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Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. This is a list of such cities, sorted by country and then by date.

Contents

Africa

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
Grand Bassam Côte d'Ivoire 1893 1900 moved to Bingerville
Bingerville Côte d'Ivoire 1900 1933 moved to Abidjan
Abidjan Côte d'Ivoire 1933 1983 moved to Yamoussoukro
Al-Fustat Egypt 641
905
750
969
moved to Al-Askar
moved to Cairo (see also: List of Egyptian capitals)
Otjimbingwe German South-West Africa 1886 1892 moved to Windhoek
Cape Coast Ghana (Gold Coast) 1664 1877 moved to Accra
Bolama Guinea-Bissau 1879 1941 moved to Bissau
Boe Guinea-Bissau 1973 1974 moved back to Bissau
Njimi Kanem fl. 11th Century c.1396 lost to Bulala invaders (eventually moved to Ngazargamu)
Ngazargamu Kanem-Bornu Empire c.1472 1808 lost to Fulani invaders (eventually moved to Kukawa)
Kukawa Kanem-Bornu Empire 1814 1893 Kingdom ceased to exist
Lagos Nigeria 1914 1976 moved to Abuja
Igbo Ukwu Kingdom of Nri 1043 1911 Nigeria
Aneho Togo 1880s 1897 moved to Lomé
Zomba Malawi 1880s 1975 moved to Lilongwe
Axum Ethiopia 50 A.D.  ?????? moved to Addis Ababa

Asia

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Central and South-West Asia

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
Kandahar Afghanistan 1748 1772 moved to Kabul
Ashur Assyria 3rd Millenium BC 800s BC moved to Calah
Calah Assyria 13th Century BC 710 BC Moved to Nineveh
Nineveh Assyria 1800 BC 600 BC Destroyed by Babylonians
Babylon Babylonia 24th Century BC 141 BC Conquered by Assyrians, Persians, Parthians, Alexander the Great, later abandoned completely
Susa, Anshan Iran (Proto-Elamite, Elam) 3200 BC 850 BC Conquered by Mannaeans
Zirta (Izirtu) Iran (Mannaeans) 850 BC 728 BC Conquered by Median Empire
Ecbatana Iran (Median Empire) 728 BC 550 BC captured by Cyrus the Great
Pasargadae Iran (Persian Empire) 559 BC 538 BC Capital moved to Susa by Cambyses II
Susa Iran (Persian Empire) 538 BC 515 BC Capital moved to Persepolis by Darius
Persepolis Iran (Persian Empire) 515 BC 331 BC captured by Alexander the Great and incorporated into Macedonian Empire
Seleucia Iran (Seleucid Empire) 305 BC 240 BC moved to Antioch
Antioch Iran (Seleucid Empire) 240 BC 64 BC conquered by Parthia
Ctesiphon, Hecatompylos, Mithridatkird-Nisa, Asaak Iran (Parthian Empire) 240 BC 224 conquered by Sassanid Empire
Firouzabad, Ctesiphon Iran (Sassanid Empire) 224 637 fell in Islamic conquest of Persia
Nishapur Iran (Tahirid dynasty) 821 873 conquered by Saffarid dynasty
Zaranj, Amol Iran (Saffarid dynasty, Alavids) 861 900 conquered by Samanid
Bukhara, Balkh, Samarkand, Herat Iran (Samanid dynasty) 875 999 conquered by Ghaznavids
Ghazni Iran (Ghaznavids, Ghurids) 963 1212 conquered by Seljuq dynasty
Nishapur, Rey, Konye-Urgench Iran (Seljuq dynasty, Khwarezmid dynasty) 1037 1231 conquered by Ilkhanate
Maragheh, Soltaniyeh, Tabriz, Samarkand, Herat Iran (Ilkhanate, Timurid dynasty) 1231 1506 conquered by Safavid Dynasty
Tabriz Iran (Safavid Dynasty) 1501 1548 moved to Qazvin
Qazvin Iran (Safavid Dynasty) 1548 1598 moved to Isfahan
Isfahan Iran (Safavid Dynasty) 1598 1736 moved to Mashhad
Mashhad Iran (Afsharid dynasty) 1736 1750 moved to Shiraz
Shiraz Iran (Zand dynasty) 1750 1794 moved to Tehran in the Qajar dynasty
Hebron Israel, Kingdom of c.1007 BC c.1000 BC moved to Jerusalem when the kingdom was reunited under King David
Tel Aviv Israel, State of May 1948 Dec 1948 interim de facto capital, moved to Jerusalem after captured from Jordanian forces in 1948 Arab-Israeli War
Jerusalem Jerusalem, Kingdom of 1099 1187 moved to Acre (Jerusalem captured by Saladin)
Acre Jerusalem, Kingdom of 1187 1291 Kingdom ceased to exist
Semey Kazakhstan (Alash Orda) 1917 1920 Entity named Kyrgyz ASSR established, capital moved to Orenburg
Orenburg Kazakhstan (Kyrgyz ASSR) 1920 1925 moved to Qyzylorda
Qyzylorda Kazakhstan (Kazakh ASSR) 1926 1929 moved to Alma-Ata
Alma-Ata Kazakhstan (Kazakh ASSR, Kazakh SSR, independent Kazakhstan) 1929 1993 renamed Almaty
Almaty Kazakhstan 1993 1998 moved to Astana
Salalah Oman 1932 1970 moved to Musqat
Diriyah Saudi Arabia 1744 1818 moved to Riyadh after the Turks destroyed the city.
Aden South Yemen 1967 1990 San'a, country ceased to exist after unification of Yemen
Samarkand Uzbekistan (SSR) 1925 1930 moved to Tashkent
Taiz Yemen 1948 1962 moved to San'a

