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List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names: Wikis


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The following is a partial list of adjectival forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these places.

Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises / aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the "-o" and adding "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as" respectively.

Adjectives ending -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g., the adjective Czech does not qualify).

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name. (Reference: Ethnologue, Languages of the World)

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)



Entries in italics are continental regions.

Edit this table
Name Adjective Demonym
Africa African Africans
Antarctica Antarctic Antarctican
America Americana Americansa
Asia Asian Asians
Middle East Middle Eastern Middle Easterners
Australasia Australasian Australasians
Australia Australian Australians
Eurasia Eurasian Eurasians
Europe European Europeans
North America North American North Americans
Oceania Oceanian Oceanians
South America South American South Americans

aUsually used to identify specifically the United States of America or its people.

Countries and nations

Country name Adjectivals Demonyms
colloquial term(s)
Abkhazia Abkhazian, Abkhaz Abkhazians
Afghanistan Afghan Afghans
Albania Albanian Albanians
Algeria Algerian Algerians
American Samoa American Samoan American Samoans
Andorra Andorran Andorrans
Angola Angolan Angolans
Anguilla Anguillan Anguillans
Antigua and Barbuda Antiguan, Barbudan Antiguans, Barbudans
Argentina Argentine, Argentinean, Argentinian Argentines, Argentineans, Argentinians
Armenia Armenian Armenians
Aruba Aruban Arubans
Australia Australian Australians "Aussies"
Austria Austrian Austrians
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani, Azeri Azerbaijanis, Azeris
Bahamas Bahamian Bahamians
Bahrain Bahraini Bahrainis
Bangladesh Bangladeshi Bangladeshis
Barbados Barbadian  ("Bajan") Barbadians "Bajans"
Belarus Belarusian Belarusians
Belgium Belgian Belgians
Belize Belizean Belizeans
Benin Beninese, Beninois Beninese, Beninois
Bermuda Bermudian, Bermudan Bermudians, Bermudans
Bhutan Bhutanese Bhutanese
Bolivia Bolivian Bolivians
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Bosniak, Herzegovinian Bosnians, Bosniaks, Herzegovinians
Botswana Motswana (pl. Batswana), Botswanan Batswana, Botswanans
Brazil Brazilian Brazilians
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Island British Virgin Islanders
Brunei Bruneian Bruneians
Bulgaria Bulgarian Bulgarians
Burkina Fasoa Burkinabe Burkinabe
Burmab Burmese Bamar, Burmese
Burundi Burundian Burundians
Cambodia Cambodian Cambodians
Cameroon Cameroonian Cameroonians
Canada Canadian Canadians "Canucks"c
Cape Verde Cape Verdean Cape Verdeans
Cayman Islands Caymanian Caymanians
Central African Republic Central African Central Africans
Chad Chadian Chadians
Chile Chilean Chileans
People's Republic of China Chinese Chinese
Republic of China See Taiwan, below See Taiwan, below
Christmas Island Christmas Island Christmas Islanders
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos Island Cocos Islanders
Colombia Colombian Colombians
Comoros Comorian Comorians
Dem. Republic of the Congo Congolese, Congo Congolese
Republic of the Congo
Cook Islands Cook Island Cook Islanders
Costa Rica Costa Rican Costa Ricans "Ticos"
Côte d'Ivoire Ivorian Ivorians
Croatia Croatian Croatians, Croats
Cuba Cuban Cubans
Cyprus Cypriot Cypriots
Czech Republic Czech Czechs
Denmark Danish Danes
Djibouti Djiboutian Djiboutians
Dominica Dominicand Dominicansd
Dominican Republic Dominicane Dominicanse "Quisqueyanos"
East Timor Timorese Timorese "Maubere"
Ecuador Ecuadorian Ecuadorians
Egypt Egyptian Egyptians
El Salvador Salvadoran Salvadorans
England English English
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinean, Equatoguinean Equatorial Guineans, Equatoguineans
Eritrea Eritrean Eritreans
Estonia Estonian Estonians
Ethiopia Ethiopian Ethiopians
Falkland Islands Falkland Island Falkland Islanders "Belongers"
Faroe Islands Faroese Faroese
Fiji Fijian Fijians
Finland Finnish Finns
France French French (or Frenchman/Frenchwoman)
French Guiana French Guianese French Guianese
French Polynesia French Polynesian French Polynesians, Tahitians[1]
Gabon Gabonese Gabonese
Gambia Gambian Gambians
Georgia Georgian Georgians
Germany German Germans
Ghana Ghanaian Ghanaians
Gibraltar Gibraltar Gibraltarians Llanitos
Great Britain British Britons see Other words for "British"
Greece Greek, Grecianf, Hellenic Greeks, Greciansf, Hellenes
Greenland Greenlandic Greenlanders
Grenada Grenadian Grenadians
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Guadeloupians
Guam Guamanian Guamanians
Guatemala Guatemalan Guatemalans
Guinea Guinean Guineans
Guyana Guyanese Guyanese
Haiti Haitian Haitians Ayisyen
Honduras Honduran Hondurans "Catrachos"
Hong Kong Hong Kong, Hongkongese Hongkongers, Hongkongese "Hongers"
Hungary Hungarian, Magyar Hungarians, Magyars
Iceland Icelandic Icelanders
India Indian Indians
Indonesia Indonesian Indonesians
