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This is a list of chemical elements by symbol, including the current signification used to identify the chemical elements as recognized by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, as well as proposed and historical signs. Also given is each element's atomic number, atomic mass or most stable isotope, group and period numbers on the periodic table, and etymology of the symbol.

NOTE: placing one's cursor over the entry in the etymology column will display a modern English translation for words of Greek, Latin, or other origin.

Current symbols

Periodic Table of elements
Symbol Name Etymology of symbol Atomic number Relative atomic mass Group Period
Ac Actinium from Greek aktinos 89 &227[227][1]   7
Ag Silver Latin argentum 47 &107.86822107.8682(2)[2] 11 5
Al Aluminium (Aluminum) Latin alumen 13 &026.9815386826.9815386(8) 13 3
Am Americium the Americas 95 &243[243][1]   7
Ar Argon Greek argon 18 &039.948139.948(1)[2][3] 18 3
As Arsenic Greek arsenikos 33 &074.92160274.92160(2) 15 4
At Astatine Greek astatos 85 &210[210][1] 17 6
Au Gold Latin aurum 79 &196.9665694196.966569(4) 11 6
B Boron borax 5 &010.811710.811(7)[2][3][4] 13 2
Ba Barium Greek barys 56 &137.3277137.327(7) 2 6
Be Beryllium beryl 4 &009.01218239.012182(3) 2 2
Bh Bohrium Niels Bohr 107 &264[264][1] 7 7
Bi Bismuth from German wissmuth 83 &208.980401208.98040(1) 15 6
Bk Berkelium Berkeley, California 97 &247[247][1]   7
Br Bromine Greek bromos 35 &079.904179.904(1) 17 4
C Carbon Latin carbo 6 &012.0107812.0107(8)[2][3] 14 2
Ca Calcium Latin calx 20 &040.078440.078(4)[2] 2 4
Cd Cadmium from Greek kadmia 48 &112.4118112.411(8)[2] 12 5
Ce Cerium Ceres 58 &140.1161140.116(1)[2]   6
Cf Californium State and University of California 98 &251[251][1]   7
Cl Chlorine Greek chloros 17 &035.453235.453(2)[2][3][4] 17 3
Cm Curium Pierre and Marie Curie and the traditional -um ending 96 &247[247][1]   7
Cn Copernicium Nicolaus Copernicus 112 &285[285][1] 12 7
Co Cobalt from German kobold 27 &058.933195558.933195(5) 9 4
Cr Chromium Greek chroma 24 &051.9961651.9961(6) 6 4
Cs Caesium (Cesium) Latin caesius 55 &132.90545192132.9054519(2) 1 6
Cu Copper Latin Cuprum 29 &063.546363.546(3)[3] 11 4
Db Dubnium Dubna, Russia 105 &262[262][1] 5 7
Ds Darmstadtium Darmstadt, Germany 110 &271[271][1] 10 7
Dy Dysprosium Greek dysprositos 66 &162.5001162.500(1)[2]   6
Er Erbium Ytterby, Sweden 68 &167.2593167.259(3)[2]   6
Es Einsteinium Albert Einstein 99 &252[252][1]   7
Eu Europium Europe 63 &151.9641151.964(1)[2]   6
F Fluorine Latin fluo 9 &018.9984032518.9984032(5) 17 2
Fe Iron Latin ferrum 26 &055.845255.845(2) 8 4
Fm Fermium Enrico Fermi 100 &257[257][1]   7
Fr Francium France 87 &223[223][1] 1 7
Ga Gallium Latin Gallia 31 &069.723169.723(1) 13 4
Gd Gadolinium gadolinite 64 &157.253157.25(3)[2]   6
Ge Germanium Germany 32 &072.64172.64(1) 14 4
H Hydrogen Greek hydrogenes 1 &001.0079471.00794(7)[2][3][4] 1 1
He Helium Greek helios 2 &004.00260224.002602(2)[2][3] 18 1
Hf Hafnium Latin Hafnia 72 &178.492178.49(2) 4 6
Hg Mercury Latin hydrargyrum 80 &200.592200.59(2) 12 6
Ho Holmium Latin Holmia 67 &164.930322164.930 32(2)   6
Hs Hassium Hesse, Germany 108 &277[277][1] 8 7
I Iodine Greek ioeides 53 &126.904473126.904 47(3) 17 5
In Indium indigo blue 49 &114.8183114.818(3) 13 5
Ir Iridium Greek iris 77 &192.2173192.217(3) 9 6
K Potassium (Kalium) Latin kalium 19 &039.0983139.0983(1) 1 4
Kr Krypton Greek kryptos 36 &083.798283.798(2)[2][4] 18 4
La Lanthanum Greek lanthanien 57 &138.905477138.90547(7)[2]   6
Li Lithium Greek lithos 3 &006.94126.941(2)[2][3][4][5] 1 2
Lr Lawrencium Ernest O. Lawrence 103 &262[262][1] 3 7
Lu Lutetium Latin Lutetia 71 &174.9671174.967(1)[2] 3 6
Md Mendelevium Dmitri Mendeleyev 101 &258[258][1]   7