South and South-East Asia

Old capital city Country, empire Period(s) Change, reason
Malolos Filipina, República 1898-1899 Headquarters of the Revolutionary movement (Note: Several other towns became capitals at a succeeding rate, namely San Isidro, Cabanatuan, Bamban, Tarlac, Bayambang and Palanan, to avoid capture from the Americans). Moved back to Manila after capture of Aguinaldo on 1901.
Calcutta India (British) 1772 - 1912 moved to New Delhi
Simla India (British) fl.1850 - 1947 Summer capital
Yogyakarta Indonesia 1946 - 1948 Allied invasion, moved to Bukittinggi
Bukittinggi 1948 - 1949 moved to Jakarta
Marawi Maguindanao Sultanate ~1205 - 1800s (?) Annexed into the Spanish East Indies
Yangon Myanmar 1948 - 2005 moved to Naypyidaw
Bacolod Negros, Cantonal Republic 1898 - 1899 absorbed by the Philippines.
Karachi Pakistan 1947 - 1959 moved to Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi 1959 - 1967 moved to Islamabad
Manila Philippine Commonwealth 1934 - 1941 Japanese occupation. Moved back to Manila in 1945 after the liberation of the Philippines
Philippine Republic, Japanese-sponsored 1943 - 1945 Liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese
Baguio Philippines 1946 - 1976 Summer Capital, moved back to Manila via Presidential Decree No. 940.
Quezon City 1948 - 1976 Moved back to Manila via Presidential Decree No. 940. Quezon City, with Manila, became parts of Metro Manila. Several government offices remained in Quezon City, including the Batasang Pambansa, and ultimately the House of Representatives. Manila is the current capital.
Cebu Spanish East Indies 1562 - 1578 (?) First Spanish settlement in the country. Moved to Manila (Formerly Maynilad) after capture.
Manila ~1578 - 1762 Captured by the British during the Seven Years' War, returned to Spain after the Treaty of Paris.
Bacolor 1762 - 1764 Capital of the exiled government Governor-general Simon de Anda during the Seven Years' War. Moved back to Manila
Manila 1764 - 1901 Ceded to the United States via Treaty of Paris
Anuradapura Lanka (Sri Lanka) ~382BC - 1018 Capital moved to possibly Polonnaruwa
Polonnaruwa Sri Lanka ~1055 - 1284 Capital moved to Dambadeniya
Kotte ~1415 - ~1565 Capital moved to Kandy
Kandy 1592 - 1815 Capital moved to Colombo
Colombo 1815 - 1982 Capital moved to Kotte
Jolo Sulu Sultanate 1450 (?) - 1899 Annexed by the United States
Sukhothai Thailand (Kingdom of Siam) 1238 - 1438 moved to Ayutthaya after sacked by Ayutthaya
Chiang Mai (Lanna) Thailand (Kingdom of Siam) 1259 - 1939 Annexed by Siam
Ayutthaya Thailand (Kingdom of Siam) 1350 - 1767 moved to Thonburi after the Burmese destroyed the city
Thonburi Thailand (Kingdom of Siam) 1767 - 1782 moved to Bangkok after King Taksin was declared mad