Iran Iranian Iranians
Iraq Iraqi Iraqis
Ireland Irish Irish
Isle of Man Manx Manx
Israel Israeli Israelis
Italy Italian, Italicf Italians, Italicsf
Jamaica Jamaican Jamaicans
Japan Japanese Japanese
Jordan Jordanian Jordanians
Kazakhstan Kazakh, Kazakhstani Kazakhstanis, Kazakhs
Kenya Kenyan Kenyans
Kiribati Kiribati I-Kiribati
North Korea North Korean Koreans
South Korea South Korean
Kosovo Kosovar Kosovars
Kuwait Kuwaiti Kuwaitis
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstani, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz Kyrgyzstanis, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz
Laos Laotian, Lao Laotians, Laos
Latvia Latvian Latvians, Letts
Lebanon Lebanese Lebanese
Lesotho Basotho Basotho
Liberia Liberian Liberians
Libya Libyan Libyans
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Liechtensteiners
Lithuania Lithuanian Lithuanians
Luxembourg Luxembourg Luxembourgers
Macau Macanese, Chinese Macanese, Chinese
Republic of Macedonia Macedonian Macedonians
Madagascar Malagasy Malagasy
Malawi Malawian Malawians
Malaysia Malaysian Malaysians
Maldives Maldivian Maldivians
Mali Malian Malians
Malta Maltese Maltese
Marshall Islands Marshallese Marshallese
Martinique Martiniquais, Martinican Martiniquais
Mauritania Mauritanian Mauritanians
Mauritius Mauritian Mauritians
Mayotte Mahoran Mahorais
Mexico Mexican Mexicans
Micronesia Micronesian Micronesians
Moldova Moldovan Moldovans
Monaco Monégasque, Monacan Monégasques, Monacans
Mongolia Mongolian Mongolians, Mongols
Montenegro Montenegrin Montenegrins
Montserrat Montserratian Montserratians
Morocco Moroccan Moroccans
Mozambique Mozambican Mozambicans
Namibia Namibian Namibians
Nauru Nauruan Nauruans
Nepal Nepali Nepalese
Netherlands Dutch Dutch
Netherlands Antilles Dutch Antillean Dutch Antilleans
New Caledonia New Caledonian New Caledonians
New Zealand New Zealand New Zealanders "Kiwis"
Nicaragua Nicaraguan Nicaraguans
Niue Niuean Niueans
Niger Nigerien Nigeriens
Nigeria Nigerian Nigerians
Norway Norwegian Norwegians
Northern Ireland Northern Irish / Irish Irish / Northern Irish
Northern Marianas Northern Marianan Northern Marianans
Oman Omani Omanis
Pakistan Pakistani Pakistanis
Palestinian territories Palestinian Palestinians
Palau Palauan Palauans
Panama Panamanian Panamanians
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinean, Papuan Papua New Guineans, Papuans
Paraguay Paraguayan Paraguayans
Peru Peruvian Peruvians
Philippines Philippine, Filipino Filipinos (sing. Filipino/Filipina (man/woman) "Pinoys"
Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Islanders
Poland Polish Poles
Portugal Portuguese Portuguese
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Puerto Ricans, Boricuas
Qatar Qatari Qataris
Republic of Ireland Irish / Southern Irish g Irish / Southern Irish g
Réunion Réunionese, Réunionnais Réunionese, Réunionnais
Romania Romanian Romanians
Russia Russian Russians
Rwanda Rwandan Rwandans
St. Helena St. Helenian St. Helenians
St. Kitts and Nevis Kittitian, Nevisian Kittitians, Nevisians
St. Lucia St. Lucian St. Lucians
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierrais, Miquelonnais Saint-Pierrais, Miquelonnais
St. Vincent and the Grenadines St. Vincentian, Vincentian St. Vincentians, Vincentians
Samoa Samoan Samoans
San Marino Sammarinese Sammarinese
São Tomé and Príncipe São Toméan São Toméans
Saudi Arabia Saudi, Saudi Arabian Saudis, Saudi Arabians
Scotland Scots, Scottish, Scotchh Scots
Senegal Senegalese Senegalese
Serbia Serbian Serbians, Serbs
Seychelles Seychellois Seychellois
Sierra Leone Sierra Leonean Sierra Leoneans
Singapore Singapore[2] Singaporeans
Slovakia Slovak Slovaks
Slovenia Slovene, Slovenian Slovenians, Slovenes
Solomon Islands Solomon Island Solomon Islanders
Somalia Somali Somalis
South Africa South African South Africans
South Ossetian South Ossetian South Ossetians
Spain Spanish Spaniards
Sri Lanka Sri Lankan Sri Lankans
Sudan Sudanese Sudanese
Surinam Surinamese Surinamers
Swaziland Swazi Swazis
Sweden Swedish Swedes
Switzerland Swiss Swiss
Syria Syrian Syrians
Taiwan Taiwanese Taiwanese
Tajikistan Tajikistani Tajikistanis, Tajiks
Tanzania Tanzanian Tanzanians
Thailand Thai Thai
Togo Togolese Togolese
Tonga Tongan Tongans
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidadian, Tobagonian Trinidadians, Tobagonians "Trinis", "Trinibagonians"
Tunisia Tunisian Tunisians
Turkey Turkish Turks
Turkmenistan Turkmen Turkmens
Turks and Caicos Islands none Turks and Caicos Islanders
Tuvalu Tuvaluan Tuvaluans
Uganda Ugandan Ugandans
Ukraine Ukrainian Ukrainians
United Arab Emirates Emirati, Emirian Emiratis, Emirians
United Kingdom British Britons see Other words for "British"
United States Americani, U.S. Americansj "Yankees"c, "Yanks"c, "Gringos"c
Uruguay Uruguayan Uruguayans
Uzbekistan Uzbekistani, Uzbek Uzbekistanis, Uzbeks
Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu, Vanuatuan Ni-Vanuatu
Venezuela Venezuelan Venezuelans
Vietnam Vietnamese Vietnamese
Virgin Islands Virgin Island Virgin Islanders
Wales Welsh Welsh
Wallis and Futuna Wallisian, Futunan Wallisians, Futunans
Western Sahara Sahraw, Sahrawian, Sahraouian Sahrawis, Sahraouis
Yemen Yemeni Yemenis
Zambia Zambian Zambians
Zimbabwe Zimbabwean Zimbabweans