Mg Magnesium Magnesia, Greece 12 &024.3050624.3050(6) 2 3
Mn Manganese Latin magnes 25 &054.938045554.938045(5) 7 4
Mo Molybdenum Greek molybdos 42 &095.94295.94(2)[2] 6 5
Mt Meitnerium Lise Meitner 109 &268[268][1] 9 7
N Nitrogen Greek nitron 7 &014.0067214.0067(2)[2][3] 15 2
Na Sodium Latin natrium 11 &022.98976928222.98976928(2) 1 3
Nb Niobium Niobe 41 &092.90638292.906 38(2) 5 5
Nd Neodymium Greek neos didymos 60 &144.2423144.242(3)[2]   6
Ne Neon Greek neos 10 &020.1797620.1797(6)[2][4] 18 2
Ni Nickel German kupfernickel 28 &058.6934258.6934(2) 10 4
No Nobelium Alfred Nobel 102 &259[259][1]   7
Np Neptunium Neptune 93 &237[237][1]   7
O Oxygen Greek oxys 8 &015.9994315.9994(3)[2][3] 16 2
Os Osmium Greek osme 76 &190.233190.23(3)[2] 8 6
P Phosphorus Greek phosphoros 15 &030.973762230.973762(2) 15 3
Pa Protactinium Greek protos and actinium 91 &231.035882231.03588(2)[1]   7
Pb Lead Latin plumbum 82 &207.21207.2(1)[2][3] 14 6
Pd Palladium Pallas and the traditional -dium ending 46 &106.421106.42(1)[2] 10 5
Pm Promethium Prometheus 61 &145[145][1]   6
Po Polonium Poland 84 &210[210][1] 16 6
Pr Praseodymium Greek prasios 59 &140.907652140.90765(2)   6
Pt Platinum Greek platina 78 &195.0849195.084(9) 10 6
Pu Plutonium Pluto 94 &244[244][1]   7
Ra Radium Latin radius 88 &226[226][1] 2 7
Rb Rubidium Latin rubidus 37 &085.4678385.4678(3)[2] 1 5
Re Rhenium German Rheinprovinz 75 &186.2071186.207(1) 7 6
Rf Rutherfordium Ernest Rutherford 104 &261261[1] 4 7
Rg Roentgenium Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen 111 &272[272][1] 11 7
Rh Rhodium Greek rhodon 45 &102.905502102.905 50(2) 9 5
Rn Radon radium and emanation 86 &220[220][1] 18 6
Ru Ruthenium Latin Ruthenia 44 &101.072101.07(2)[2] 8 5
S Sulfur (Sulphur) Latin sulfur 16 &032.065532.065(5)[2][3] 16 3
Sb Antimony Latin stibium 51 &121.7601121.760(1)[2] 15 5
Sc Scandium Scandinavia 21 &044.955912644.955912(6) 3 4
Se Selenium Greek selene 34 &078.96378.96(3)[3] 16 4
Sg Seaborgium Glenn T. Seaborg 106 &266[266][1] 6 7
Si Silicon Latin silex 14 &028.0855328.0855(3)[3] 14 3
Sm Samarium samarskite 62 &150.362150.36(2)[2]   6
Sn Tin Latin stannum 50 &118.7101118.710(7)[2] 14 5
Sr Strontium Gaelic Strontian 38 &087.62187.62(1)[2][3] 2 5
Ta Tantalum King Tantalus 73 &180.947882180.94788(2) 5 6
Tb Terbium Ytterby, Sweden 65 &158.925352158.92535(2)   6
Tc Technetium Greek technetos 43 &098[98][1] 7 5
Te Tellurium Greek tellus 52 &127.603127.60(3)[2] 16 5
Th Thorium Thor 90 &232.038062232.03806(2)[1][2]   7
Ti Titanium the Titans 22 &047.867147.867(1) 4 4
Tl Thallium Greek thallos 81 &204.38332204.3833(2) 13 6
Tm Thulium Thule and the traditional -ium ending 69 &168.934212168.93421(2)   6
U Uranium Uranus 92 &238.028913238.02891(3)[1][2][4]   7
Uuh Ununhexium Latin uni, uni, and Greek hex 116 &292[292][1] 16 7
Uuo Ununoctium Latin uni, uni, and oct 118 &294[294][1] 18 7
Uup Ununpentium Latin uni, uni, and Greek pent 115 &288[288][1] 15 7
Uuq Ununquadium Latin uni, uni, and quadr 114 &289[289][1] 14 7
Uut Ununtrium Latin uni, uni, and Greek tri 113 &284[284][1] 13 7
V Vanadium Vanadis 23 &050.9415150.9415(1) 5 4
W Tungsten German wolfram 74 &183.841183.84(1) 6 6
Xe Xenon Greek xenos 54 &131.2936131.293(6)[2][4] 18 5
Y Yttrium Ytterby, Sweden 39 &088.90585288.90585(2) 3 5
Yb Ytterbium Ytterby, Sweden 70 &173.043173.04(3)[2]   6
Zn Zinc German zink 30 &065.409465.409(4) 12 4
Zr Zirconium zircon 40 &091.224291.224(2)[2] 4 5

Symbols not currently used

The following is a list of names formerly used or suggested for use in naming the elements listed above. Also included in this list are placeholder names and names given by discredited claimants for discovery. Names which retain local use (as with aluminum and jod, for aluminium and iodine respectively) are not included in this table.

