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List of human evolution fossils: Wikis

  
  

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The following charts give a brief overview of several notable primate fossil finds relating to human evolution. As there are thousands of fossils,[1] this overview is not meant to be complete, but does show some of the most important finds. The fossils are arranged by approximate age as determined by radiometric dating and/or incremental dating. The species name represents current consensus, when there is no clear scientific consensus the other possible classifications are indicated; deprecated classifications may be found on the fossil's page. Most of the fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage.

Contents

More than 6 million years old

Image Name Age Species Date
discovered
Place Discovered by
Eosimias sinensis image 45 Ma Eosimias sinensis 1985 China Lin Yipu
Aegyptopithecus zeuxis
image at
Skulls Unlimited
DPC 2803 >31 Ma Aegyptopithecus zeuxis 1941 Egypt Elwyn Simons
Proconsul africanus
image at
Skulls Unlimited
KNM RU 7290 18 Ma Proconsul africanus 1948 Kenya Mary Leakey
Image KNM WK 16999 16-18 Ma Afropithecus turkanensis 1986 Kenya Richard Leakey
Image KNM WK 16950 16-18 Ma Turkanapithecus kalakolensis 1986 Kenya Richard Leakey
Sivapithecus.jpg GSP 15000 10.5-12.5 Ma Sivapithecus indicus 1979 Pakistan D. Pilbeam and S. M. Ibrahim Shah
Oreopithecus bambolii.jpg IGF 11778 8 Ma Oreopithecus bambolii 1872 Italy Paul Gervais
Image IVPP PA644 8 Ma Lufengpithecus lufengensis 1978 China
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
image at
talkorigins.org
TM 266 (Toumai) 7 Ma Sahelanthropus tchadensis 2001 Chad Alain Beauvilain, Fanone Gongdibe, Mahamat Adoum and Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye
Orrorin tugenensis.jpg BAR 1000'00 6 Ma Orrorin tugenensis 2000 Kenya Martin Pickford, Kiptalam Cheboi, Dominique Gommery, Pierre Mein, Brigitte Senut,

4 million - 6 million years old

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Place Discovered by
Sketch of Ardipithecus ramidus Ardi 4.4 Ma Ardipithecus ramidus 1992 Middle Awash, Ethiopia Tim White

3 million - 4 million years old

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Place Discovered by
Laetoli footprint
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Laetoli Footprints 3.7 Ma Bipedal hominid 1976 Tanzania Mary Leakey
LH 4
image at
Modern Human
Origins
LH 4 3.6 - 3.8 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Tanzania Mary Leakey
KNM-WT 40000
image at
Modern Human
Origins
KNM WT 40000 3.5 Ma Kenyanthropus platyops 1999 Kenya Justus Erus
Stw 573 (Little foot) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus ? 1994 South Africa Ronald J. Clarke
SelamAustralopithecus.jpg DIK-1 (Selam) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2000 Ethiopia Zeresenay Alemseged
AL 200-1 3 - 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1975 Ethiopia Donald Johanson
AL 129-1 3 - 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis November 1973 Ethiopia Donald Johanson
K 12 (Abel) Australopithecus bahrelghazali 1995 Chad Michel Brunet
Lucy Mexico.jpg AL 288-1 (Lucy) 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis November 30, 1974 Ethiopia Donald Johanson
AL444-2
image at
Modern Human
Origins
AL 444-2 3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1991 Ethiopia Bill Kimbel

2 million - 3 million years old

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Place Discovered by
Australopithecus africanus-Mrs. Ples.jpg STS 5
(Mrs. Ples)
2.6 - 2.8 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
STS 14
image at Modern
Human Origins
STS 14 2.6-2.8 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
STS 52
image at Modern
Human Origins
STS 52 Australopithecus africanus
STS 71 2.5 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
Australopithecus africanus.jpg Taung 1
(Taung Child)
2.5 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1924 South Africa Raymond Dart
Paranthropus aethiopicus.JPG KNM WT 17000
(The Black Skull)
2.5 Ma Paranthropus aethiopicus 1985 Kenya Alan Walker
Wushan Man
image
Wushan Man 2-2.04 Ma Homo erectus 1986 China
TM 1517 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1938 South Africa Gert Terblanche

