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Reserves of foreign exchange and gold in 2008

Foreign exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) in a strict sense are only the foreign currency deposits held by central banks and monetary authorities. However, the term foreign exchange reserves in popular usage (such as this list) commonly includes foreign exchange and gold, SDRs and IMF reserve position as this total figure is more readily available, however it is accurately deemed as official reserves or international reserves. The list excludes currency swaps conducted by central banks.

These are assets of the central banks which are held in different reserve currencies such as the dollar, euro, yen and pound, and which are used to back its liabilities, e.g. the local currency issued, and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank, by the government or financial institutions. Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve. Some nations are converting foreign exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign exchange reserves in size.

This is a list of countries and territories by foreign exchange reserves in US dollar equivalence. Some nations have multiple monetary authorities, counted separately, such as the People's Republic of China, which has three (mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau). Exchange rate fluctuations can have significant impact on these numbers. While most nations report in US dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros.

Contents

List of states by foreign exchange reserves

For consistency, forward currency swap contracts are not included in this list until they mature, figures that include them may be higher or lower than those listed here. IMF or other outstanding loans are not shown here, and if accounted for many nations would list lower.

Rank Country/Monetary Authority Foreign exchange reserves
(Millions of USD)
Figures as of
 World (sum of all countries) 9,007,505 --
1  People's Republic of China
2,399,000 Dec 2009[1]
2  Japan 1,074,000 Nov 2009[2]
- European Union Eurosystem
(EU member states which have adopted the euro, incl. ECB)
648,055 Oct 2009[3]
3  Russia 447,776 Nov 2009[4]
4  Republic of China (Taiwan) 352,729 Feb 2010[5]
5  India 287,374 Dec 2009[6]
6  South Korea 270,900 Nov 2009[7]
7 Hong Kong Hong Kong 256,300 Nov 2009[8]
8  Brazil 244,159 Mar 2010[9]
9  Singapore 189,618 Jan 2010[10]
10  Germany 189,484 Nov 2009[3]
11  Algeria 145,363 Apr 2009
12  Thailand 143,000 Jan 2010[11]
13  Italy 129,331 Oct 2009[3]
14  Switzerland 126,083 Oct 2009[3]
15  France 126,422 Oct 2009[3]
16  Malaysia 97,000 Jan 2010[12]
17  Iran 96,560 Dec 2008[13]
18  Mexico 94.545 Mar 2010[14]
19  United Kingdom 83,935 Aug 2009[3]
20  Poland 83,678 Oct 2009[3]
21  United States 83,375 Jul 2009[3]
22  Libya 79,000 Sep 2007
23  Denmark 76,896 Sep 2009
24  Turkey 70,497 Jul 2009[3]
European Union European Central Bank
(ECB, not owned by any single EU member)
67,886 Oct 2009[3]
25  Indonesia 64,800 Dec 2009
26  Israel 61,196 Oct 2009[3]
27  Canada 56,420 Nov 2009[3]
28  Argentina 48,277 Jan 2010[3]
29  Iraq 48,779 Jan 2009[15]
30  Sweden 48,582 Oct 2009[3]
31  Norway 48,559 Oct 2009[3]
32  Australia 46,542 Aug 2009[3]
33  Romania 45,506 Oct 2009[3]
34  United Arab Emirates 45,000 Oct 2008[16][17]
35  Philippines 45,000 Dec 2009[3]
36  Hungary 45,000 Oct 2009[3]
37  Nigeria 43,089 Jan 2010 [18]
38  Czech Republic 41,458 Nov 2009[3]