Chemical symbol Name Atomic number Origin of symbol Why not used
A Argon 18 Current symbol is Ar. [6]
Ab Alabamine 85 Discredited claim to discovery of astatine. [7]
Am Alabamium 85 Discredited claim to discovery of astatine. [7]
An Athenium 99 Proposed name for einsteinium. [8]
Ao Ausonium 93 Discredited claim to discovery of neptunium. [7]
Az Azote 7 Former name for nitrogen. [6]
Bv Brevium 91 Former name for protactinium. [6]
Bz Berzelium 59 Suggested name for praseodymium. [8]
Cb Columbium 41 Former name of niobium. [6]
Cb Columbium 95 Suggested name for americium. [8]
Cp Cassiopeium 71 Former name for lutetium. [6]
Ct Centurium 100 Proposed name for fermium. [8]
Ct Celtium 72 Former name of hafnium. [6]
Da Danubium 43 Suggested name for technetium. [8]
Db Dubnium 104 Proposed name for rutherfordium. The symbol and name were used for element 105. [6][8]
Eb Ekaboron 21 Name given by Mendeleev to an as of then undiscovered element. When discovered, scandium closely matched the prediction. [8][9]
El Ekaaluminium 31 Name given by Mendeleev to an as of then undiscovered element. When discovered, gallium closely matched the prediction. [8][9]
Em Emanation 86 Also called radium emanation, the name was originally given by Friedrich Ernst Dorn in 1900. In 1923, this element officially became radon (the name given at one time to 222Rn, an isotope identified in the decay chain of radium). [6]
Em Ekamangan 43 Name given by Mendeleev to an as of then undiscovered element. When discovered, technetium closely matched the prediction. [8][9]
Es Ekasilicon 32 Name given by Mendeleev to an as of then undiscovered element. When discovered, germanium closely matched the prediction. [8][9]
Es Esperium 94 Discredited claim to discovery of plutonium. [7]
Fa Francium 87 Current symbol is Fr. [6]
Fr Florentium 61 Discredited claim to discovery of promethium. [7]
Gl Glucinium 4 Former name of beryllium. [6]
Ha Hahnium 105 Proposed name for dubnium. [8]
Ha Hahnium 108 Proposed name for hassium. [8]
Il Illinium 61 Discredited claim to discovery of promethium. [7]
Jg Jargonium 72 Discredited claim to discovery of hafnium. [7]
Jo Joliotium 105 Proposed name for dubnium. [8]
Ku Kurchatovium 104 Proposed name for rutherfordium. [8]
Lw Lawrencium 103 Current symbol is Lr. [6]
M Muriaticum 17 Former name of chlorine. [6]
Ma Masurium 43 Disputed claim to discovery of technetium. [7]
Md Mendelevium 97 Proposed name for berkelium. The symbol and name were later used for element 101. [6][8]
Me Mendelevium 68 Suggested name for erbium. [6]
Ms Masrium 49 Discredited claim of discovery of indium. [7]
Mt Meitnium 91 Suggested name for protactinium. [8]
Mv Mendelevium 101 Current symbol is Md. [6]
Ng Norwegium 72 Discredited claim to discovery of hafnium. [7]
Ni Niton 86 Former name for radon. [6]
No Norium 72 Discredited claim to discovery of hafnium. [7]
Ns Nielsbohrium 105 Proposed name for dubnium. [8]
Ns Nielsbohrium 107 Proposed name for bohrium. [8]
Nt Niton 86 Suggested name for radon. [8]
Ny Neoytterbium 70 Former name of ytterbium. [6]
Od Odinium 62 Suggested name for samarium. [8]
Pc Policium 110 Proposed name for darmstadtium. [8]
Pe Pelopium 41 Former name for niobium. [6]
Po Potassium 19 Current symbol is K. [6]
Rf Rutherfordium 106 Proposed name for seaborgium. The symbol and name were instead used for element 104. [6][8]
Sa Samarium 62 Current symbol is Sm. [6]
So Sodium 11 Current symbol is Na. [6]
Sp Spectrium 70 Suggested name for ytterbium. [8]
St Antimony 51 Current symbol is Sb. [6]
Tn Tungsten 74 Current symbol is W. [6]
Tu Thulium 69 Current symbol is Tm. [6]
Tu Tungsten 74 Current symbol is W. [6]
Ty Tyrium 60 Suggested name for neodymium. [8]
Unb Unnilbium 102 Temporary name given to nobelium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
Une Unnilennium 109 Temporary name given to meitnerium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
Unh Unnilhexium 106 Temporary name given to seaborgium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
Uno Unniloctium 108 Temporary name given to hassium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
Unp Unnilpentium 105 Temporary name given to dubnium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
Unq Unnilquadium 104 Temporary name given to rutherfordium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
Uns Unnilseptium 107 Temporary name given to bohrium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
Unt Unniltrium 103 Temporary name given to lawrencium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
Unu Unnilunium 101 Temporary name given to mendelevium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
Uun Ununnilium 110 Temporary name given to darmstadtium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
Uuu Unununium 111 Temporary name given to roentgenium until it was permanently named by IUPAC. [9]
Vi Virginium 87 Discredited claim to discovery of francium. [7]
Vm Virginium 87 Discredited claim to discovery of francium. [7]
Yt Yttrium 39 Current symbol is Y. [6]
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Pictographic symbols