a  Formerly known as Upper Volta.
b  Also known as Myanmar.
c  Sometimes considered offensive.
d  The penultimate syllable is stressed.
e  The second syllable is stressed.
f  Rare and/or archaic.
g  There is no adjective or demonym that distinguishes the Republic of Ireland from the entire island of Ireland. When distinction from Northern Ireland is necessary, the colloquial Southern Irish or Southerner is sometimes used; this is not advised, however, as people in the Republic of Ireland may find this offensive. As an alternative, an adjectival phrase may be used – for instance, "a law of the Republic of Ireland" – or, as a last resort, the name "Republic of Ireland" may be used as if it were an adjective (as in "a Republic of Ireland law").
h  Scotch is only normally used for manufactured products of Scotland, most commonly food and drink - in most other contexts it is archaic and often considered mildly derogatory. Scottish is used for everything else.
i  In near-universal use, though many adjectives for U.S. citizens have been proposed.
j  In near-universal use, though many alternative words for American have been proposed.


Note: Many of these adjectivals and demonyms are not used in English as frequently as their counterparts in other languages. A common practice is to use a city's name as if it were an adjective, as in "Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra", "Melbourne suburbs", etc.

Edit this table
City Country or state/province Adjective Demonym (colloquial)
Aberdeen Scotland Aberdonian Aberdonians
Adelaide South Australia Adelaidian Adelaidians
Albany New York Albanian Albanians
Amalfi Italy Amalfitan Amalfitans
Aosta Italy Aostan, Aostain Aostans, Aostains
Armagh Northern Ireland Armachian Armachians
Auckland New Zealand Auckland Aucklanders
Athens Greece Athenian Athenians
Atlanta Georgia Atlantan Atlantans
Austin Texas Austonian Austinite
Baltimore Maryland Baltimorean Baltimoreans
Bangkok Thailand Bangkokian Bangkokians
Baton Rouge Louisiana Baton Rougean Baton Rougeans
Bedford England Bedfordian (not Bedfordite) Bedfordians
Belfast Northern Ireland Belfastian Belfastians
Belo Horizonte Brazil Belo-Horizontino Belo-Horizontinos
Belgrade Serbia Belgradian Belgraders
Benevento Italy Beneventan Beneventans
Bergamo Italy Bergamasque Bergamasques
Berlin Germany Berliner Berliners
Berne Switzerland Bernese Bernese
Birmingham England Birminghamian ("Brummie") Birminghamians ("Brummies")
Birmingham Alabama Birminghamian Birminghamians ("Birminghamsters")
Bologna Italy Bolognese Bolognese
Bogota Colombia Bogota Bogotanos, (Cachacos)
Boston Massachusetts Bostonian Bostonians
Brasilia Brazil Brasiliense Brasilienses
Bratislava Slovakia Bratislavan Bratislavan
Brescia Italy Brescian Brescians
Brighton Wisconsin Brightonian Brightonians
Brisbane Queensland Brisbane Brisbanites, Brisbanians
Bristol England Bristolian Bristolians
Budapest Hungary Budapesti Budapesters
Buenos Aires Argentina Porteño Porteños
Buffalo New York Buffalonian Buffalonians
Cairo Egypt (Cairene) Cairenes
Calgary Alberta Calgarian Calgarians
Cambridge England Cantabrigian Cantabrigians1
Cambridge Massachusetts
Campinas Brazil Campineiro Campineiros
Canberra Australia Canberran Canberrans
Cape Town South Africa (Capetonian) Capetonians
Caracas Venezuela Caraquenian Caraquenians
Carystus Greece Carystian Carystians
Charlotte North Carolina Charlottean Charlotteans
Chicago Illinois Chicagoan Chicagoans
Cincinnati Ohio Cincinnatian Cincinnatian
Copenhagen Denmark Copenhagener Copenhageners
Corinth Greece Corinthian Corinthians
Cork Republic of Ireland Cork Corkonians ("Leesiders")
Cracow (Kraków) Poland Cracovian (Krakovian) Cracovians (Krakovians)
Curitiba Brazil Curitibano Curitibanos
Dallas Texas Dallasites
Davao Philippines Dabawenio
Denver Colorado Denverite Denverites
Detroit Michigan Detroiters
Dublin Ireland Dublin Dubliners ("Dubs")
Dundee Scotland Dundonian Dundonians
Dunedin New Zealand Dunedin Dunedinites
East Troy Wisconsin East Trojan East Trojans
Edmonton Alberta Edmontonian Edmontonians
Epidaurus Greece Epidaurian Epidaurians
Florence Italy Florentine Florentines
Fort Lauderdale Florida Fort Lauderdalers, Fort Lauderdalians
Foz do Iguaçu Brazil Iguaçuense Iguaçuenses
Fresno California Fresnans, Fresnoans
Galway Republic of Ireland Galway Galwegians
Geneva Switzerland Genevan, Genevese Genevans, Genevese
Genoa Italy Genoese Genoese
Glasgow Scotland Glaswegian Glaswegians
Grand Rapids Michigan Grand Rapidian Grand Rapidians
Guadalajara México Tapatío Tapatíos
Halifax Nova Scotia Haligonian Haligonians
Hamilton Ontario Hamiltonian Hamiltonians
Hamilton New Zealand
Hanoi Vietnam Hanoian Hanoians
Hanover Germany Hanoverian Hanoverians
Hartlepool England Hartlepudlian Hartlepudlian ("Monkey hanger")
Helsinki Finland Helsinkian Helsinkians
Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam Saigonese Saigonese
Hong Kong China Hong Kong, Hongkongese Hongkongers, Hongkongese
Honolulu Hawaii Honolulan Honolulans
Houston Texas Houstonian Houstonians
Invercargill New Zealand Invercargill Invercargillites, Invercargillonians
Inverness Scotland Invernessian Invernessians
Iqaluit Nunavut Iqalummiut (sing. Iqalummiuq)
Itabira Brazil Itabirano Itabiranos
Istanbul Turkey Istanbulite Istanbulites
Jerusalem Israel Jerusalemite, Yerushalmi
ירושלמי (Hebrew)
Jerusalemites, Yerushalmim
Juiz de Fora Brazil Juiz-forano Juiz-foranos
Juneau City/Borough Alaska Juneauites
Kastoria Greece Kastorian Kastorians
Kenosha Wisconsin Kenoshan Kenoshans
Kingston New Jersey Kingstonian Kingstonians
Kuala Lumpur Malaysia ("KL-ites"2)
Las Vegas Nevada Las Vegan Vegan
Leeds England Leodensian Leodensians
Leghorn Italy Leghornese, Livornese Leghornese, Livornese
León Spain Leonese Leoneses
Lima Peru Limeño Limeños
Liverpool England Liverpudlian Liverpudlians ("Scousers")
London England Londoner Londoners
Londrina Brazil Londrinense Londrinenses
Los Angeles California Angeleno Angelenos
Lucca Italy Lucchese Lucchesi
Lyon (Lyons) France Lyonese Lyonese
Macau China Macanese Macanese
Madrid Spain Madrilenian; Madrileño (Spanish) Madrilenians; Madrileños (Spanish)