39  South Africa 40,500 Dec 2009[19]
40  Netherlands 39,928 Oct 2009[3]
41  Lebanon 38,600 2009[20]
42  Peru 35,444 Mar 2010[3]
43  Egypt 34,212 Jan 2010[21]
44  Venezuela 31,925 Jan 2010
45  Ukraine 29,625 Aug 2009[3][22]
46  Spain 27,235 Oct 2009[3]
47  Chile 26,020 Jan 2010[3]
48  Colombia 25,252 Jan 2010[3]
49  Belgium 23,963 Oct 2009[3]
50  Morocco 23,911 Oct 2009[3]
51  Vietnam 20,700 Jun 2008
52 Macau Macau 17,820 Nov 2009[23]
53  Kazakhstan 23,270 Nov 2009[24]
54  Kuwait 19,630 2007 est.
55  Angola 19,400 2009 est.
56  Serbia 17,357 Dec 2009
57  Bulgaria 18,700 Oct 2009[3]
58 Republic of Ireland Ireland 16,229 Apr 2009[3]
59  Pakistan 13,200 Jan 2010
60  Austria 14,855 May 2009[3]
61  Portugal 15,325 Oct 2009[3]
62  Croatia 14,163 Oct 2009[3]
63  New Zealand 14,957 Oct 2009[3]
64  Bangladesh 10,550 Mar 2010 [25]
65  Tunisia 10,737 Nov 2009[3]
66  Jordan 10,900 Dec 2009[26]
67  Botswana 10,000 May 2008
68  Finland 10,866 Oct 2009[3]
70  Azerbaijan 9,316 Apr 2008
71  Trinidad and Tobago 8,100 2008 est.
72  Bolivia 8,585 Jan 2010
73  Yemen 7,400 Mar 2009
74  Uruguay 8,104 Jan 2010[3]
75  Oman 7,004 2007 est.
76  Ecuador 3,913 Oct 2008
77  Qatar 6,368 2007 est.
78  Cyprus 6,176 2007 est.
79  Syria 6,039 2007 est.
80  Lithuania 7,874 Nov 2009[3]
81  Uzbekistan 5,600 2007 est.
82  Latvia 6,665 Oct 2009[3]
83  Luxembourg 5,337 Apr 2009[3]
84  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,151 Jan 2008
85  Guatemala 5,496 Jan 2010 est.
86  Greece 5,164 Oct 2009[3]
87  Estonia 4,517 May 2009[3]
88  Cuba 4,247 2007 est.
89  Equatorial Guinea 3,928 2007 est.
90  Costa Rica 4,141 Jan 2010 est.
91  Turkmenistan 3,644 2007 est.
92  Malta 3,522 2007 est.
93  Myanmar 3,500 Aug 2008
94  Bahrain 3,474 2007 est.
95  Belarus 4,592 Nov 2009[3]
96  Iceland 3,459 May 2009[3]
97  Ghana 2,837 2007 est.
98  Paraguay 3,731 Nov 2009
99  El Salvador 2,985 Jan 2010[3]
100  Kenya 2,615 Mar 2009
101  Sri Lanka 2,600 Oct 2008
102  Dominican Republic 2,223 Jan 2010
103  Cambodia 2,522 Aug 2009 [27]
104  Côte d'Ivoire 2,500 2007 est.
105  Tanzania 2,441 2007 est.
106  Cameroon 2,341 2007 est.
107  Honduras 2,083 Jan 2010
108  Macedonia 2,243 Nov 2007
109  Papua New Guinea 2,193 Dec 2007
110  Mauritius 1,772 2007 est.
111  Albania 1,615 Dec 2007
112  Jamaica 1,490 Dec 2007
113  Kyrgyzstan 1,547 Oct 2009[3]
114  Mozambique 1,470 Nov 2007
115  Gabon 1,459 2007 est.
116  Senegal 1,350 2007 est.
117  Slovakia 1,767 Oct 2009[3]
118  Georgia 1,300 2008 est.
119  Panama 1,260 2007 est.
120  Sudan 1,245 2007 est.
121  Armenia 2,145 Oct 2009[3]
122  Zimbabwe 1,222 Mar 2008
123  Slovenia 1,105 Oct 2009[3]
124  Moldova 1,102 Apr 2009[3]
125  Zambia 1,100 2007 est.
126  Nicaragua 1,496 Jan 2010
127  Mongolia 1,000 Jul 2007
128  Chad 997 2007 est.
129  Burkina Faso 897 2007 est.
130  Lesotho 889 2007 est.
131  Ethiopia 840 2007 est.
132  Benin 825 2007 est.
133  Namibia 750 2007 est.
134  Madagascar 745 2007 est.
135  Barbados 620 2007 est
136  Laos 514 2007 est.
137  Rwanda 511 2007 est.
138  Swaziland 395 2007 est.
139  Togo 363 2007 est.
140  Cape Verde 344 2007 est.
141  Tajikistan 301 2007 est.
142  Guyana 292 2007 est.
143  Haiti 221 2007 est.
144  Belize 150 Oct 2008
145  Vanuatu 149 Dec 2007
146  Malawi 140 2007 est.
147  Gambia 120 2007 est.
148  Guinea 119 2007 est.
149  Burundi 118 2007 est.
150  Seychelles 118 2007 est.
151  Samoa 70 2004 est.
152  Tonga 55 Feb 2008
153  Liberia 49 Dec 2008
154  Congo 36 Jan 2009
155  São Tomé and Príncipe 36 Dec 2007
156  Eritrea 22 2007 est.