The following is a list of pictographic symbols employed to symbolize elements known since ancient times (for example to the alchemists). Not included in this list are symbolic representations of substances previously called elements (such as certain rare earth mineral blends and the classical elements fire and water of ancient philosophy) which are known today to be multi-atomic. Also not included are symbolic representations currently used for elements in other languages such as the Traditional Chinese elements. Modern alphabetic notation was introduced in 1814 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius.

Chemical symbol Original name Modern name Atomic number Origin of symbol Why Not Used
Sun symbol.svg Hydrogen Hydrogen 1 Daltonian symbol circa 1808. [6]
Sulfur symbol 1.png Sulfur Sulfur 16 Alchemical symbol. [6]
Sulfur symbol 2.png Pallas Sulfur 16 Alchemical symbol. [6]
Earth symbol.svg Sulfur Sulfur 16 Daltonian symbol circa 1808. [6]
Magnesium Magnesium 21 Alchemical symbol. [6]
Mars Iron 26 Alchemical symbol. [6]
Marian star four-tenths.svg Stellae Fixae Copper 29 Pre-1500s alchemical symbol. [6]
Venus Copper 29 Alchemical symbol. [6]
Copper symbol.svg Copper Copper 29 Alchemical symbol. [6]
© Copper Copper 29 Daltonian symbol circa 1808. [6]
Arsenic alchemical symbol.svg Arsenic Arsenic 33 Alchemical symbol. [6]
Crescent.svg Luna Silver 47 Alchemical symbol. [6]
Jupiter symbol.svg Iupiter Tin 50 Alchemical symbol. [6]
Antimony Antimony 51 Alchemical symbol. [6]
Antimony-symbol.png Antimony Antimony 51 Alchemical symbol. [6]
Platinum Platinum 78 Alchemical symbol. [6]
Platinum Platinum 78 Alchemical symbol. [6]
Uranus symbol.svg Uranus Platinum 78 Alchemical symbol. [6]
Sol Gold 79 Alchemical symbol from the 1500s [6]
Sun symbol.svg Sol Gold 79 Alchemical symbol from 1700 through 1783. [6]
Pisces Mercury 80 Pre-1500s alchemical symbol. [6]
Neptune symbol.svg Neptunus Mercury 80 Alchemical symbol from the 1600s. [6]
Mercury symbol.svg Mercurius Mercury 80 Alchemical symbol from 1700 through 1783. [6]
Saturn symbol.svg Saturnus Lead 82 Alchemical symbol circa 1783. [6]
Bismuth symbol.png Taurus Bismuth 83 Alchemical symbol. [6]

Symbols for named isotopes

The following is a list of isotopes of elements given in the previous tables which have been designated unique symbols. By this it is meant that a comprehensive list of current systematic symbols (in the uAtom form) are not included in the list and can instead be found in the Index to isotope pages chart. Some of the following symbols are no longer in use within the scientific community, however others (most notably some of the named isotopes of hydrogen) continue to be used today. Many of these symbols were designated during the early years of radiochemistry, and several isotopes (namely those in the actinium decay family, the radium decay family, and the thorium decay family) bear placeholder names using the early naming system devised by Ernest Rutherford. Although it is not an isotope, this is perhaps the most useful place to mention that H is the proposed symbol for the only created anti-element, antihydrogen.