1 million - 2 million years old

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Place Discovered by
Homo habilis-KNM ER 1813.jpg KNM ER 1813 1.9 Ma Homo habilis 1973 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu
Homo rudolfensis.jpg KNM ER 1470 1.9 Ma Homo rudolfensis 1972 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo
SK 48 1.8 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1948 South Africa Robert Broom
OH 24
(Twiggy)
1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1968 Tanzania Peter Nzube
OH 8 Image
of foot at
Modern Human
Origins
OH 8 1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania
Australopithecus boisei skull.jpg OH 5
(Zinj or
nutcracker man)
1.8 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1959 Tanzania Mary Leakey
Dmanisi cranium D2700 (B).jpg D 2700 1.8 Ma Homo georgicus 2001 Georgia
OH 7 1.75 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania Jonathan Leakey
Homo ergaster.jpg KNM ER 3733 1.75 Ma Homo ergaster 1975 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo
KNM ER 1805 1.74 Ma Homo habilis Koobi Fora, Kenya
STW 53
image at
Modern Human
Origins
StW 53 1.5 - 2 Ma Homo habilis sensu Lato
or
unclassified
see Grine et al. 1996
1976 South Africa A. R. Hughes
SK 847
image at
Modern Human
Origins
SK 847 1.5 - 2 Ma Homo habilis sensu Lato
or
unclassified
see Grine et al. 1996
1949 South Africa
DNH 7
image at
Modern Human
Origins
DNH 7
(Eurydice)
1.5 - 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1994 South Africa André Keyser
SK 46 1.5-2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1949 South Africa Robert Broom
OH 13 1.7 Ma Homo habilis 1963 Tanzania N. Mbuika
KNM ER 406 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1969 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNM ER 732 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1970 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNM ER 23000
KNM WT 17400 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei Kenya
Turkana Boy.jpg KNM WT 15000
(Turkana Boy)
1.6 Ma Homo erectus
or
Homo ergaster
1984 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu
KNM ER 3883 1.4 - 1.6 Ma Homo erectus Kenya Richard Leakey
Peninj Mandible 1.5 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1964 Tanzania Richard Leakey
Chellean OH 9
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
OH 9
(Chellean Man)
1.5 Ma Homo erectus 1960 Tanzania Louis Leakey
KNM ER 992 1.5 Ma Homo ergaster 1971 Kenya Richard Leakey
KGA 10-525 1.4 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1993 Ethiopia A. Amzaye

