List of heads of state of Greece: Wikis

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Greece

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Politics and government of
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This is a list of the heads of state of Greece, from the international recognition of autonomy of the modern nation state in 1828, during the last stages of the Greek War of Independence, until the present day.

Contents

First Hellenic Republic (1828-1833)

Governor[1] Picture Life Term of office Comments
Ioannis Kapodistrias Ioannis Kapodistrias (1776-1831).jpg 1776-1831 24 January 1828-
9 October 1831
Assassinated in 1831.
Augustinos Kapodistrias 1778-1857 9 October 1831-
9 April 1832
President of the Provisional Government Commission.
Governing Council 9 April 1832-
2 February 1833
Collective leadership pending the establishment of a stable government.

Kingdom of Greece (1833-1924)

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House of Wittelsbach (1832-1862)

King[2] Picture Life Term of office Comments
Otto Otto of Greece.jpg 1815-1867 6 February 1833-
23 October 1862
Until 13 June 1835 with a regency council[3], deposed in 1862.
Regency council 23 October 1862-
30 March 1863
Collective regency pending the election of a new king.

House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (1863-1924)

King[4] Picture Life Term of office Comments
George I King George of Hellenes.jpg 1845-1913 30 March 1863-
18 March 1913
Assassinated in 1913.
Constantine I Constantine1 Greece.jpg 1868-1923 18 March 1913-
11 June 1917
Went into exile and abdicated in 1917 in favour of his second son Alexander.
Alexander Alexander I of Greece.png 1893-1920 11 June 1917-
25 October 1920
Died in office.

After the death of Alexander the succession proved problematic, as the Venizelist government at first favoured Alexander's younger brother Paul. As Paul refused to pass by his father Constantine and his elder brother George, the government favoured a republican government and established a regency pending a decision on the matter.

Regent Picture Life Term of office Comments
Admiral
Pavlos Kountouriotis
Kountouriotis.jpg 1855-1935 25 October 1920-
17 November 1920
Resigned after the electoral defeat of the Venizelists.
Queen Mother
Olga
Olga of Greece VI.jpg 1851-1926 17 November 1920-
19 December 1920

The new government held a plebiscite, which resulted in an overwhelming majority for the return of King Constantine I.

King[4] Picture Life Term of office Comments
Constantine I Constantine1 Greece.jpg 1868-1923 19 December 1920-
27 September 1922
Abdicated again in 1922
after the Asia Minor Disaster.
George II Georgeiiofgreece.jpg 1890-1947 27 September 1922-
25 March 1924
Exiled on 19 December 1923, deposed on 25 March 1924.

Second Hellenic Republic (1924-1935)

President Picture Life Term of office Comments
Admiral
Pavlos Kountouriotis
Kountouriotis.jpg 1855-1935 25 March 1924-
15 March 1926
Elected by Parliament,
resigned over General Pangalos' dictatorship.
General
Theodoros Pangalos
Pangalos.jpg 1878-1952 15 March 1926-
24 August 1926
Military dictator,
self-appointed President,
overthrown by minister Georgios Kondylis.
Admiral
Pavlos Kountouriotis
Kountouriotis.jpg 1855-1935 24 August 1926-
9 December 1929
Restored to office by Kondylis, re-elected in 1929,
resigned due to ill health.
Alexandros Zaimis Zaimis.jpg 1855-1936 9 December 1929-
10 October 1935
Overthrown by military revolt.

Kingdom of Greece (1935-1973)

Regent Picture Life Term of office Comments
Georgios Kondylis Georgios Kondylis.jpg 1879-1936 10 October 1935-
25 November 1935
Appointed himself Regent pending the return of King George II.

House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (1935-1973)

King[4] Picture Life Term of office Comments
George II Georgeiiofgreece.jpg 1890-1947 3 November 1935-
1 April 1947
Died childless and was succeeded by his younger brother Paul.
Paul Paul of Greece.jpg 1901-1964 1 April 1947-
6 March 1964
Succeeded by his son Constantine.
Constantine II Constantine II of Greece (1959).jpg 1940- 6 March 1964-
1 June 1973
Went into exile on 13 December 1967 after a failed counter-coup against the military regime ruling since 21 April 1967.

Military Dictatorship (1967-1974)

The regime of the colonels was established in a military coup led by Colonel Georgios Papadopoulos on 21 April 1967. When King Constantine II went into exile on 13 December, his constitutional role was assumed by regents appointed by the military junta.

Regent Picture Life Term of office Comments
General
Georgios Zoitakis
1910-1996 13 December 1967-
21 March 1972
Colonel
Georgios Papadopoulos
Gpap.PNG 1919-1999 21 March 1972-
1 June 1973

On 1 June 1973 the junta abolished the monarchy and replaced it with a presidential republic.

President Picture Life Term of office Comments
Colonel
Georgios Papadopoulos
Gpap.PNG 1919-1999 1 June 1973-
25 November 1973
General
Phaedon Gizikis
Gizikis.jpg 1917-1999 25 November 1973-
18 December 1974
appointed after a coup led by Brigadier Dimitrios Ioannides,
remained transitional President after the fall of the regime.

Third Hellenic Republic (since 1974)

In 1974, the military junta was overthrown and democracy restored. A second referendum, held on 8 December 1974, confirmed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the current parliamentary republic, with the President of the Republic as the head of state.

President Picture Life Term of office Comments
Michail Stasinopoulos Stasinopoulos.jpg 1903-2002 18 December 1974-
19 June 1975
President pro tempore
Constantine Tsatsos Tsatsos.jpg 1899-1987 19 June 1975-
15 May 1980
Constantine Karamanlis KaramanlisNatsinasAgora crop.jpg 1907-1998 15 May 1980-
10 March 1985
1st term
Ioannis Alevras 1912-1995 10 March 1985-
30 March 1985
Speaker of Parliament acting as President pro tempore
Christos Sartzetakis 1929- 30 March 1985-
4 May 1990
Constantine Karamanlis KaramanlisNatsinasAgora crop.jpg 1907-1998 4 May 1990-
10 March 1995
2nd term
Konstantinos Stephanopoulos Kostis stephanopoulos.jpg 1926- 10 March 1995-
12 March 2005
Two consecutive terms
Karolos Papoulias Karolos Papoulias .jpg 1929- 12 March 2005-
incumbent

Notes

  1. ^ Greek: Κυβερνήτης.
  2. ^ The formal title was "King of Greece", Greek: Βασιλεύς της Ελλάδος.
  3. ^ The regency council consisted of ministers Josef Ludwig von Armansperg, Karl von Abel and Georg Ludwig von Maurer.
  4. ^ a b c The formal title was "King of the Hellenes", Greek: Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων.

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