Chemical Symbol Name Atomic Number Origin of Symbol
Ac Actinium 89 From the Greek aktinos. Name restricted at one time to 227Ac, an isotope of actinium. This named isotope later became the official name for element 89.
AcA Actinium A 84 From actinium and A. Placeholder name given at one time to 215Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of actinium.
AcB Actinium B 82 From actinium and B. Placeholder name given at one time to 211Pb, an isotope of lead identified in the decay chain of actinium.
AcC Actinium C 83 From actinium and C. Placeholder name given at one time to 211Bi, an isotope of bismuth identified in the decay chain of actinium.
AcC' Actinium C' 84 From actinium and C'. Placeholder name given at one time to 211Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of actinium.
AcC" Actinium C" 81 From actinium and C". Placeholder name given at one time to 207Tl, an isotope of thallium identified in the decay chain of actinium.
AcK Actinium K 87 Name given at one time to 223Fr, an isotope of francium identified in the decay chain of actinium.
AcU Actino-Uranium 92 Name given at one time to 235U, an isotope of uranium.
AcX Actinium X 88 Name given at one time to 223Ra, an isotope of radium identified in the decay chain of actinium.
An Actinon 86 From actinium and emanation. Name given at one time to 219Rn, an isotope of radon identified in the decay chain of actinium.
D Deuterium 1 From the Greek deuteros. Name given to 2H.
Io Ionium 90 Name given at one time to 230Th, an isotope of thorium identified in the decay chain of uranium.
MsTh1 Mesothorium 1 88 Name given at one time to 228Ra, an isotope of radium.
MsTh2 Mesothorium 2 89 Name given at one time to 228Ac, an isotope of actinium.
Pa Protactinium 91 From the Greek protos and actinium. Name restricted at one time to 231Pa, an isotope of protactinium. This named isotope later became the official name for element 91.
Ra Radium 88 From the Latin radius. Name restricted at one time to 226Ra, an isotope of radium. This named isotope later became the official name for element 88.
RaA Radium A 84 From radium and A. Placeholder name given at one time to 218Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaB Radium B 82 From radium and B. Placeholder name given at one time to 214Pb, an isotope of lead identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaC Radium C 83 From radium and C. Placeholder name given at one time to 214Bi, an isotope of bismuth identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaC' Radium C' 84 From radium and C'. Placeholder name given at one time to 214Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaC" Radium C" 81 From radium and C". Placeholder name given at one time to 210Tl, an isotope of thallium identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaD Radium D 82 From radium and D. Placeholder name given at one time to 210Pb, an isotope of lead identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaE Radium E 83 From radium and E. Placeholder name given at one time to 210Bi, an isotope of bismuth identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaE" Radium E" 81 From radium and E". Placeholder name given at one time to 206Tl, an isotope of thallium identified in the decay chain of radium.
RaF Radium F 84 From radium and F. Placeholder name given at one time to 210Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of radium.
RdAc Radioactinium 90 Name given at one time to 227Th, an isotope of thorium.
RdTh Radiothorium 90 Name given at one time to 228Th, an isotope of thorium.
Rn Radon 86 From radium and emanation. Name restricted at one time to 222Rn, an isotope of radon identified in the decay chain of radium. This named isotope later became the official name for element 86 in 1923.
T Tritium 1 From the Greek tritos. Name given to 3H.
Th Thorium 90 After Thor. Name restricted at one time to 232Th, an isotope of thorium. This named isotope later became the official name for element 90.
ThA Thorium A 84 From thorium and A. Placeholder name given at one time to 216Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of thorium.
ThB Thorium B 82 From thorium and B. Placeholder name given at one time to 212Pb, an isotope of lead identified in the decay chain of thorium.
ThC Thorium C 83 From thorium and C. Placeholder name given at one time to 212Bi, an isotope of bismuth identified in the decay chain of thorium.
ThC' Thorium C' 84 From thorium and C'. Placeholder name given at one time to 212Po, an isotope of polonium identified in the decay chain of thorium.
ThC" Thorium C" 81 From thorium and C". Placeholder name given at one time to 208Tl, an isotope of thallium identified in the decay chain of thorium.
ThX Thorium X 88 Name given at one time to 224Ra, an isotope of radium identified in the decay chain of thorium.
Tn Thoron 86 From thorium and emanation. Name given at one time to 220Rn, an isotope of radon identified in the decay chain of thorium.
UI Uranium I 92 Name given at one time to 238U, an isotope of uranium.
UII Uranium II 92 Name given at one time to 234U, an isotope of uranium.
UX1 Uranium X1 90 Name given at one time to 234Th, an isotope of thorium identified in the decay chain of uranium.
UX2 Uranium X2 91 Name given at one time to 234Pa, an isotope of protactinium identified in the decay chain of uranium.
UY Uranium Y 90 Name given at one time to 231Th, an isotope of thorium identified in the decay chain of uranium.
UZ Uranium Z 91 Name given at one time to 234Pa, an isotope of protactinium identified in the decay chain of uranium.