Málaga Spain Malagan Malagans
Manchester England Mancunian Mancunians ("Mancs")
Manila Philippines Manileño Manileños
Mantua Italy Mantuan Mantuans
Marathon Greece Marathonian Marathonians
Marseille France Marseillais Marseillais
Megara Greece Megarian Megarians
Melbourne Victoria Melburnian Melburnians
Memphis Tennessee Memphian Memphians
Messina Italy Messinese Messinese
Mexico City Mexico Capitalino Capitalinos ("Chilangos"/"Defeños")
Milan Italy Milanese Milanese
Milan New York Milanites, Milaners
Milwaukee Wisconsin Milwaukeean Milwaukeeans
Modena Italy Modenese Modenese
Montreal Quebec Montreal Montrealers
Moscow Russia Muscovite Muscovites
Mumbai India Mumbaikar Mumbaikars
Munich Germany Münchner Münchner
Naples Italy Neapolitan Neapolitans
Nashville Tennessee Nashvillian Nashvillians
Nassau The Bahamas Nassuvian Nassuvians
Nelson New Zealand Nelson Nelsonians
New Orleans Louisiana New Orleanian New Orleanians, New Orleaners ("Yats")
New York City New York New Yorker New Yorkers ("Gothamites"/"Knickerbockers")
The Bronx (Bronxite) Bronxites, Bronxers
Brooklyn (Brooklynite) Brooklynites, Brooklyners
Manhattan Manhattanite Manhattanites
Queens Queensites
Staten Island3 Staten Islanders
Newcastle New South Wales Novocastrian Novocastrians
Newcastle England Novocastrian ("Geordie") Novocastrians ("Geordies")
Nice France Niçois Niçois
Nicosia Cyprus Nicosian Nicosians
Northampton England Northamptonian Northamptonians
Oakland California Oaklander Oaklanders
Oamaru New Zealand Oamaru, Oamaruvian Oamaruvians
Odessa Ukraine Odessit(e) Odessites
Oslo Norway Oslovian Oslovians
Osaka Japan Osakan Naniwakko (難波っ子/浪速っ子; Japanese), Osakans (English)
Ottawa Ontario Ottawan Ottawans
Oxford England Oxonian Oxonians4
Paddock Lake Wisconsin Paddock Laker Paddock Lakers
Padua Italy Paduan Paduans
Palermo Italy Palermitan Palermitans
Palmerston North New Zealand Palmerstonian Palmerstonians
Paris France Parisian Parisians
Parma Italy Parmesan Parmesans
Perth Western Australia Perth Perthites
Perugia Italy Perugian Perugians
Peterborough United Kingdom Peterbourian Peterbourians
Philadelphia Pennsylvania (Philadelphian) Philadelphians
Phoenix Arizona Phoenician, Phoenixer Phoenicians, Phoenixers
Pisa Italy Pisan Pisans
Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Pittsburgher Pittsburghers
Pompeii Italy Pompei(i)an Pompei(i)ans
Ponferrada Spain Ponferradian Ponferradians
Porto Alegre Brazil Porto-Alegrense Porto-Alegrenses
Portland Oregon Portlander Portlanders
Prague Czech Republic Praguer Praguers
Pristina Kosovo Prishtinali, Prishtinas (Albanian)
Prištinci, Prištevci (Serbian)
Providence Rhode Island Providentian Providentians
Pylos Greece Pylian Pylians
Quebec City Quebec Quebec (City) (English); québécois (French) Quebeckers, Quebecers (English); Québécois5 (French)
Randall Wisconsin Randallite Randallites
Regina Saskatchewan Regina (modifier), Reginan Reginans
Rethymno Greece Rethymnian Rethymnians
Riga Latvia Rigan Rigans
Rio de Janeiro Brazil Carioca Cariocas
Rhodes Greece Rhodian Rhodians
Rochester New York (Rochesterian) Rochesterians
Rome Italy Roman Romans
St. Louis Missouri St. Louisan St. Louisans
Salerno Italy Salernitan Salernitans
Salt Lake City Utah Salt Lakers
San Antonio Texas San Antonian San Antonians
San Diego California San Diegan San Diegans
San Francisco California San Franciscan San Franciscans
São Carlos Brazil Sãocarlense and Carlopolitano Sãocarlenses and Carlopolitanos
São Paulo Brazil Paulistano Paulistanos
Saskatoon Saskatchewan Saskatoon (modifier), Saskatonian Saskatonians ("Saskabushers")
Savannah Georgia Savannaian Savannians
Seattle Washington Seattleite Seattleites
Seoul South Korea Seoulite Seoulites
Serres Greece Serrean Serreans
Siena Italy Sien(n)ese Sien(n)ese
Silver Lake Wisconsin Silver Laker Silver Laker
Sheffield England Sheffielders
Slough England Sluff Sluffs
Somers Wisconsin Somersite Somersites
Sorrento Italy Sorrentine Sorrentines
Sparta Greece Spartan Spartans
Spoleto Italy Spoletian Spoletians
Stockholm Sweden Stockholmer Stockholmers
Sunderland England "Mackems"
Sydney New South Wales Sydney Sydneysiders
Syracuse Italy Syracusan Syracusans
Tallinn Estonia Tallinner Tallinners
Taranto Italy Tarantine, Tarentine Tarantines, Tarentines
Thebes Greece Theban Thebans
Thessaloniki Greece Thessalonian Thessalonians
Tokyo Japan Edokko (江戸っ子; Japanese), Tokyoites (English)
Toronto Ontario Toronto, Torontonian Torontonians[3]
Tournai Belgium Tournaisian Tournaisian
Trevor Wisconsin Trevorite Trevorites
Trent Italy Tridentine Tridentines
Trieste Italy Triestine Triestines
Tripoli Greece / Libya Tripolitan Tripolitans
Trois-Rivières Quebec Trifluvien, Trifluvienne (French); Trifluvian (English) Trifluviens/Trifluviennes (French); Trifluvians (English)
Tucson Arizona Tucsonan Tucsonans
Tulsa Oklahoma Tulsan Tulsans
Turin Italy Turinese Turinese
Twin Lakes Wisconsin Twin Laker Twin Lakers
Uberlândia Brazil Uberlandense Uberlandenses
Valencia Spain Valencian Valencians
Vancouver British Columbia Vancouverite Vancouverites
Venice Italy Venetian Venetians
Veracruz Mexico Veracruzano Veracruzano (Jarocho)
Verona Italy Veronese Veronese
Vicenza Italy Vicentine Vicentines
Vichy France Vichyssois Vichyssois
Vienna Austria Viennese Viennese
Warsaw Poland Varsovian Varsovians
Washington, D.C. United States Washingtonian Washingtonians
Wellington New Zealand Wellington Wellingtonians
Wheatland Wisconsin Wheatlander Wheatlanders
Wichita Kansas Wichitan Wichitans
Wilmot Wisconsin Wilmotter Wilmotters
Winnipeg Manitoba Winnipeggers, Winnipegers
Wolverhampton England Wulfrunians
Xalapa Mexico Xalapeño Xalapeños
Xanthi Greece Xanthian Xanthians
  1. Also used to identify graduates of the University of Cambridge.
  2. Pronounced "KAY-el-ites".
  3. Formerly Richmond.
  4. Also used to identify graduates of the University of Oxford.
  5. Often confused with residents of the Province of Québec. If it is necessary to distinguish between residents of the city and the province, French-speakers will use québécois/e de Québec for the city and québécois/e du Québec for the province.

