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Faravahar background
History of Greater Iran
| until the rise of modern nation-states |
See also
Kings of Persia
Pre-modern

The following is a comprehensive list of kings of Persia, which includes all of the empires ruling over geographical Iran and their rulers.

Contents

Early realms in Iran

Elamite Kingdom, c. 3000–519 BC

The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. Their language was neither Semitic nor Indo-European, and they were the geographic precursors of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared.

Early Elamite Kings (c. 2700- c. 2600 BC)

Name Of Ruler Years of Reign Notes
The unnamed King of Elam fl. c. 2700 BC contemporary with the first dynasty of Uruk & the first dynasty of Kish
Humban-Hapua I (or Humbaba) fl. c. 2680 BC contemporary with Gilgamesh king of Uruk
Humban-Shutur (or Khumbastir) (precise dates unknown) -
Kutir-Lakamar (precise dates unknown) Defeated & plundered Mesopotamians

 !Awan Dynasty[1] (c. 2600-2078 BC)

Name Of Ruler Years of Reign Notes
The unnamed King of Awan fl. c. 2580 BC contemporary with the last king of the first dynasty of Uruk
...Lu (precise dates unknown) -
Kur-Ishshak 36 years fl. c. 2550 BC contemporary with Lugal-Anne-Mundu king of Adab & Ur-Nanshe king of Lagash
Peli (fl. c. 2500 BC) -
Tata I (precise dates unknown) -
Ukku-Tanhish (precise dates unknown) -
Hishutash (precise dates unknown) -
Shushun-Tarana (precise dates unknown) -
Napi-Ilhush (precise dates unknown) -
Autalummash (?) (fl. before 2350 BC) -
Kikku-Siwe-Temti (precise dates unknown) -
Hishep-Ratep I (precise dates unknown) -
Luh-Ishshan (until 2325 BC) Son of Hishep-Ratep I
Hishep-Ratep II (2325-after 2311 BC) Son of Luh-Ishshan
Helu (fl. c. 24th century) -
Hita - (contemporary of Naram-Sin king of Akkad)
Shinpi-hish-huk (precise dates unknown) -
Kutik-Inshushinak - (contemporary of Ur-Nammu king of Ur) son of Shinpi-hish-huk
The unnamed King of Awan (?) Until 2078 BC (until 2078 BC that Susa conquered by Ur troops)

Hamazi Dynasty (c. 2530- c. 2030 BC)

  • Hatanish (7 years fl. c. 2530 BC) [2]
  • Zizi (precise dates unknown)
  • Ur-Adad (precise dates unknown)
  • Ur-Ishkur (before 2041- after 2037 BC)
  • Warad-Nannar (after 2037 BC)

Simashki Dynasty (c. 2100- c. 1928 BC)

  • The unnamed king of Simashki (cont. Kutik-Inshushinak king of Awan)
  • Gir-Namme I[3] (precise dates unknown)
  • Tazitta I (precise dates unknown)
  • Eparti I (precise dates unknown)
  • Tazitta II (precise dates unknown)
  • Gir-Namme II (fl. c. 2033)
  • Lurak-Luhhan (before 2028 until 2022)
  • Tan-Ruhuratir I (precise dates unknown)
  • Kindattu (precise dates unknown) son of Tan-Ruhuratir I
  • Hutran-Temti (fl. c. 2006) conqueror of Ur
  • Pepi (precise dates unknown)
  • Indattu-Inshushinak I (cont. Shu-ilishu king of Isin & Bilalama king of Eshnunna) son of Pepi
  • Tan-Ruhuratir II (cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin) son of Indattu-Inshushinnak I
  • Indattu-Inshushinak II (more than 3 years. precise dates unknown) son of Tan-Ruhuratir II
  • Indattu-Napir (precise dates unknown)
  • Indattu-Temti (until 1928? BC)

Anshan Dynasty (c. 2350- c. 1970 BC)

  • The unnamed king of Anshan (until 2305 BC) king of Sherihum & Anshan. Defeated & sent to Akkad.
  • Shalabum (before 2068 until 2064 BC) married with a daughter of Shulgi king of Ur
  • Libum (from 2064 BC) made some wars against Ur
  • The unnamed king of Anshan (c. 2041-2037 BC) married with a daughter of Shu-Sin king of Ur
  • The unnamed king of Anshan (until 2017 BC) married with a daughter of Ibbi-Sin king of Ur
  • Kutir-Nahhunte I (fl. c. 2006 BC) conqueror of Ur in union with Hutran-Temti king of Simashki. He took statue of Nannar from Ur to Anshan.
  • The unnamed king of Anshan (cont. Shu-ilishu king of Isin) restored statue of Nannar to Isin
  • Eparti II (cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin) (Sukkalmah & king of Anshan & Susa). Married with a daughter of Iddin-Dagan king of Isin in 1973 BC.

