautique Militaire 10 Legion d'Honneur, Médaille militaire, Croix de Guerre
Franz Brandt  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10 Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Otto Brauneck  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10 Iron Cross
Lloyd S. Breadner  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force 10 Distinguished Service Cross. Retired as Canada's Air Chief Marshal in 1945.
Arthur Roy Brown  Canada Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Service Cross with Bar. Involved in Manfred von Richthofen's last fight.
Frederick E. Brown  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Cross with Bar, French Croix de Guerre
Sydney Carlin  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Cross, Distinguished Flying Cross, Distinguished Conduct Medal
Robert L. Chidlaw-Roberts  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 10 Military Cross, Royal Air Force
Cecil Clark  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10
Adrian Cole  Australia Australian Flying Corps, Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, Royal Australian Air Force 10 Distinguished Service Order, Military Cross, Distinguished Flying Cross. Rose to Air Vice-Marshal.
Valentine Collins  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10
Jack A. Cunningham  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Service Order, Distinguished Flying Cross, Belgian Order of Leopold, French Legion d'Honneur, Belgian Croix de Guerre, French Croix de Guerre
Douglas A. Davies  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Flying Cross, French Croix de Guerre
Edgar G. Davies  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Flying Cross with Bar, Belgian Croix de Guerre
Martin Dehmisch  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10
Pruett M. Dennett  United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 10
Robert Dodds  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Cross. Helped found forerunner to Air Canada.
Aubrey Ellwood  United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 10 Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, Distinguished Service Cross. Rose to Air Marshal.
William H. Farrow  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Flying Cross
Karl Gallwitz  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10 Iron Cross
Cecil Gardner  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Flying Cross
Lucien Gasser  France Aéronautique Militaire 10 Legion d'Honneur, Médaille militaire, Croix de Guerre
Thomas Gerrard  United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Service Cross, French Croix de Guerre
Gerald Gibbs  Australia Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Cross with two Bars, French Legion d'Honneur, French Croix de Guerre. Later British delegate to UN.
Stanley Goble  Australia Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 10 Order of the British Empire, Order of the Indian Empire, Distinguished Service Order, Distinguished Service Cross, French Croix de Guerre. Rose to Air Vice Marshal.
Justus Grassmann  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10 Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, Iron Cross
Lloyd Hamilton  United States Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, US Army Air Service 10 Distinguished Service Cross, British Distinguished Flying Cross
George Stacey Hodson  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Air Force Cross, Belgian Croix de Guerre
Will Hubbard  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, Royal Australian Air Force 10 Distinguished Flying Cross
William Edward Jenkins  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 10
Duerson Knight  United States Royal Air Force, US Army Air Service 10 Scored his victories while assigned to RAF.
Alfred Michael Koch  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Cross
Auguste Lahoulle  France Aéronautique Militaire 10 Legion d'Honneur, Croix de Guerre. Rose to General during World War II.
Patrick Anthony Langan-Byrne  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 10 Distinguished Service Order
Oliver C. LeBoutillier  United States Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 10 Became Hollywood stunt pilot postwar.
Paul Lotz  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10
John Joseph Malone  Canada Royal Naval Air Service 10 Distinguished Service Order
Rudolf Matthael  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10 Iron Cross
Alfred E. McKay  Canada Royal Flying Corps 10 Military Cross
Guy Borthwick Moore  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Cross
Max Ritter von Mulzer  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10 Pour le Mérite, Military Order of Max Joseph, Iron Cross
Alfons Nagler  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10 Iron Cross
Friedrich Navratil  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 10 Later rose to general.
Gordon Olley  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Medal
John Paynter  United Kingdom Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Service Cross
Jean Andre Pezon  France Aéronautique Militaire 10 Legion d'Honneur, Médaille militaire, Croix de Guerre
Croye Pithey  South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Flying Cross with Bar.
Charles Quette  France Aéronautique Militaire 10 Médaille militaire, Croix de Guerre
Arthur Randall  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Flying Cross
Harold Redler  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Cross
Harry Robinson  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Cross, French Croix de Guerre
Indra Lal Roy  India Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Flying Cross. India's only ace ever.
Laurent B. Ruamps  France Aéronautique Militaire 10 Legion d'Honneur, Medaille Militaire, Croix de Guerre
John Rudkin  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10
Reginald H. Rusby  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Distinguished Flying Cross
Hans Schuez  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10
Alfred Shepherd  Australia Royal Flying Corps 10 Distinguished Service Order, Military Cross
Werner Steinhäuser  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10
Raoul Stojsavljevic  Austria-Hungary Luftfahrtruppen 10 Order of Leopold, Order of the Iron Crown, Military Merit Cross, Medal for Bravery, German Iron Cross
Jacques Swaab  United States US Army Air Service 10 Distinguished Service Cross
Frank H. Taylor  Canada Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Cross
Edmond Thieffry  Belgium Belgian Military Aviation 10 Order of Leopold II, Croix de Guerre
Erik Thomas  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10 Iron Cross
John Henry Tudhope  South Africa Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force 10 Military Cross with Bar.
Paul Turck  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10
Stanley Wallage  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Cross
William Lewis Wells  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps, Royal Air Force 10 Military Cross with Bar.
Paul Wenzel  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10
Russell Winnicott  United Kingdom Royal Flying Corps 10 Military Cross
Hans Wolff  Germany Luftstreitkräfte 10 Iron Cross

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