Australian states and territories

Edit this table
State/territory Adjective Demonym
Australian Capital Territory Canberran Canberrans
New South Wales New South Welsh New South Welsh "Ma Stater",
Northern Territory Northern Territory Territorians "Top Ender"
Queensland Queensland Queenslanders "Banana Benders",
"Cane Toads"1
South Australia South Australian South Australians "Crow Eaters"
Tasmania Tasmanian Tasmanians, Taswegians "Apple Eaters","Tazzies"
Victoria Victorian Victorians "Gum Suckers",
Western Australia Western Australian Western Australians "Sandgropers","Westralians"
  1. Considered derogatory.

Canadian provinces and territories

Edit this table
Province Adjective Demonym
Alberta Alberta Albertans
British Columbia British Columbian  ("B.C.") British Columbians "B.C.ers"
Manitoba Manitoba Manitobans
New Brunswick New Brunswick New Brunswickers
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundlanders, Labradorians "Newfies"
Northwest Territories Northwest Territorian   ("N.W.T.") Northwest Territorians "N.W.T.ers"
Nunavut Nunavut Nunavummiut (sing. Nunavummiuq)
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Nova Scotians "Bluenosers"
Ontario Ontario Ontarians
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island, P.E.I., Island Islanders
Quebec Quebec
French: Québécois (masc.), Québécoise (fem.)
French: Québécois
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Saskatchewanians
Yukon Yukon Yukoners "Sourdoughs"

Mexican states

Federal entity Adjective Demonym
Aguascalientes Hidrocalido/-a
Baja California Lower Californian Bajacaliforniano/-a
Baja California Sur South Lower Californian Sudcaliforniano/-a
Campeche Campechano/-a
Chiapas Chiapaneco/-a
Chihuahua Chihuahuense
Colima Colimense
Coahuila Coahulense
Distrito Federal Defeño/-a "Chilango"
Durango Duranguense
Guerrero Guerrerense
Guanajuato Guanajuatense
Hidalgo Hidalguense
Jalisco Jalisciense
Michoacán Michoacano/-a
Morelos Morelense
Mexico Mexiquense
Nayarit Nayarita
Nuevo León Neoleones
Oaxaca Oaxaqueño/-a
Puebla Poblano/-a
Quintana Roo Quintanarroense
Querétaro Queretano/-a
Sinaloa Sinaloense
San Luis Potosí Potosino/-a
Sonora Sonorense
Tabasco Tabasqueño/-a
Tlaxcala Tlaxcalteca
Tamaulipas Tamaulipeco/-a
Veracruz Veracruzano/-a
Yucatán Yucateco/-a
Zacatecas Zcatecano/-a
  1. Capitalino is often used to be refered to the people the Mexico City, however, capitalino can be used to refer any people of each state capital. "Defeño" and "Chilango" are descripted in the Royal Spanish Academy

New Zealand regions

Edit this table
State/territory Adjective Demonym
Auckland Region Auckland Aucklanders "Jafas"
Bay of Plenty Region Bay of Plenty
Canterbury Region Canterbury Cantabrians
Gisborne Region East Coast, Gisborne East Coasters, Gisbornians
Hawke's Bay Region Hawke's Bay Baysiders
Manawatu-Wanganui Region Wanganui, Manawatu
Marlborough Region Marlborough Marlburians
Nelson Region Nelsonian Nelsonians
Northland Region Northland Northlanders
Otago Region Otago Otagoites
Southland Region Southland Southlanders
Taranaki Region Taranaki Taranakians
Tasman Region Tasman, Nelsonian Tasmanites, Nelsonians
Waikato Region Waikato Waikatoans "Mooloos"
Wellington Region Wellington, Wellingtonian Wellingtonians
West Coast Region West Coast Coasters

U.S. states

This is a list of terms used to designate the residents of specific U.S. states.

State Official (recommended by United States Government Printing Office)[4] Alternate, unofficial or informal
Alabama Alabamian Alabaman[5][6]
Alaska Alaskan
Arizona Arizonan Arizonian[5], Sand Cutter[7]
Arkansas Arkansan Arkansawyer (favored particularly by some native residents)[8], Arkie [9]
California Californian
Colorado Coloradan[10][11] Coloradoan (archaic)[10][11], Silverine, Rover, Centennial[12]
Connecticut Connecticuter Nutmegger[5], Connecticotian, Connecticutensian[13]
Delaware Delawarean Blue Hen's Chicken, Muskrat[14]
Florida Floridian Floridan, Alligator, Fly-Up-The-Creek, Cracker[15]
Georgia Georgian Buzzard, Cracker, Goober-grabber, Sand-hiller[16]
Hawaii Hawaiian Malihini (newcomer)[5], Kamaʻāina (native-born nonethnic Hawaiian)[5], Hawaii Resident, Islander[17]
Idaho Idahoan
Illinois Illinoisan Illinoisian, Illinoian, Sand-hiller, Egyptian, Sucker[18]
Indiana Indianian Hoosier[19], Indianan[5]
Iowa Iowan
Kansas Kansan Jayhawker, Sunflower, Grasshopper[20]
Kentucky Kentuckian
Louisiana Louisianan
Maine Mainer Down Easter or Downeaster[21], Mainiac[22], Pine Tree, Fox, Lumberjack[14]
Maryland Marylander
Massachusetts Bay Stater[23] Massachusite (traditional)[24][25], Masshole
Michigan Michiganian Michigander[5], Michiganian, Michiganer, Michiganite, Michiganese, and Michigine[26][27],Michiganite[28]
Minnesota Minnesotan
Mississippi Mississippian
Missouri Missourian
Montana Montanan
Nebraska Nebraskan
Nevada Nevadan Nevadian[5]
New Hampshire New Hampshirite Granite Boy, New Hampshireman[29]
New Jersey New Jerseyan New Jerseyite[5]
New Mexico New Mexican
New York New Yorker
North Carolina North Carolinian Tar Boiler[30], Tar Heel
North Dakota North Dakotan
Ohio Ohioan Buckeye[31]
Oklahoma Oklahoman Okie[32], Sooner[33]
Oregon Oregonian
Pennsylvania Pennsylvanian Steelmen
Rhode Island Rhode Islander
South Carolina South Carolinian
South Dakota South Dakotan
Tennessee Tennessean Tennessean [34], Volunteer, Big Bender, Butternut[35]
Texas Texan Texian (historical)[36], Tex [37], Tejano (Mexican)
Utah Utahn Utahan[5]
Vermont Vermonter
Virginia Virginian
Washington Washingtonian
West Virginia West Virginian
Wisconsin Wisconsinite Cheesehead[38][39]
Wyoming Wyomingite

See also


  1. ^ Sometimes used pars pro toto.
  2. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Singapore
  3. ^ "Old Torontonian; If He Likes Toronto So Much, Why Live Here?". The New York Times: pp. 8. 1911-09-13. Retrieved 2008-02-23.  
  4. ^ United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (2000), §5.23,
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j SHG Resources,
  6. ^ William Safire, On Language: Foam Fell on Alabama, New York Times, June 26, 1994. Safire reports that after he used the word "Alabaman" in a column, he received a letter from Vic Gold that said in part, "The natives, I have learned to my sorrow, prefer Alabamian."
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Arkansawyer definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31.  
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b Writers Style Guide, Colorado State University, page 62, accessed January 2, 2009: "The correct name for a person from Colorado is Coloradan (not Coloradoan)."
  11. ^ a b Ed Quillen, Coloradan or Coloradoan?, The Denver Post, March 18, 2007
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ a b
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ The term Hoosier is the official state designation for a state resident. The term was once considered derogatory, but is now a point of pride for Hoosiers. See the Indiana Historical Bureau article entitled What is a Hoosier? for the origin of the term.
  20. ^
  21. ^ The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007. New York: World Almanac Books. 2006. ISBN# 978-0-88687-995-2
  22. ^ Mainiac, Time magazine, Monday, Jun. 20, 1938 (term used in reference to Maine author Kenneth Roberts)
  23. ^ "Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 2, Section 35: Designation of citizens of commonwealth". The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2008-02-29.  : "Bay Staters shall be the official designation of citizens of the commonwealth."
  24. ^ _____, page 435. Collections, Massachusetts Historical Society. MHS, Boston; 1877. Additional on-line source: Google Books.
  25. ^ Jones, Thomas, page 465. History of New York During the Revolutionary War, New York Historical Society. Edward Floyd DeLancey, Ed., New York; 1879. Additional on-line source: Google Books
  26. ^ Marckwardt, Albert H., "Wolverine and Michigander", Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review LVIII (1952) 203-208
  27. ^ Sperber, Hans "Words and Phrases in American Politics: Michigander" American Speech Vol 29 No 1 (Feb 1954) 21-27
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^ Powell, William S. (March 1982). "What's in a Name?: Why We're All Called Tar Heels". Tar Heel (Tar Heel Magazine, Inc.). OCLC 005457348. Retrieved 2009-07-17.  
  31. ^
  32. ^ Stewart, Roy P. "Postal Card Proves Sooners Were 'Okies' Way Back In 1907", The Daily Oklahoman, Friday, December 20, 1968, pg. 9, col. 2. "Now comes Mrs. Agness Hooks of Thomas with a postal card mailed at Newcastle, Ind. in 1907, address to a Miss Agness Kirkbridge, with the salutation: "Hello Okie — Will see you next Monday night." Signed: Myrtle M. Pence. Mrs. Hooks says Agness Kirkbridge was an aunt of hers. The Kirkbridge family came to Oklahoma Territory in 1904 and settled south of Custer City.
  33. ^
  34. ^>
  35. ^
  36. ^ *de la Teja, Jesus F. (1997), "The Colonization and Independence of Texas: A Tejano Perspective", in Rodriguez O., Jaime E.; Vincent, Kathryn, Myths, Misdeeds, and Misunderstandings: The Roots of Conflict in U.S.–Mexican Relations, Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc., p. 79, ISBN 0842026622  
  37. ^
  38. ^ Kapler, Joseph, Jr. (Spring 2002), On Wisconsin Icons: When You Say 'Wisconsin', What Do You Say?", Wisconsin Historical Society, pp. 18–31,, retrieved 2009-04-29.  
  39. ^ Foamation: About Us, Foamation,, retrieved 2009-04-29.  