Eparti[4] Dynasty (c. 1970- c. 1500 BC)

  • Eparti II (cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin) (Sukkalmah & king of Anshan & Susa). Married with a daughter of Iddin-Dagan king of Isin in 1973 BC.
  • Shilhaha (precise dates unknown) (Sukkalmah) son of Eparti II
  • Palar-Ishshan (until 1928? BC) (Sukkalmah) (precise dates unknown) son (ruhushak)[5] of Shilhaha
  • Kuk-Sanit
  • Atta-hushu (?1928- after 1894 BC) (Shepherd of the people of Susa) son of Shilhaha
  • Tetep-Mada (after c. 1890 BC) (Shepherd of the people of Susa)
  • Kuk-Kirwash (precise dates unknown) (Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Simashki, Sukkal of Susa) son of Lan-Kuku & nephew of Palar-Ishshan
  • Tem-Sanit (precise dates unknown) son of Kuk-Kirwash
  • Kuk-Nahhunte (precise dates unknown) son of Kuk-Kirwash
  • Kuk-Nashur I (precise dates unknown)
  • Shirukduh (cont. Shamshi-Adad I king of Assyria) (Sukkalmah) son of Kuk-Nashur I
  • Shimut-Wartash I (precise dates unknown)
  • Siwe-Palar-Hupak (fl. c. 1765 BC) (Sukkalmah) son of Shirukduh
  • Kuduzulush I (precise dates unknown) son of Shirukduh
  • Kutir-Nahhunte II (precise dates unknown) (Sukkalmah) son of Kuduzulush I
  • Atta-Merra-Halki (precise dates unknown)
  • Tata II (precise dates unknown) brother of Atta-Merra-Halki
  • Lila-Irtash (precise dates unknown) son of Kuduzulush I
  • Temti-Agun (precise dates unknown) (Sukkalmah) son of Kutir-Nahhunte II
  • Kutir-Shilhaha (precise dates unknown) (Sukkalmah) son of Temti-Agun
  • Kuk-Nashur II (fl. c. 1646 BC) (Sukkalmah & Sukkal of Simashki & Susa) son of Kutir-Shilhaha
  • Temti-Raptash (precise dates unknown) son of Kutir-Shilhaha
  • Shimut-Wartash II (precise dates unknown) son of Kutir-Shilhaha
  • Shirtuh (precise dates unknown) son of Kuk-Nashur II
  • Kuduzulush II (precise dates unknown) (Sukkalmah) son of Shimut-Wartash II
  • Tan-Uli (precise dates unknown) (Sukkalmah)
  • Temti-Halki (precise dates unknown) (Sukkalmah of Elam & Simashki) son of Tan-Uli
  • Kuk-Nashur III (precise dates unknown) (Sukkalmah) son of Tan-Uli
  • Kutik-Matlat (c. 1500 BC) son of Tan-Uli

Kidinuid Dynasty (c. 1500- c. 1400 BC)

Igehalkid[6] Dynasty (c. 1400 – c. 1210 BC)

  • Ata-Halki (precise dates unknown)
  • Attar-Kittah I (precise dates unknown) son of Ata-Halki
  • Ige-Halki (precise dates unknown)
  • Pahir-Ishshan I (cont. Kurigalzu I Kassite king of Babylon) son of Ige-Halki
  • Kidin-Hutran I (precise dates unknown) son of Pahir-Ishshan I
  • Attar-Kittah II (precise dates unknown) son of Ige-Halki
  • Humban-Numena I (cont. Burna-Buriash II Kassite king of Babylon) son of Attar-Kittah II
  • Untash-Napirisha (precise dates unknown) or Untash-Humban son of Humban-Numena I
  • Kidin-Hutran II (precise dates unknown) son of Untash-Naprisha
  • Napirisha-Untash (precise dates unknown) or Humban-Untash son of Kidin-Hutran II
  • Pahir-Ishshan II (precise dates unknown)
  • Unpatar-Napirisha (precise dates unknown) or Unpatar-Humban son of Pahir-Ishshan II
  • Kidin-Hutran III (cont. Enlil-nadin-shumi & Adad-shuma-iddina Kassite kings of Babylon) son of Pahir-Ishshan II