Other symbols that look like element symbols

General:

From organic chemistry:

From inorganic chemistry:

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj The element does not have any stable nuclides, and a value in brackets, e.g. [209], indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element. However, three elements, thorium, protactinium, and uranium, have a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, and thus their atomic mass given.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am The isotopic composition of this element varies in some geological specimens, and the variation may exceed the uncertainty stated in the table.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o The isotopic composition varies in terrestrial material such that a more precise atomic weight can not be given.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h The isotopic composition of the element can vary in commercial materials, which can cause the atomic weight to deviate significantly from the given value.
  5. ^ The atomic weight of commercial Lithium can vary between 6.939 and 6.996—analysis of the specific material is necessary to find a more accurate value.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az Name changed due to a standardization of, modernization of, or update to older formerly-used symbol.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Name designated by discredited/disputed claimant.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Name proposed prior to discovery/creation of element or prior to official re-naming of a placeholder name.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Temporary placeholder name.

References

External links


Simple English

This is a list of elements by symbol.

Chemical symbol Name Origin of symbol No. Atomic mass Density at 20°C Melting point °C Boiling point °C Year of discovery Discoverer
Ac Actinium 89 227,0278 g/mol 10,07 g/cm3 1047 °C 3197 °C 1899 Debierne
Ag Silver Latin Argentum 47 107,8682 g/mol 10,49 g/cm3 961,9 °C 2212 °C prehistoric unknown
Al Aluminium 13 26,981539 g/mol 2,70 g/cm3 660,5 °C 2467 °C 1825 Oersted
Am Americium 95 243,0614 g/mol 13,67 g/cm3 994 °C 2607 °C 1944 Seaborg
Ar Argon 18 39,948 g/mol 1,66 g/l -189,4 °C -185,9 °C 1894 Ramsay and Rayleigh
As Arsenic 33 74,92159 g/mol 5,72 g/cm3 613 °C 613 (Subl.) °C ca. 1250 Albertus Magnus
At Astatine 85 209,9871 g/mol 302 °C 337 °C 1940 Corson and MacKenzie
Au Gold Latin Aurum 79 196,96654 g/mol 19,32 g/cm3 1064,4 °C 2940 °C prehistoric unknown
B Boron 5 10,811 g/mol 2,46 g/cm3 2300 °C 2550 °C 1808 Davy and Gay-Lussac
Ba Barium 56 137,327 g/mol 3,65 g/cm3 725 °C 1640 °C 1808 Davy
Be Beryllium 4 9,012182 g/mol 1,85 g/cm3 1278 °C 2970 °C 1797 Vauquelin
Bh Bohrium 107 262,1229 g/mol 1976 Oganessian
Bi Bismuth 83 208,98037 g/mol 9,80 g/cm3 271,4 °C 1560 °C 1540 Agricola
Bk Berkelium 97 247,0703 g/mol 13,25 g/cm3 986 °C 1949 Seaborg
Br Brom 35 79,904 g/mol 3,14 g/cm3 -7,3 °C 58,8 °C 1826 Balard
C Carbon 6 12,011 g/mol 3,51 g/cm3 3550 °C 4827 °C prehistoric unknown
Ca Calcium 20 40,078 g/mol 1,54 g/cm3 839 °C 1487 °C 1808 Davy
Cd Cadmium 48 112,411 g/mol 8,64 g/cm3 321 °C 765 °C 1817 Stromeyer and Hermann
Ce Cerium 58 140,115 g/mol 6,77 g/cm3 798 °C 3257 °C 1803 von Hisinger and Berzelius
Cf Californium 98 251,0796 g/mol 15,1 g/cm3 900 °C 1950 Seaborg
Cl Chlorine 17 35,4527 g/mol 2,95 g/l -34,6 °C -101 °C 1774 Scheele