Subcontinental regions

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name.

Name Adjective Demonym
Mediterranean Mediterranean
Nile River Nilotic
Nubia Nubian Nubians
Sahara Saharan Sahrawi
Name Adjective Demonym
Acadiana, Cajun Country Acadian (Cajuns)
Aleutian Islands Aleut, Aleutian Aleuts, Aleutians
Amazon river and region Amazonian
Antilles Antillean Antilleans
Appalachia Appalachian
Caribbean Caribbean
Ceara Cearense Cearenses
Guiana Guianan Guianans
Long Island Long Islanders
Minas Gerais Mineiro Mineiros
New England New England New Englanders
Patagonia Patagonian Patagonians
Parana (state) Paranaense Paranaenses
Rio de Janeiro (state) Fluminense Fluminenses
Rio Grande do Sul Sul-rio-grandense, Gaúcho Gaúchos
St. Lawrence River Laurentian
Santa Catarina Catarinense, Barriga-verde Catarinenses, Barrigas-verdes
São Paulo (state) Paulista Paulistas
Upper Peninsula of Michigan Yoopers
West Indies West Indian West Indians
Name Adjective Demonym
Bali Balinese Balinese
Balochistan, Baluchistan Balochi/s, Baluchi/s
Bengal Bengali Bengalis
Bihar Bihari Biharis
Borneo Bornean Borneans
Caucasus, Caucasia Caucasian, Caucasic Caucasians
Gujarat Gujarati Gujaratis
Hokkaidō Dosanko (道産子)
Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kongers, Hongkongers
Indochina Indochinese Indochinese
Java Javanese, Sundanese Javanese, Sundanese
Kashmir Kashmiran Kashmiris
Korea Korean Koreans
Melanesia Melanesian Melanesians
Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands Okinawan, Ryukyuan Okinawans, Ryukyuans
Punjab Punjabi Punjabis
Siberia Siberian Siberians
Sindh, Sind Sindhi Sindhi, Sindhis
Tibet Tibetan Tibetans
Middle East
Name Adjective Demonym
Galilee Galilean Galileans
Judea, Judaea Judean, Judaean Judeans, Judaeans
Kurdistan Kurdish Kurds
Palestine Palestinian Palestinians
Samaria Samaritan Samaritans
Name Adjective Demonym
Antipodesa Antipodean Antipodeans
Melanesia Melanesian Melanesians
Micronesia Micronesian Micronesians
Nauru Naurian Naurians
Polynesia Polynesian Polynesians
Tahiti Tahitian Tahitians

a Usually refers to Australia and New Zealand.

Name Adjective Demonym
Palatinate Palatine Palatines
Name Adjective Demonym
Alps Alpine
Alsace Alsatian Alsatians
Apennines Apennine
Aragon Aragonese Aragonese
Asturias Asturian Asturians
Balkans Balkan
Baltic region Baltic Balts
Bavaria Bavarian Bavarians
Basque Country Basque Basques
Bohemia Bohemian Bohemians
Brittany Breton Bretons
Burgundy Burgundian Burgundians
Canterbury (England) Cantuarian Cantuarians
Carinthia Carinthian Carinthians
Castile Castilian Castilians
Caucasus, Caucasia Caucasian, Caucasic Caucasians
Cornwall Cornish Cornish
Crimea Crimean Crimeans
Courland Curonian Curonians
Danube River Danubian
Fife Fife Fifers
Flanders Flemish Flemings
Franconia Franconian Franconians
Friesland, Frisian Islands Friesian, Frisian Friesians, Frisians
Galicia (Central Europe) Galician Galicians
Gascony Gascon Gascons
Harrow Harrovian Harrovians
Hesse Hessian Hessians
Holstein Holsteinian Holsteiner
Iberian Peninsula Iberian Iberians
Kosovo and Methohija Kosovar, Kosovan Kosovars, Kosovans
Lancashire Lancastrian Lancastrians
Lapland Lapp, Saami Lappish, Saamis
León Leonese Leoneses
Lombardy Lombard, Lombardic Lombards
Lorraine Lorrainian Lorrainians
Lusatia Lusatian Lusatians
Mediterranean Mediterranean
Murcia Murcian Murcians
Navarre Navarrese Navarrese
Normandy Norman Normans
Northumberland Northumbrian Northumbrians
Pennines Pennine
Picardy Picard Picards
Piedmont Piedmontese Piedmontese
Po River Padane
Provence Provençal
Rhineland Rhenish Rhinelanders
Savoy Savoyard Savoyards
Saxony Saxon Saxons
Scandinavia Scandinavian Scandinavians
Tuscany Tuscan Tuscans
Tyrol Tyrolean, Tyrolese Tyroleans, Tyrolese
Wallonia Walloon Walloons
Westphalia Westphalian Westphalian

Regions in Greco-Roman antiquity

Regions tracing their origins (or otherwise referenced) in Greco-Roman antiquity [in cases where ancient regions are extant, this table is limited to cases where the present-day regional names retain their original/ancient form].

(References: Herodotus' "Histories"; Thucydides' "Peloponnesian War"; Pausanias' "Description of Greece"; Lemprière's Bibliotheca Classica; Leverett's 1838 edition of the "Lexicon of the Latin Language"; Freeman's "The History of Sicily..."; et al.)