Luang Prabang Lan Xang TBA - 1707 broke into Luang Prabang, Vientiane and Champassak
Kingdom of Laos 1949 – 1975 abdication of King Savang Vatthana; the second capital
Vientiane Lan Xang 1354 – TBA moved to Luang Prabang
Vientiane Lao 1707 (?) - 1828 incorporated to Siam, then absorbed into French Indochina (in 1893)
Kingdom of Laos 1949 – 1975 abdication of King Savang Vatthana
TBA Champasak Kingdom 1713 - 1946 united Laos
Phnom Penh Colonial Cambodia 1863 – 1887 annexed by France; moved to Saigon
Phong Châu Văn Lang (Hồng Bàng Dynasty) 2879BC - 258BC annexed by Thục Dynasty
Vạn Xuân (Hậu Lý Nam Đế) 571 - 602 Third Chinese domination
Cổ Loa Âu Lạc (Thục Dynasty) 257BC - 207BC First Chinese domination
(Ngô Dynasty) 938 - 967 the upheavals of Twelve warlords
Mê Linh (Trưng Sisters) 40 - 43 Second Chinese domination
Long Biên Vạn Xuân (Anterior Lý dynasty and Triệu Việt Vương) 544 - 571 moved to Phong Châu
Hoa Lư Đại Cồ Việt (Đinh Dynasty) 968 - 980
Đại Cồ Việt (Early Lê Dynasty) 980 - 1009 moved to Đại La, then renamed into Thăng Long
Tây Đô Đại Ngu (Hồ Dynasty) 1400 - 1407 Fourth Chinese domination; it was the first capital of Hồ Dynasty
Đại Việt-Nam Triều (Restored Lê Dynasty) 1533 - 1592 moved to Thăng Long after defeating Mạc Dynasty
Phú Xuân/Huế Đại Việt-Đàng Trong (Nguyễn Lords) 1558 – 1777 Tây Sơn Dynasty unified Đại Việt
Đại Việt (Tây Sơn Dynasty) 1788 – 1802
Vietnam (Nguyễn Dynasty) 1802 – 1945 moved to Hanoi after the abdication of Emperor Bảo Đại
Empire of Vietnam 1945 August Revolution
An Nam 1874 - 1955 annexed by France, Geneva Conference (1954) led to the Partition of Vietnam
Saigon/Ho Chi Minh City French Indochina 1887-1901 moved to Hanoi
State of Vietnam 1949–1955 Geneva Conference (1954) led to the Partition of Vietnam; renamed Saigon into Ho Chi Minh City
Vietnam, South 1954 - 1975 Hanoi, country ceased to exist after unification of Vietnam
Thăng Long/Hanoi Đại Việt ( & Trần Dynasties) 1010 - 1400 Trần Dynasty renovated Thăng Long and renamed to Long Phượng
Đại Ngu (Hồ Dynasty) 1400 - 1407 Fourth Chinese domination; renamed Thăng Long to Đông Đô, the second capital
Đại Việt (Later Lê Dynasty) 1428 - 1527 Southern and Northern Dynasties of Vietnam
Đại Việt-Bắc Triều (Mạc Dynasty) 1533 - 1592 defeated by Trịnh Lords; renamed again to Đông Đô
Đại Việt-Đàng Ngoài (Later Lê Dynasty - Trịnh Lords) 1593 - 1788 Thăng Long was destroyed by Qing Dynasty and Tây Sơn Dynasty unified Đại Việt, then moved to Phú Xuân; renamed to Bắc Thành
French Indochina 1902-1953 Geneva Conference (1954) led to the Partition of Vietnam; in 1831, Emperor Minh Mạng renamed Thăng Long to Hanoi (Hà Nội)
Vietnam, North 1954–1976 unification of Vietnam