Cm Curium 96 247,0703 g/mol 13,51 g/cm3 1340 °C 1944 Seaborg
Co Cobalt 27 58,9332 g/mol 8,89 g/cm3 1495 °C 2870 °C 1735 Brandt
Cr Chromium 24 51,9961 g/mol 7,14 g/cm3 1857 °C 2482 °C 1797 Vauquelin
Cs Caesium 55 132,90543 g/mol 1,90 g/cm3 28,4 °C 690 °C 1860 Kirchhoff and Bunsen
Cu Copper Latin Cuprum 29 63,546 g/mol 8,92 g/cm3 1083,5 °C 2595 °C prehistoric unknown
Db Dubnium 105 262,1138 g/mol 1967/70 Flerow oder Ghiorso
Ds Darmstadtium 110 269 g/mol 1994 Society for Heavy Ion Research
Dy Dysprosium 66 162,5 g/mol 8,56 g/cm3 1409 °C 2335 °C 1886 Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Er Erbium 68 167,26 g/mol 9,05 g/cm3 1522 °C 2510 °C 1842 Mosander
Es Einsteinium 99 252,0829 g/mol 860 °C 1952 Seaborg
Eu Europium 63 151,965 g/mol 5,25 g/cm3 822 °C 1597 °C 1901 Demaçay
F Fluorine 9 18,9984032 g/mol 1,58 g/l -219,6 °C -188,1 °C 1886 Moissan
Fe Iron Latin Ferrum 26 55,847 g/mol 7,87 g/cm3 1535 °C 2750 °C prehistoric unknown
Fm Fermium 100 257,0951 g/mol 1952 Seaborg
Fr Francium 87 223,0197 g/mol 27 °C 677 °C 1939 Perey
Ga Gallium 31 69,723 g/mol 5,91 g/cm3 29,8 °C 2403 °C 1875 Lecoq de Boiskaudran
Gd Gadolinium 64 157,25 g/mol 7,89 g/cm3 1311 °C 3233 °C 1880 de Marignac
Ge Germanium 32 72,61 g/mol 5,32 g/cm3 937,4 °C 2830 °C 1886 Winkler
H Hydrogen 1 1,00794 g/mol 0,084 g/l -259,1 °C -252,9 °C 1766 Cavendish
He Helium 2 4,002602 g/mol 0,17 g/l -272,2 °C -268,9 °C 1895 Ramsay and Cleve
Hf Hafnium 72 178,49 g/mol 13,31 g/cm3 2150 °C 5400 °C 1923 Coster and vón Hevesy
Hg Mercury Latin Hydragyrum - quicksilver 80 200,59 g/mol 13,55 g/cm3 -38,9 °C 356,6 °C prehistoric unknown
Ho Holmium 67 164,93032 g/mol 8,78 g/cm3 1470 °C 2720 °C 1878 Soret
Hs Hassium 108 265 g/mol 1984 Society for Heavy Ion Research
I Iodine 53 126,90447 g/mol 4,94 g/cm3 113,5 °C 184,4 °C 1811 Courtois
In Indium 49 114,82 g/mol 7,31 g/cm3 156,2 °C 2080 °C 1863 Reich and Richter
Ir Iridium 77 192,22 g/mol 22,65 g/cm3 2410 °C 4130 °C 1803 Tenant and andere
K Potassium German Kalium 19 39,0983 g/mol 0,86 g/cm3 63,7 °C 774 °C 1807 Davy
Kr Krypton 36 83,8 g/mol 3,48 g/l -156,6 °C -152,3 °C 1898 Ramsay and Travers
La Lanthanum 57 138,9055 g/mol 6,16 g/cm3 920 °C 3454 °C 1839 Mosander
Li Lithium 3 6,941 g/mol 0,53 g/cm3 180,5 °C 1317 °C 1817 Arfvedson
Lr Lawrencium 103 260,1053 g/mol 1961 Ghiorso
Lu Lutetium 71 174,967 g/mol 9,84 g/cm3 1656 °C 3315 °C 1907 Urbain
Md Mendelevium 101 258,0986 g/mol 1955 Seaborg
Mg Magnesium 12 24,305 g/mol 1,74 g/cm3 648,8 °C 1107 °C 1755 Black
Mn Manganese 25 54,93805 g/mol 7,44 g/cm3 1244 °C 2097 °C 1774 Gahn
Mo Molybdenum 42 95,94 g/mol 10,28 g/cm3 2617 °C 5560 °C 1778 Scheele
Mt Meitnerium 109 266 g/mol 1982 Society for Heavy Ion Research
N Nitrogen 7 14,00674 g/mol 1,17 g/l -209,9 °C -195,8 °C 1772 Rutherford
Na Sodium Latin Natrium 11 22,989768 g/mol 0,97 g/cm3 97,8 °C 892 °C 1807 Davy
Nb Niobium 41 92,90638 g/mol 8,58 g/cm3 2468 °C 4927 °C 1801 Hatchet
Nd Neodymium 60 144,24 g/mol 7,00 g/cm3 1010 °C 3127 °C 1895 von Welsbach
Ne Neon 10 20,1797 g/mol 0,84 g/l -248,7 °C -246,1 °C 1898 Ramsay and Travers
Ni Nickel 28 58,69 g/mol 8,91 g/cm3 1453 °C 2732 °C 1751 Cronstedt
No Nobelium 102 259,1009 g/mol 1958 Seaborg
Np Neptunium 93 237,0482 g/mol 20,48 g/cm3 640 °C 3902 °C 1940 McMillan and Abelson
O Oxygen 8 15,9994 g/mol 1,33 g/l -218,4 °C -182,9 °C 1774 Priestley and Scheele
Os Osmium 76 190,2 g/mol 22,61 g/cm3 3045 °C 5027 °C 1803 Tenant