100,000 - 1 million years old

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Place Discovered by
Sangiran 4 < 1 Ma Homo erectus 1939 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Sangiran 2
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Sangiran 2 0.7-1.6 Ma Homo erectus 1937 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Trinil 2
Pithecanthropus-1
or
Java Man
.7 - 1 Ma Homo erectus 1891 Indonesia Eugène Dubois
Homo antecessor.jpg 780 - 858k Homo antecessor
or
Homo erectus
1994 Atapuerca, Spain Bermúdez & Arsuaga
Peking Man Skull (replica) presented at Paleozoological Museum of China.jpg Peking Man 680 - 780k Homo erectus 1921 China Davidson Black
Ternifine 2-3 700k Homo erectus 1954 Algeria C. Arambourg
Sangiran 17
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Sangiran 17 700k Homo erectus 1969 Indonesia S. Sartono
Hexian PA830
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Hexian 400 - 500k Homo erectus 1980 China
Homo heidelbergensis-Cranium -5.jpg Skull 5 (Miguelón) 400k Homo heidelbergensis 1992 Atapuerca, Spain Bermúdez, Arsuaga & Carbonell
Altamura Man 400k Homo heidelbergensis Altamura, Italy
Bodo
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Bodo 600k Homo heidelbergensis
or
Homo erectus
1976 Ethiopia A. Asfaw
Unterkiefer von Mauer (Replika).JPG Mauer 1
(Heidelberg Man)
500k Homo heidelbergensis 1907 Germany Daniel Hartmann
Ndutu
Sale
Saldanha man Saldanha man 500k Homo heidelbergensis 1953 South Africa
Arago XXI
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Arago 21
(Tautavel Man)
400k Homo heidelbergensis
or
Homo erectus
1971 France Henry de Lumley
Steinheimer Urmensch Schaedel.jpg Steinheim Skull 350k Homo heidelbergensis
or
Homo neanderthalensis
1933 Germany
Petralona 1
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Petralona 1 250 - 500k Homo erectus
or
Homo rhodesiensis
1960 Greece
Swanscombe Man 250k Homo heidelbergensis
or
Homo neanderthalensis
1935 England Alvan T Marston
Ngandong 7 250k Homo heidelbergensis
or
Homo erectus
1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and G. H. R. von Koenigswald
Broken Hill 1
(Kabwe Cranium
or
Rhodesian Man)
125 - 300k Homo rhodesiensis
or
Homo heidelbergensis
1921 Zambia Tom Zwiglaar
Dali
image at
Modern Human
Origins
Dali (fossil) 209k Homo heidelbergensis
or
Homo sapiens
1978 China Shuntang Liu
LH 18 Homo sapiens 1976 Tanzania Mary Leakey
Omo 1
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Omo 1 190k Homo sapiens 1967-1974 Ethiopia Richard Leakey
Omo II
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Omo 2  ? Homo rhodesiensis
or
'Homo sapiens
 ? Ethiopia Richard Leakey
Herto skull
images at
ABC Science
Herto remains 160k Homo sapiens idaltu 1997 - 2003 Middle Awash Ethiopia Tim White
Jebel Irhoud 1 160k Homo sapiens circa 1991 Jebel Irhoud, Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 2 160k Homo sapiens circa 1991 Jebel Irhoud, Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 3
Mandible
Image at
PhysOrg.com
Jebel Irhoud 3 160k Homo sapiens circa 1991 Jebel Irhoud, Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 4 160k Homo sapiens after 1991 Jebel Irhoud, Morocco
Tabun 1
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Tabun C1 120k Homo neanderthalensis 1967-1972 Israel Arthur Jelinek

50,000 - 100,000 years old

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Place Discovered by
Klasies
Images at
Modern Human
Origins
Klasies River Caves 125 - 75k Homo sapiens 1960 onwards South Africa Ray Inskeep, Robin Singer, John Wymer, Hilary Deacon
Krapina C
Images at
Modern Human
Origins
Krapina 100k Homo neanderthalensis 1899 Croatia Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger
Skhul.JPG Skhul V 90 - 100k Homo sapiens 1933 Es Skhul, Mount Carmel, Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Qafzeh.JPG Qafzeh IX 90 - 100k Homo sapiens[1] 1933 Qafzeh, Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Skhul IX Homo sapiens ? Es Skhul, Mount Carmel, Israel
Qafzeh VI
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Qafzeh VI 90 - 100k Homo sapiens 1933 Nazareth, Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Ferrassie skull.jpg La Ferrassie 1 70k Homo neanderthalensis September 17, 1909 France R. Capitan and D. Peyrony
La Quina 5 40-55k Homo neanderthalensis France
La Quina 18 40-55k Homo neanderthalensis France
Mount Circeo 1
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Mt. Circeo 1 40 - 60k Homo neanderthalensis 1939 Italy Prof. Blanc
Saccopastore 1
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Saccopastore 1 60k Homo neanderthalensis Italy
Gibraltar 1
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Gibraltar 1 Homo neanderthalensis 1848 Gibraltar Lieutenant Flint
Shanidar 1 60 - 80k Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Iraq Ralph Solecki
Amud 1
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Amud 1 Homo neanderthalensis Israel
Amud 7
Image at
Modern Human
Origins
Amud 7 Homo neanderthalensis Israel
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.jpg La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 60k Homo neanderthalensis August 3, 1908 France A. and J. Bouyssonie and L. Bardon