East Asia

Old capital city Country, empire Period(s) Change, reason
Anyang China (Shang Dynasty) c.1600BC - c.1046BC moved to Chang'an - end of Shang Dynasty
Chang'an China (Zhou Dynasty) c.1046BC - 722BC moved to Luoyang
Luoyang China (Zhou Dynasty) 772BC - 221BC moved to Xianyang - fall of Zhou Dynasty
Xianyang China (Qin Dynasty) 221BC - 206BC moved back to Chang'an - fall of Qin Dynasty
Chang'an China (Han Dynasty) 206BC - 25 moved back to Luoyang
Luoyang China (Han Dynasty) 25 - 220 fall of the Han Dynasty marking the beginning of the Six Dynasties period
Chang'an China (Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty) 581 - 907 fall of the Tang Dynasty marking the beginning of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
Kaifeng China (Song Dynasty) 960 - 1127 moved to Hangzhou
Hangzhou China (Song Dynasty) 1127 - 1279 Kublai Khan integrated China into the Mongol Empire
Nanjing China (Ming Dynasty) 1368 - 1421 moved to Beijing
Nanjing China, Republic of 1928 - 1937 moved to Chongqing
Chongqing 1937 - 1945 moved back to Nanjing
Nanjing 1945 - 1949 moved to Beijing - After the proclamation of the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China government fled to Taiwan and made Taipei the capital.
Hakodate Ezo, Republic of 1868 - 1869 Ezo annexed by Japan
Taipei Formosa, Republic of 1895 - 1895 moved to Tainan
Tainan 1895 - 1895 Formosa annexed by Japan
Heijō-kyō (Nara) Japan (Nara Period) 710 - 784 moved to Nagaoka-kyō (Nagaoka)
Nagaoka-kyō (Nagaoka) Japan (Nara Period) 784 - 794 moved to Kyoto
Kyoto Japan 794 - 1868 moved to Tokyo (see also: Capital of Japan)
Gyeongju Korea (Silla) 57BC - 935 moved to Gaegyeong - fall of Silla
Ungjin, Sabi Korea (Baekje) 476 - 660 fall of Baekje
Gaegyeong Korea (Goryeo) 936 - 1392 moved to Hanyang (Seoul) - fall of Goryeo Dynasty
Shuri Ryūkyū 1429 - 1879 Annexed by Japan
Tainan Tungning, Kingdom of 1662 - 1683 Fall of the Kingdom of Tungning

Europe

Northern Europe

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
Roskilde Denmark c.1020 1443 moved to Copenhagen
Winchester England, Kingdom of Wessex 519 1066 moved to London
Turku Finland, Grand Duchy of 1809 1812 moved to Helsinki
Hill of Tara Ireland (under the High Kings) 6th century 12th century Ireland invaded by Normans
Kilkenny Ireland, Confederate 1642 1651 Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
Kaunas Lithuania (details) 1922 1940 moved back to Vilnius
Nidaros, now known as Trondheim Norway 997 1070 moved to Bergen
Bjørgvin, now known as Bergen Norway 1070 1299 moved to Oslo
Christiania Norway 1624 1924 (also written Kristiania from ca. 1877), renamed Oslo
Scone, near Perth Scotland 846 1452 moved to Edinburgh
Sigtuna Sweden 1010 1187 moved to Stockholm
Machynlleth Wales 1404 1416 seat of Owain Glyndŵr's self-proclaimed parliament. Capital declared to be Cardiff in 1955