P Phosphorus 15 30,973762 g/mol 1,82 g/cm3 44 (P4) °C 280 (P4) °C 1669 Brandt
Pa Protactinium 91 231,0359 g/mol 15,37 g/cm3 1554 °C 4030 °C 1917 Soddy, Cranston and Hahn
Pb Lead Latin Plumbum 82 207,2 g/mol 11,34 g/cm3 327,5 °C 1740 °C prehistoric unknown
Pd Palladium 46 106,42 g/mol 12,02 g/cm3 1552 °C 3140 °C 1803 Wollaston
Pm Promethium 61 146,9151 g/mol 7,22 g/cm3 1080 °C 2730 °C 1945 Marinsky and Glendenin
Po Polonium 84 208,9824 g/mol 9,20 g/cm3 254 °C 962 °C 1898 Marie and Pierre Curie
Pr Praseodymium 59 140,90765 g/mol 6,48 g/cm3 931 °C 3212 °C 1895 von Welsbach
Pt Platinum 78 195,08 g/mol 21,45 g/cm3 1772 °C 3827 °C 1557 Scaliger
Pu Plutonium 94 244,0642 g/mol 19,74 g/cm3 641 °C 3327 °C 1940 Seaborg
Ra Radium 88 226,0254 g/mol 5,50 g/cm3 700 °C 1140 °C 1898 Marie and Pierre Curie
Rb Rubidium 37 85,4678 g/mol 1,53 g/cm3 39 °C 688 °C 1861 Bunsen and Kirchhoff
Re Rhenium 75 186,207 g/mol 21,03 g/cm3 3180 °C 5627 °C 1925 Noddack, Tacke and Berg
Rf Rutherfordium 104 261,1087 g/mol 1964/69 Flerow oder Ghiorso
Rg Roentgenium 111 272 g/mol 1994 Society for Heavy Ion Research
Rh Rhodium 45 102,9055 g/mol 12,41 g/cm3 1966 °C 3727 °C 1803 Wollaston
Rn Radon 86 222,0176 g/mol 9,23 g/l -71 °C -61,8 °C 1900 Dorn
Ru Ruthenium 44 101,07 g/mol 12,45 g/cm3 2310 °C 3900 °C 1844 Claus
S Sulphur 16 32,066 g/mol 2,06 g/cm3 113 °C 444,7 °C prehistoric unknown
Sb Antimony Latin Stibium 51 121,75 g/mol 6,69 g/cm3 630,7 °C 1750 °C prehistoric unknown
Sc Scandium 21 44,95591 g/mol 2,99 g/cm3 1539 °C 2832 °C 1879 Nilson
Se Selenium 34 78,96 g/mol 4,82 g/cm3 217 °C 685 °C 1817 Berzelius
Sg Seaborgium 106 263,1182 g/mol 1974 Oganessian
Si Silicon 14 28,0855 g/mol 2,33 g/cm3 1410 °C 2355 °C 1824 Berzelius
Sm Samarium 62 150,36 g/mol 7,54 g/cm3 1072 °C 1778 °C 1879 Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Sn Tin Latin Stannum 50 118,71 g/mol 7,29 g/cm3 232 °C 2270 °C prehistoric unknown
Sr Strontium 38 87,62 g/mol 2,63 g/cm3 769 °C 1384 °C 1790 Crawford
Ta Tantalum 73 180,9479 g/mol 16,68 g/cm3 2996 °C 5425 °C 1802 Ekeberg
Tb Terbium 65 158,92534 g/mol 8,25 g/cm3 1360 °C 3041 °C 1843 Mosander
Tc Technetium 43 98,9063 g/mol 11,49 g/cm3 2172 °C 5030 °C 1937 Perrier and Segrè
Te Tellurium 52 127,6 g/mol 6,25 g/cm3 449,6 °C 990 °C 1782 von Reichenstein
Th Thorium 90 232,0381 g/mol 11,72 g/cm3 1750 °C 4787 °C 1829 Berzelius
Ti Titanium 22 47,88 g/mol 4,51 g/cm3 1660 °C 3260 °C 1791 Gregor and Klaproth
Tl Thallium 81 204,3833 g/mol 11,85 g/cm3 303,6 °C 1457 °C 1861 Crookes
Tm Thulium 69 168,93421 g/mol 9,32 g/cm3 1545 °C 1727 °C 1879 Cleve
U Uranium 92 238,0289 g/mol 18,97 g/cm3 1132,4 °C 3818 °C 1789 Klaproth
Uub Ununbium 112 277 g/mol 1996 Society for Heavy Ion Research
Uuh Ununhexium 116
Uuo Ununoctium 118
Uup Ununpentium 115
Uug Ununquadium 114
Uus Ununseptium 117
Uut Ununtrium 113
V Vanadium 23 50,9415 g/mol 6,09 g/cm3 1890 °C 3380 °C 1801 del Rio
W Tungsten German Wolfram 74 183,85 g/mol 19,26 g/cm3 3407 °C 5927 °C 1783 Gebrüder de Elhuyar
Xe Xenon 54 131,29 g/mol 4,49 g/l -111,9 °C -107 °C 1898 Ramsay and Travers
Y Yttrium 39 88,90585 g/mol 4,47 g/cm3 1523 °C 3337 °C 1794 Gadolin
Yb Ytterbium 70 173,04 g/mol 6,97 g/cm3 824 °C 1193 °C 1878 de Marignac
Zn Zinc 30 65,39 g/mol 7,14 g/cm3 419,6 °C 907 °C prehistoric unknown
Zr Zirconium 40 91,224 g/mol 6,51 g/cm3 1852 °C 4377 °C 1789 Klaproth

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