Less than 50,000 years old

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Place Discovered by
Mungo Man.jpg Mungo Man 60 - 40k Homo sapiens 1974 Australia
Le Moustier 45k Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France
Neanderthal 1
images at
Modern Human
Origins
Neanderthal 1 40k Homo neanderthalensis 1856 Germany Johann Carl Fuhlrott
Qafzeh VI
images at
Modern Human
Origins
Jebel Qafzeh 6 92 - 115k or 30 - 55k Homo sapiens 1930's Israel R. Neuville M Stekelis
NG 6 27 - 53k Homo erectus 1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and GHR von Koenigswald
Hofmeyr Skull 36k Homo sapiens 1952 South Africa
Images of Peştera cu Oase Peştera cu Oase 36k Homo sapiens 2002 Romania
Yamashita-Cho Man 32k Homo sapiens 1962/1968 Naha, Okinawa, Japan
Cro-Magnon 1 30k Homo sapiens 1868 France Louis Lartet
Combe Capelle 30 - 35k Homo sapiens 1909 France O. Hauser
Predmosti 3
images at
Modern Human
Origins
Predmost 3 26k Homo sapiens 1894 Czechoslovakia K.J. Maska
Homo floresiensis.jpg LB 1 (Hobbit) 18k Homo floresiensis
or
Homo erectus
or ?
2003 Indonesia Peter Brown
Minatogawa 1
images at
Modern Human
Origins
Minatogawa 1 16 - 18k Homo sapiens 1970 Okinawa, Japan
Tandou 15k Homo sapiens 1967 Australia Duncan Merrilees
Wadi Kubbaniya 8 - 20k Homo sapiens 1982 Egypt Fred Wendorf
Kow Swamp 1
images at
Modern Human
Origins
Kow Swamp 1 9k - 13k Homo sapiens 1968 Australia A.G. Thorne
Afalou 13 8k - 12k Homo sapiens 1920's Algeria C. Arambourg
Wadi Halfa 25 6k - 12k Homo sapiens 1963 Sudan G. Armelagos, E. Ewing, D. Greene
Wadjak 1 10 - 12k Homo sapiens 1888 Indonesia Eugene Dubois
Tepexpan Man 11k Homo sapiens 1947 Mexico H. de Terra
Cerro Sota 2 11k Homo sapiens 1936 Chile Junius Bird
SDM 16704 4.9k - 11.8k Homo sapiens 1929 United States M.J. Rogers
Lo 4b 6k - 9k Homo sapiens 1965-1975 H. Robbins B.M. Lynch
Ötzi the Iceman 5.3k Homo sapiens 1991 Ötztal Alps (between Austria and Italy) Helmut and Erika Simon
Kerma 27 3.5k Homo sapiens 1913-1916 Sudan G.A. Reisner
Five Knolls 18 1.5k - 3.5k Homo sapiens 1925-1929 England
Humboldt Sink <1500 years Homo sapiens United States
SCDG K102 300 - 400 years Homo sapiens 1982 United States C.S. Larsen

Abbreviations used in fossil catalog name

  • AL - Afar Locality, Ethiopia
  • ARA-VP - Aramis Vertebrate Paleontology, Ethiopia
  • BOU-VP - Bouri Vertebrate Paleontology, Ethiopia
  • ER - East (Lake) Rudolf, Kenya
  • KGA - Konso-Gardula, Ethiopia
  • KNM - Kenya National Museum
  • KP - Kanapoi, Kenya
  • OH - Olduvai Hominid, Tanzania
  • SK - Swartkrans, South Africa
  • Sts,Stw - Sterkfontein, South Africa
  • TM - Transvaal Museum, South Africa
  • TM - Toros-Menalla, Chad
  • WT - West (Lake) Turkana, Kenya

See also

References








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