Southern Europe

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
Vlorë Albania 1912 1920 moved briefly to Durres and finally Tirana.
Pliska Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire) 681 893 moved to Preslav
Preslav Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire) 893 972 moved to Ohrid
Ohrid Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire) 990 1015 Empire ceased to exist after Byzantine conquest
Veliko Tarnovo Bulgaria (Second Bulgarian Empire) 1185 1396 Empire ceases to exist after the Ottoman conquest
Plovdiv Eastern Rumelia 1878 1885 annexed as part of the Unification of Bulgaria
Constantinople Byzantine Empire 1204 1261 After the fourth crusade, the Byzantine Greeks formed the splinter kingdoms of: The Empire of Nicaea (mightiest of the three) with Nicaea as capital, the Despotate of Epiros with Arta as capital, and the Empire of Trebizond with Trebizond as capital.
Nicaea Byzantine Empire 1261 1453 When the Empire of Nicaea recaptured Constantinople, they relocated the capital there as well
Constantinople Byzantine Empire 330 1453 Empire fell to Ottoman Empire which kept the city as its new capital.
Burgos Castile 11th century 15th century moved to Valladolid
Corte Corsica 1755 1769 Corsican Republic annexed by France
Corte Anglo-Corsican Kingdom 1794 1795 moved to Bastia
Bastia Anglo-Corsican Kingdom 1795 1796 Corsican Kingdom annexed by France
Santiago Couto Mixto  ? 1864 Couto Mixto annexed by Spain
Chania Crete 1898 1913 Cretan State united with Greece
Fiume/Rijeka Fiume, Free State of 1920 1924 annexed by Kingdom of Italy
Genoa Genoa, Republic of 11th century 1805 annexed by France
Granada Granada, Kingdom of 1250 1492 Kingdom ceased to exist after the Reconquista and incorporated into Castile
Nafplion Greece 1821 1836 moved to Athens
Aegina Greece 1827 1829 moved back to Nafplion
Turin Italy 1861 1865 moved to Florence
Florence Italy 1865 1871 moved to Rome
Salerno Italy 1944 1944 temporarily; moved to Rome after the latter's liberation
Mdina Malta 1566 moved to Valletta
Modena Modena, Duchy of 1452 1860 became part of united Italy
Cetinje Montenegro 1482 1946 moved to Podgorica
Naples Naples, Kingdom of 1282 1816 Kingdom of Naples merged into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Bursa Ottoman empire 1335 1365 moved to Edirne
Edirne Ottoman empire 1365 1453 moved to Istanbul (Constantinople)
Istanbul Ottoman empire 1453 1923 The Ottoman Empire became the Republic of Turkey. The capital moved to Ankara
Piacenza Piacenza and Parma, Duchy of 1545 1547 moved to Parma, following the assassination of the Duke Pierluigi Farnese
Parma Parma and Piacenza, Duchy of 1547 1860 Became part of united Italy.
Guimarães Portugal 1095 1131 moved to Coimbra
Coimbra Portugal 1131 1255 moved to Lisbon
Turin Sardinia, Kingdom of 1720 1861 Became part of unified Italy
Turin Savoy, Duchy of 1563 1720 Became part of Kingdom of Sardinia.
Ras Serbia 950 1200 capital of Serbian midieval state Raska moved to Debrc
Debrc Serbia 1276 1289 moved to Belgrade
Prizren Serbia 1300 1345 moved to Skoplje
Skoplje Serbia 1345 1371 capital of Serbian Empire, now capital of Macedonia
Smederevo Serbia 1430 1453 capital of Serbian Despotate
Subotica Serbia 1526 1527 capital of Serbia, moved to Kragujevac
Kragujevac Serbia 1818 1841 moved to Belgrade
Palermo Sicily 1130 1816 Kingdom merged into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Toledo Spain 15th Century 1561 moved to Madrid
Valladolid Spain 1600 1606 moved to Madrid
Valencia Spain 1936 1939 Government of the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War
Trieste Trieste, Free Territory of 1947 1954 Territory dissolved, integrated into Italy and Yugoslavia
Florence Tuscany 1569 1860 became part of unified Italy
Naples Two Sicilies, Kingdom of the 1816 1861 became part of unified Italy
Belgrade Yugoslavia 1918 2003 State union dissolved, became capital of Serbia
Venice Venice, Republic of fl. 9th century 1797 annexed by Austria