Edit this table

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Name Adjective Demonym
Acarnania Acarnanian Acarnanians
Achaea Achaean Achaeans
Aegina Aeginetan Aeginetans
Aethaea Aethaean Aethaeans
Aetolia Aetolian Aetolians
Andalusia Andalusian Andalusians
Apulia Apulian Apulians
Aquitania Aquitanian Aquitanians
Arcadia Arcadian Arcadians
Argos Argive Argives
Arretium Arretine Arretines
Athens Athenian Athenians
Bactria, Bactriana Bactrian Bactrians
Bavaria Bavarian Bavarians
Boeotia Boeotian, Beotian Boeotians, Beotians
Boiohaemum Boius Boii
Bosporus, Bosphorus Bosporan, Bosphoran Bosporans, Bosphorans
Bruttium (Bruttus ?), Bruttian Brutti, Bruttians
Byzantium Byzantine Byzantines
Calabria Calabrian Calabrians
Campania Campanian Campanians
Cantabria Cantabrian Cantabrians
Caria Carian Carians
Carthage Carthaginian Carthaginians
Carystus Carystian Carystians
Catalonia Catalan, Catalonian Catalans, Catalonians
Chalcis Chalcidian Chalcidians
Chios Chian Chians
Colchis Colchian Colchians
Colossae Colossian Colossians
Consentia Consentian Consentians
Corcyra Corcyrean Corcyreans
Corsica Corsican Corsicans
Crete Cretan Cretans
Croton Crotonian Crotonians
Cyclades Cycladian Cycladians
Cyprus Cypriot, Cypriote Cypriots, Cypriotes
Cyrenaica Cyrenaic Cyrenaics
Cyrene Cyrenian Cyrenians
Dacia Dacian Dacians
Dalmatia Dalmatian Dalmatians
Delos Delian Delians
Dodecanese Dodecanesian Dodecanesians
Edonia Edonian Edonians
Egesta Egestan Egestans
Eleusina or Eleusis Eleusian, Eleusinian Eleusians, Eleusinians
Elis or Eleia Elian Elians
Ephesus Ephesian Ephesians
Epidamnus or Epidamnos Epidamnian Epidamnians
Epidaurus Epidaurian Epidaurians
Epirus Epirote Epirotes
Eretria Eretrian Eretrians
Etruria Etruscan Etruscans
Euboea Euboean Euboeans
Galatia Galatian Galatians
Gallaecia Gallaecus Gallaeci
Gallia Gaul Gauls
Germania Germanian, Germanus Germanians, Germani
Iberia Iberian Iberians
Illyria Illyrian Illyrians
Ionia Ionian Ionians
Kalymnos Kalymnian Kalymnians
Kaulonia Kaulonian Kaulonians
Kefalonia Kefalonian Kefalonians
Knossos Knossian Knossians
Lakedaimon/ia or Lakedaemon/ia Lakedaimonian or Lakedaemonian Lakedaimonians or Lakedaemonians
Larissa Larissan Larissans
Latium Latin Latins
Leontini, Leontium Leontinian Leontinians
Lesbos Lesbian Lesbians
Locris Locrian Locrians
Lucania Lucanian Lucanians
Lydia Lydian Lydians
Macedonia Macedonian Macedonians
Maeonia Maeonian Maeonians
Mantineia Mantinean Mantineans
Marathon Marathonian Marathonians
Media Median Medes, Medians
Megara Megaran Megarans
Melite Melitian Melitians
Melos Melian Melians
Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Mesopotamians
Messenia Messenian Messenians
Miletus Milesian Milesians
Mithymna or Methymna Methymnian Methymnians
Moravia Moravian Moravians
Mycenae Mycenaean Mycenaeans
Mytilene Mytilenean Mytileneans
Naupactus or Nafpaktos Naupactian Naupactians
Naxos Naxian Naxians
Nisyros Nisyrian Nisyrians
Oea Oean Oeans
Olympia Olympian Olympians
Oiniades, Oiniadai Oiniadan Oiniadans
Orkney Islands Orcadian Orcadians
Paionia or Paeonia Paeonian Paeonians
Pamphylia Pamphylian Pamphylians
Paros Parian Parians
Patmos Patmian Patmians
Peloponnese Peloponnesian Peloponnesians
Pergamum Pergamian Pergamians
Persia Persian Persians
Philippi Philippian Philippians
Phlius Phliasian Phliasians
Phocis Phocian Phocians
Phoenicia Phoenician Phoenicians
Phrygia Phrygian Phrygians
Pisidia Pisidian Pisidians
Pontus Pontian Pontians
Pylos Pylosian Pylosians
Rhegion Rhegian, Rhegine Rhegians, Rhegines
Rhodes Rhodian Rhodians
Rhithymna, Rhithymnia, Rithymna Rhithymnian Rhithymnians
Rome Roman Romans
Sabinium Sabine Sabines
Salamis Salaminian Salaminians
Samnium Samnite Samnites
Samos Samian Samians
Sardinia Sardinian, Sardi Sardinians, Sardi
Sardis Sardianus, Sardian Sardiani, Sardians
Sarmatia Sarmatian, Sarmata, or Sauromata Sarmatians, Sarmatae, or Sauromatae
Scythia Scytha, Scythian Scythae, Scythians
Serrae, Serrhae Serrean Serreans
Sicily Sicilian Sicilians
Sicyon Sicyonese Sicyonese
Sidon, or Saïda Sidonian Sidonians
Silesia Silesian Silesians
Skopelos Skopelitan Skopelitans
Sparta Spartan Spartans
Suebia Suebius Suebi
Symi Symian Symians
Syracuse Syracusan Syracusans
Taras, Tarentum Tarentine, Tarentumian Tarentines, Tarentumians
Tegea Tegean Tegeans
Tenedos Tenedian Tenedians
Tenedos Tenedian Tenedians
Thasos Thasian Thasians
Thebes Theban Thebans
Thespis Thespian Thespians
Thessaly Thessalian Thessalians
Thrace Thracian Thracians
Thria Thriasian Thriasians
Thuria Thuriat Thuriats
Thurii Thurian Thurians
Trichonos Trichonian Trichonians
Troezen Troezenian Troezenians
Troy Trojan Trojans
Umbria Umbrian Umbrians
Xanthi Xanthian Xanthians
Zakynthos Zakyntian Zakyntians

Other former nations and regions

Ancient civilizations, former colonies, renamed countries and regions, annexations, secessions, etc. (other than Greco-Roman, which see above).