Shutrukid Dynasty (c. 1210 – c. 970 BC)

  • Hallutush-Inshushinak (from c. 1210)
  • Shutruk-Nahhunte I (fl. c. 1158)
  • Kutir-Nahhunte III (fl. c. 1155)
  • Shilhak-Inshushinak I (precise dates unknown)
  • Hutelutush-Inshushinak (fl. c. 1110)
  • Shilhina-Hamru-Lakamar (after 1110 BC)
  • Humban-Nimena II (early 11th century BC)
  • Shutruk-Nahhunte II (early 11th century BC)
  • Akshir-Shimut (precise dates unknown)
  • Akshir-Nahhunte (precise dates unknown)
  • Kara-Indash (precise dates unknown)
  • Mar-biti-apla-usur (before 983- after 978 BC) [7]

Humban-Tahrid (Neo-Elamite)[8] Dynasty (c. 830–519 BC)

  • The unnamed king of Elam (c. 821 BC cont. Shamshi-Adad V king of Assyria)
  • Hallushu-Inshushinak I (more than 15 years. precise dates unknown)
  • Humban-Tahrah I (until 742 BC)
  • Humban-Nikash I (742–717) son of Humban-Tahrah I
  • Shutur-Nahhunte I (717–699) son (Ruhushak) of Humban-Nikash I
  • Hallushu-Inshushinak II (699–oct. 693) brother of Shutur-Nahhunte I
  • Kutir-Nahhunte IV (oct. 693–July 692) son of Hallushu-Inshushinak II
  • Humban-Nimena III (July 692–feb. 688) son of Hallushu-Inshushinak II
  • Shutur-Nahhunte II ? (from feb. 688) son of Humban-Nimena III
  • Humban-Haltash I (until oct. 681)
  • Humban-Haltash II (oct. 681–sept. 675) son of Humban-Haltash I
  • Urtak-Inshushinak (sept. 675- 663) brother of Humban-Haltash II
  • Temti-Humban-Inshushinak I (663–sept. 653) brother of Urtak-Inshushinak
  • Humban-Nikash II (sept. 653–651) son of Urtak-Inshushinak
  • Tammaritu (652–649 & 647) son of Humban-Nikash son of Humban-Haltash I
  • Indabibi (649–after July 648)
  • Humban-Haltash III (after July 648–645/4)
  • Humban-Nikash III (647) son of Atta-Merra-Halki
  • Umhuluma (647)
  • Indattu-Inshushinak III (647–after autumn 646)
  • Humban-Hapua II (647)
  • Pa'e (after autumn 646-645/4)
  • Shutur-Nahhunte III (after autumn 646) son of Indattu-Inshushinak III
  • Humban-Kitin (precise dates unknown) son of Shutur-Nahhunte III
  • Humban-Tahrah II (precise dates unknown)
  • Hallutash-Inshushinak (precise dates unknown) son of Humban-Tahrah II
  • Ummanunu (precise dates unknown)
  • Shilhak-Inshushinak II (precise dates unknown) son of Ummanunu
  • Temti-Humban-Inshushinak II (before 550 BC) son of Shilhak-Inshushinak II
  • Halkatash (c. 549/8 BC)
  • Acina (oct.-10 dec. 522 BC) son of Upadrama
  • Humban-Nikash IV or Ummanunu II (Imanish) (dec. 522-feb. 521 BC)
  • Atta-hamiti-Inshushinak (until 520/19 BC)

Empires of Iran

Median Empire, 728–550 BC سلسله مادیان

The Medes were an Iranian people. The Persians, a closely related and subject people, revolted against the Median empire during the 6th century BC.

Achaemenid Empire, 550–330 BC پادشاهان هخامنشی

  • Achaemenes, founder of the dynasty.
  • Teispes (I) (?) son of Achaemenes
  • Cambyses (I) (?) son of Teispes (I) (?)
  • Cyrus (I) (?) son of Cambyses (I) (?)
  • Teispes of Anshan, or Teispes (II) (?) son of Achaemenes or Cyrus (I) (?), king of Persia, king of Anshan, died 640(?).
Line of Cyrus Line of Ariaramnes

The epigraphic evidence for ancestors of Darius I the Great is highly suspect and might have been invented by that king.