Western Europe

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
Aachen Holy Roman Empire Carolingian Empire 800 814 became capital of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus of the Holy Roman Empire and the Emperior of the Carolingian Empire
Vienna Holy Roman Empire 1558 1806 became capital in Austrian Empire
Vienna Austrian Empire 1806 1867 became capital in Austro-Hungarian Empire
Vienna Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867 1918 became capital in Republic of Austria
Karlsruhe Baden 1771 1918 Baden became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Karlsruhe remained the capital of the German state of Baden until 1945.
Munich Bavaria 14th century 1918 Bavaria became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Munich remains the capital of the German state of Bavaria.
Vichy France 1940 1944 capital of Vichy France régime
Berlin German Empire 1871 1945 Separation of Germany to occupation zones for the Allied powers
Bonn Germany, West 1949 1990 moved to Berlin after re-unification of Germany
East Berlin Germany, East 1949 1990 Berlin, country ceased to exist after re-unification of Germany
Kelmis Neutral Moresnet 1816 1919 Moresnet annexed by Belgium
Heidelberg Palatinate 14th century 1720 moved to Mannheim
Mannheim Palatinate 1720 1777 Palatinate inherited by the Electors of Bavaria.
Dresden Saxony 1485 1918 Saxony became part of the German Empire in 1871, and Saxony lost its independence fully in 1918. Dresden remains the capital of the German state of Saxony.
Aarau Switzerland (Helvetic Republic) 1798 1798 moved to Lucerne
Lucerne Switzerland (Helvetic Republic) 1798 1803 Helvetic Republic abolished
Stuttgart Württemberg ca. 1300 1918 Württemberg became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Stuttgart remained the capital of the German state of Württemberg until 1947, and then became capital of the German state of Baden-Württemberg

Eastern Europe

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
Mtskheta Georgia 3 century BC 5 century AD moved to Tbilisi
Kutaisi Georgia 978 1122 move back to Tbilisi
Suceava Moldavia c. 1380 1564 moved to Iaşi
Iaşi Moldavia 1565 1862 unified with Wallachia to form Romania
Vladimir Russia (Vladimir-Suzdal) 1169 1327 moved to Moscow
Moscow Russia (Muscovite) 1327 1712 moved to Saint Petersburg
Yaroslavl Russia (Muscovite) 1611 1612 de facto
Cherkassk Russia (Cossack Hetmanate) 1640 1805 moved to Novocherkassk
Novocherkassk Russia (Cossack Hetmanate) 1805 January 7, 1920 Don Cossacks lost sovereignty
Saint Petersburg (Petrograd) Russian Empire 1712 1918 moved to Moscow
Moscow Soviet Union 1922 1991 State union dissolved, Became capital of Russia
Kiev Ukraine (Kievan Rus) 882 1169 moved to Halych
Chyhyryn Ukraine (Cossack Hetmanate) 1648 1669 moved to Baturyn
Baturyn Ukraine (Cossack Hetmanate) 1669 1708 moved to Hlukhiv after demolition of the city by Russian forces
Hlukhiv Ukraine (Cossack Hetmanate) 1708 1722 Cossack Hetmanate lost its sovereignty
Hlukhiv Ukraine (Cossack Hetmanate) 1727 1734 Cossack Hetmanate lost its sovereignty
Baturyn Ukraine (Cossack Hetmanate) 1750 1764 Cossack Hetmanate lost its sovereignty
Kiev Ukraine (UNR) 1917 1920 Ukrainian People's Republic lost its sovereignty
Kharkiv Ukraine (SSR) 1919 1934 moved to Kiev