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name. (Reference: Ethnologue, Languages of the World)

Name Adjective Demonym
Abyssinia Abyssinian Abyssinians
Acadia Acadian Acadians
Akkadia Akkadian Akkadians
Austria–Hungary Austro-Hungarian Austro-Hungarians, Austrians, Hungarians
Babylonia Babylonian Babylonians
Bessarabia Bessarabian Bessarabians
Biafra Biafran Biafrans
Burma Burmese Burmesea
Ceylon Ceylonese Ceylonese
Chechnya Chechnyan, Chechen Chechnyan, Chechen
Confederate States of America Confederate, CSA Confederates, Confederate Americans "Rebels", "Rebs"
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian, Czechoslovak, Czechb Czechoslovakians, Czechoslovaks, Czechs, Slovaks
Dahomey Dahomeyan Dahomeyans
Elam Elamite, Elamitic, Elamitish Elamites
Katanga Katangan Katangans
Livonia Livonian Livonians, Livs
Manchuria Manchurian Manchurians
Malaya Malay, Malayan Malays, Malayans
Moldavia Moldavian Moldavians
Pomerania Pomeranian Pomeranians
Prussia Prussian Prussians
Rhodesia Rhodesian Rhodesians
Siam Siamese Siamese
Sudetenland Sudetes Sudetenlanders
Sumer Sumerian Sumerians
Soviet Union Soviet, Russianc Soviets, Russiansc
Transylvania Transylvanian Transylvanians
Wallachia Wallachian Wallachians
Yugoslavia Yugoslav Yugoslavs
Zaire Zairean Zaireans
Zululand Zulu Zulu, Zulus

a  Burma is also known as Myanmar.
b  "Czech" technically incorrect here, as it is also used to distinguish Czech people from Slovaks or other ethnic groups.
c  "Russian" technically incorrect here, as the Russian SFSR was one of fifteen Soviet Republics (albeit the largest).


The following is a list of adjectival forms of astronomical bodies in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the inhabitants of those bodies.


Name Adjective Demonym
Leo (constellation) Leonid
Perseus (constellation) Perseid


Name Adjective Demonym
Sun, Sol Solar, Heliac Solarian


Name Adjective Demonym
Earth, Terra, Tellus, World Terran, Terrestrial, Tellurian Earthling, Terran, Terrestrial, Tellurian
Jupiter Jovian, Jovial Jovian
Mars Martian, Martial, Areana Martian
Mercury Mercurian, Mercurial, Cyllenian Mercurian
Neptune Neptunian Neptunian
Saturn Saturnian, Saturnine Saturnian
Uranus Uranian Uranian
Venus Venerian, Venusian, Cythereana Venusian
Pluto Plutonian Plutonian

a  Rare.


Note: Rarely used or unattested adjectives shown in italics.

Earth and Mars
Name Adjective Demonym
Moon (Selene, Luna) Lunar, Selenian Lunarian, Selenite
Deimos Deimian Deimian
Phobos Phobian Phobian
Name Adjective, demonym
Adrastea Adrastean
Aitne Aitnean
Amalthea Amalthean
Ananke Anankean
Aoede Aoedean
Arche Archean
Autonoe Autonoean
Callirrhoe Callirrhoean
Callisto Callistonian
Carme Carmean
Carpo Carponian
Chaldene Chaldenean
Cyllene Cyllenean
Elara Elaran
Erinome Erinomean
Euanthe Euanthean
Eukelade Eukeladean
Euporie Euporiean
Europa Europan
Eurydome Eurydomean
Ganymede Ganymedean
Harpalyke Harpalykean
Hegemone Hegemonean
Helike Helicean
Hermippe Hermippean
Himalian Himalian
Io Ionian
Iocaste Iocastean, Jocastean
Isonoe Isonoean
Kale Kalean
Kallichore Kallichorean
Kalyke Kalykean
Leda Ledan
Lysithea Lysithean
Megaclite Megaclitean
Mneme Mnemean
Orthosie Orthosiean
Pasiphae Pasiphaean
Pasithee Pasithean
Praxidike Praxidikean
Sinope Sinopean
Sponde Spondean
Taygete Taygetean
Thebe Thebean, Theban
Thelxinoe Thelxinoean
Themisto Themistonian
Thyone Thyonean
Name Adjective, demonym
Albiorix Albiorixian
Atlas Atlantean
Calypso Calypsonian
Daphnis Daphnidian
Dione Dionean
Enceladus Enceladan, Enceladean
Epimetheus Epimethean
Erriapus Erriapian
Helene Helenean
Hyperion Hyperionian
Iapetus Iapetian, Japetian
Ijiraq Ijiraqian
Janus Janian
Kiviuq Kiviuqian
Methone Methonean
Mimas Mimantean
Mundilfari Mundilfarian
Narvi Narvian
Paaliaq Paaliaqian
Pallene Pallenean
Pan  ?Panean
Pandora Pandoran
Phoebe Phoebean
Polydeuces Polydeucean
Prometheus Promethean
Rhea Rhean
Siarnaq Siarnaqian
Skathi Skathian
Suttungr Suttungrian
Tarvos Tarvosian
Telesto Telestonian
Tethys Tethyan
Thrymr Thrymrian
Titan Titanian
Ymir  ?Ymirian
Name Adjective, demonym
Ariel Arielian
Belinda Belindan
Bianca Biancan
Caliban Calibanian
Cordelia Cordelian
Cressida Cressidan
Cupid Cupidian
Desdemona Desdemonan
Ferdinand Ferdinandian
Francisco Francisconian
Juliet Julietian
Mab Mabian
Margaret Margaretian
Miranda Mirandan
Oberon Oberonian
Ophelia Ophelian
Perdita Perditan
Portia Portian
Prospero Prosperonian
Puck Puckian (Puckling)
Rosalind Rosalindian
Setebos Setebosian
Stephano Stephanonian
Sycorax Sycoraxian
Titania (Titanian)
Trinculo Trinculonian
Umbriel Umbrielian
Name Adjective, demonym
Despina Despinan
Galatea Galatean
Larissa Larissan
Naiad Naiadian
Nereid Nereidian
Proteus Protean
Psamathe Psamathean
Thalassa Thalassan
Thyone Thyonean
Triton Tritonian
Other bodies
Name Adjective, demonym
5 Astraea Astraean
Ceres Cererean, Cerian
Charon Charonian
Dysnomia Dysnomian
Eris Eridian
433 Eros Erotian
6 Hebe Hebean
Hydra Hydran
7 Iris Iridian
Juno Junonian
Nix Nictian
Pallas Palladian
Pluto Plutonian
Vesta Vestalian, Vestian

See additional minor planet forms.

Fictional regions

Edit this table
Name Adjective Demonym
Atlantis Atlant(e)ans
Aloria Alorn Alorns
Attilan Inhumans
Blefuscu Blefuscudian Blefuscudians
Brobdingnag Brobdingnagian Brobdingnagians
Laputa Laputan Laputans
Lilliput Lilliputian Lilliputians
Gallifrey Gallifreyan Gallifreyans
Genosha Genoshans
Latveria Latverian Latverians
Luggnagg Struldbrugs
Qo'noS Klingon Klingons
Rohan Rohirric Rohirrim
Romulus Romulan Romulans
Utopia Utopian Utopians
Vulcan Vulcan Vulcans


See also



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