List of outstanding forward swap agreements

The following is a list of outstanding forward swap contracts with the Federal Reserve, Bank of Japan, People's Bank of China. They are not included in foreign exchange reserves, but can bolster the reserves when credit is taken out, and reduce the reserves when credit expires. The Fed has extended its credit deadline to Oct. 30, 2009 for those nations listed below. Japan's deadlines are April 30, 2009, but may be extended. China's table list below are a lines of credit, and does not show actual withdrawals, and are valid for 3 years.

Rank Country/Monetary Authority Foreign exchange swap with Fed
(millions of USD)
Figures as of
1 European Union European Central Bank -264,100 Nov 2008
2  Japan -97,000 Nov 2008
3  United Kingdom -54,300 Nov 2009
4  Brazil -30,000 Dec 2008
4  Mexico -30,000 Dec 2008
4  South Korea -30,000 Dec 2008
7  Sweden -25,000 Nov 2008
8  Australia -21,600 Nov 2008
9  Switzerland -20,800 Nov 2008
10  Denmark -15,000 Nov 2008
Rank Country/Monetary Authority Foreign exchange swap with BOJ
(millions of USD)
Figures as of
1  South Korea -20,000 Dec 2008
2  Indonesia -12,000 Feb 2009
3  Thailand -6,000 Dec 2008
3  Philippines -6,000 Dec 2008
5  Malaysia -3,000 Dec 2008
5  India -3,000 Dec 2008
Rank Country/Monetary Authority Swap credit line with PBC[28]
(millions of Yuan)
Issue date
1  Hong Kong -200,000 Jan 2009
2  South Korea -180,000 Dec 2008
3  Indonesia -100,000 Mar 2009
4  Malaysia -80,000 Feb 2009
5  Argentina -70,000 Mar 2009
6  Belarus -20,000 Feb 2009

See also

References

  1. ^ http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703657604575004501953577566.html?mod=WSJ_latestheadlines
  2. ^ http://imarketnews.com/node/5652
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax IMF.org:International reserves by country
  4. ^ Central Bank of Russia Retrieved on 2009-07-29
  5. ^ "行政院主計處: 最新指標". http://eng.stat.gov.tw/point.asp?index=5. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  6. ^ [1] Retrieved on 2009-10-20
  7. ^ http://koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/biz/2009/12/123_56542.html
  8. ^ http://news.alibaba.com/article/detail/markets/100212571-1-hk-forex-reserves-%2524256.3-bln.html
  9. ^ International Reserves - Updated daily Central Bank of Brazil. Retrieved on 2009-10-08.
  10. ^ [2]
  11. ^ [3]
  12. ^ http://www.bnm.gov.my/index.php?ch=8&pg=14&ac=1992
  13. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html
  14. ^ http://www.cnnexpansion.com/economia/2010/02/23/las-reservas-de-mexico-a-nuevo-record
  15. ^ http://www.cbi.iq/index2.htm
  16. ^ [4] Retrieved on 2009-09-7
  17. ^ [5] Retrieved on 2009-09-7
  18. ^ http://www.cenbank.org/
  19. ^ http://www.commodityonline.com/futures-trading/currency/Kazakhstan%E2%80%99s-Forex-gold-reserves-rise-by-15.3-3510-2.html
  20. ^ "Salameh: Bank sector thrives as Lebanon awaits reforms". Daily Star (Agence France Presse). 2010-01-20. http://www.dailystar.com.lb/article.asp?edition_id=1&categ_id=3&article_id=110861. Retrieved 28 January 2010. "Foreign currency reserves of the central bank also reached a record $28.6 billion in 2009, without counting the gold reserves estimated at more than $10 billion, said Salameh." 
  21. ^ Net International Reserves Central Bank of Egypt. Retrieved on 2010-02-07.
  22. ^ Novynar
  23. ^ http://www.macaudailytimes.com.mo/macau/6429-Foreign-exchange-reserves.html
  24. ^ http://www.commodityonline.com/futures-trading/currency/Kazakhstan%E2%80%99s-Forex-gold-reserves-rise-by-15.3-3510-2.html
  25. ^ [6]
  26. ^ http://www.menafn.com/qn_news_story_s.asp?storyid=1093288492
  27. ^ [7]
  28. ^ Bloomberg:China, Indonesia in 100 Billion Yuan Currency Swap

External links


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