Central Europe

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
Pliska Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire) 681 893 moved to Preslav
Preslav Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire) 893 972 moved to Ohrid
Ohrid Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire) 990 1015 Empire ceased to exist after Byzantine conquest
Veliko Tarnovo Bulgaria (Second Bulgarian Empire) 1185 1396 Empire ceases to exist after the Ottoman conquest
Plovdiv Eastern Rumelia 1878 1885 annexed as part of the Unification of Bulgaria
Varaždin Croatia 1756 1776 Moved back to Zagreb,when a fire destroyed most of the city.
Prague Czechoslovakia 1918 1993 became capital in Czech Republic
Székesfehérvár and Esztergom Hungary 972 (or 973) 1256 The capital moved from Esztergom to Buda after most of the city was destroyed by the Mongols in 1242
Buda Hungary 1361 1536 moved to Pozsony after part of the nation captured by Ottoman Empire
Pressburg (Pozsony) Hungary, Royal 1536 1784 The Capital was here because Turks captured Buda, in 1784 it was moved back to Buda
Buda Hungary 1784 1849 becomes part of Austria, capital in Vienna
Buda Hungary (as part of Austro-Hungarian Empire) 1867 1873 united with Óbuda and Pest to become Budapest
Płock Masovia c.1038 1047 Masovia reincorporated into Poland
Płock Masovia 1138 1313 moved to Czersk
Czersk Masovia 1313 1413 moved to Warsaw
Warsaw Masovia 1413 1526 Masovia reincorporated into Poland
Cetinje Montenegro 1482 1946 moved to Podgorica
Gniezno Poland 10th century 1038 moved to Kraków
Poznań Poland 10th century 1038 moved to Kraków
Kraków Poland 1038 1079 moved to Płock
Płock Poland 1079 1138 moved to Kraków
Kraków Poland 1138 1290 moved to Poznań
Poznań Poland 1290 1296 moved to Kraków
Kraków Poland 1296 1596 moved to Warsaw
Lublin Poland 1944 1945 de facto capital
Łódź Poland 1945 1947 de facto capital
Ras Serbia 950 1200 capital of Serbian midieval state Raska moved to Debrc
Debrc Serbia 1276 1289 moved to Belgrade
Prizren Serbia 1300 1345 moved to Skoplje
Skoplje Serbia 1345 1371 capital of Serbian Empire, now capital of Macedonia
Smederevo Serbia 1430 1453 capital of Serbian Despotate
Subotica Serbia 1526 1527 capital of Serbia, moved to Kragujevac
Kragujevac Serbia 1818 1841 moved to Belgrade
Câmpulung Wallachia fl.13th Century fl.15th Century moved to Târgovişte
Târgovişte Wallachia 1396 1698 moved to Bucharest
Belgrade Yugoslavia 1918 2003 State union dissolved, became capital of Serbia

Oceania

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
Levuka Fiji 1874 1877 moved to Suva
Jabor Marshall Islands 1885 1944 moved to Majuro
Kolonia Micronesia, Federated States of 1914 1999 moved to Palikir
Russell New Zealand 1840 1841 moved to Auckland
Auckland New Zealand 1841 1865 moved to Wellington
Koror Palau 1994 2007 moved to Melekeok
Tulaghi Solomon Islands 1896 1942 moved to Honiara

Note: Melbourne is sometimes said to have been the inaugural capital of Australia, from 1901 until 1927, when Parliament House, Canberra was opened. This is not so. Section 125 of the Constitution of Australia states that the seat of government is to be within the state of New South Wales but not less than 100 miles from Sydney, and that until that place (Canberra) was built, the Parliament of Australia would meet at Melbourne. That made Melbourne the de facto (but not de jure) seat of government 1901-1927, but it did not amount to Melbourne being declared the capital, and it was never so described in contemporary documents.

North America

For the historical capitals of the United States, the Confederate States of America, the Republic of Texas, the Vermont Republic, the Kingdom and Republic of Hawaii, as well as various unrecognized nations within the present United States, see Former national capitals in the United States.

For the many capitals of the former Province of Canada, see that article

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
James Town Barbados 1625 1628 moved to Bridgetown, purpose built
St. George Bermuda 1612 1815 moved to Hamilton
Belize City British Honduras 1638 1970 moved to Belmopan
Chan Santa Cruz Chan Santa Cruz c.1852 1901 became part of Mexico
Cartago Costa Rica 1562 1823 moved to San José
Santiago de Cuba Cuba 1522 1589 moved (after 1607 in Havana)
Spanish Town Jamaica 1534 1872 moved to Kingston
Quetzaltenango Los Altos 1838 1840 country ceased to exist
St. John's Newfoundland 1855 1949 entered confederation with Canada
Washington, D.C. Philippine Commonwealth May 1942 October 1944 returned to the Philippines
Washington Texas, Republic of 1836 1836 moved to Harrisburg
Harrisburg Texas, Republic of 1836 1836 moved to Galveston
Galveston Texas, Republic of 1836 1836 moved to Velasco
Velasco Texas, Republic of 1836 1836 moved to West Columbia
West Columbia Texas, Republic of 1836 1836 moved to Houston
Houston Texas, Republic of 1836 1839 moved to Austin
Austin Texas, Republic of 1839 1845 Texas annexed by USA
San Jose de Oruña Trinidad 1592 1783 moved to Port of Spain
New York City United States 1785 1790 moved to Philadelphia
Philadelphia United States 1790 1800 moved to Washington D. C.
Port of Spain West Indies Federation 1958 1962 country ceased to exist
Mérida Yucatán 1840 1847 Yucatán annexed by Mexico

South America

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
Cuzco Inca Empire fl.13th Century c.1533 moved to Lima after the Spanish conquest
Coro Venezuela, Captaincy General of 1527 1578 moved to Caracas to prevent an invasion due to its large coastline.
Antimary Acre, Republic of 1899 1900 returned to Bolivia, then incorporated into Brazil
Perquenco Araucanía and Patagonia, Kingdom of 1860  ? incorporated to Chile and Argentina
Paraná Argentine Confederation 1853 1861 moved to Buenos Aires, after the dissolved State of Buenos Ayres joined Argentina
Salvador da Bahia Brazil 1549 1763 moved to Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro Portugal 1808 1815 became capital of Portugal when the Portuguese king John VI moved to the colony of Brazil during the war with Napoleonic France in 1808.
Rio de Janeiro Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve; Kingdom of 1815 1825 It came into being when the colony of Brazil was elevated to the rank of a Kingdom, and the Kingdoms of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarve were united as a single State by the title of The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarve by a Law issued on December 16, 1815.
Rio de Janeiro Brazil 1763 1960 moved to Brasília
Concepción Chile, Kingdom of 1565 1575 moved to Santiago
Concepción
del Uruguay
Entre Rios,
Republic of
1820 1821 country dissolved (and incorporated to Argentina) after the death of Francisco Ramírez
Laguna Juliana Republic 1836 1836 reincorpored to the Brazilian Empire after the War of the Farrapos
Purificación Liga Federal 1815 1820 country dissolved
Tacna Peru-Bolivian Confederation 1837 1839 country ceased to exist
Piratini Riograndense Republic 1836 1845 reincorpored to the Brazilian Empire after the War of the Farrapos

See also

References


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