Macedonian rulers

Argead Dynasty, 330–310 BC

Seleucid dynasty, 305–164 BC

The Seleucid Dynasty gradually lost control of Persia. In 253, the Arsacid Dynasty established itself in Parthia. The Parthians gradually expanded their control, until by the mid 2nd century BC, the Seleucids had completely lost control of Persia. There were more Seleucid rulers of Syria and, for a time, Babylonia, after Antiochus IV, but none had any effective power in Persia.

Empires of Iran

Parthian Empire[9] (Arsacid Empire.), 247 BC – AD 228


There were various regional client dynasties, often with significant autonomy. Like the Elymais client Kingdom that occupied the area of ancient Elam, and kingdoms of Mesene in Lower Mesopotamia and Persis (Fars) in Central Iran, as well as Adiabene in Northern Mesopotamia..

Sassanid Empire, AD 224–651سلسله ساسانیان

Arab caliphs rule

All Persian provinces were under the Muslim Caliphates from 661 to 867.

divided, 867–1029

post-Islamic Persian rulers

Tahirids in Khorasan, 821–872

Alavids, 864–928

  • Hasan ebne Zeid Hasani, Emir 864–884
  • Mohammad ebne Zeid, 884–900
  • Hasan ebne Ali Hoseini, 913–916
  • Hasan ebne Ghasem Hasani, 916–928

Ziyarids, 928–1043

Buyyids, 932–1056 آل بویه

Diylamids of Fars دیلمیان

Diylamids of Khuzestan and Kerman

Diylamids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamedan

Saffarids in Seistan and beyond, 861–1002, صفاریان

Samanids (Proto-Tajiks), 892–998 سامانیان

Ghaznavids, 997–1186 غزنویان

  • Yameen o-dowleh AbolQasem Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, Sultan 997–1030
  • Jalal o-dowleh Abu Ahmad Mohammad ebne Mahmud, 1030–1030
  • Shahab o-dowleh Abu Sa'd Masud ebne Mahmud, 1030–1040
  • Shahab o-dowleh Abolfath Modud ebne Masud, 1040–1049
  • Baha o-dowleh Abol Hasan Ali ebne Masud, 1049–1049
  • Azad o-dowleh Abu Mansur Abdol Rashid ebne Mahmud ebne Saboktekeen, 1049–1052
  • Jamal o-dowleh Abolfazl Farrokhzaad ebne Masud ebne Mahmud, 1052–1059
  • Zaheer o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Ebrahim, 1059–1098
  • Ala o-dowleh Abu Saeed Masud ebne Ebrahim, 1098–1115
  • Soltan o-dowleh Abol-fath Arsalan Shah, 1115–1117
  • Yameen o-dowleh Abol Mozaffar Baharm Shah ebne Masud, 1117–1153
  • Taj o-dowleh Abol Shoja Khosro Shah ebne Bahram Shah, 1153–1160
  • Saraj o-dowleh Abolmolook Khosrow Malek ebne Khosro Shah, 1160–1186

Seljuks, 1029–1194 سلجوقیان

  • Toğrül bin Mikail (Tughril Beg), Sultan 1037–1063
  • Alp Arslan bin Chaghri 1063–1072
  • Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah I 1072–1092
  • Nasir ad-Din Mahmud I 1092–1094
  • Rukn ad-Din Barkiyaruq 1094–1105
  • Mu'izz ad-Din Malik Shah II 1105
  • Ghiyath ad-Din Mehmed I Tapar (Muhammad) 1105–1118
  • Mu'izz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar 1097–1157
  • Mahmud II 1118–1131
  • Dawud (David) 1131–1132
  • Toğrül II (Tughril Beg) 1132–1134
  • Mesud I 1134–1152
  • Malik Shah III 1152–1153
  • Mehmed II (Muhammad II) 1153–1160
  • Süleyman Shah (Sulaiman Shah) 1160–1161
  • Arslan Shah 1161–1176
  • Toğrül III (Tughril Beg III) 1176–1194

divided, 1194–1256

Khwarazmids, 1096–1230 خوارزمشاهیان

An empire built from Azerbaidjan, covering part of Iran and neighbouring Central Asia.

  • Ghotb-al-Din Muhammad I of Khwarazm ebne Anushtekeen Gharajeh, Shah (1096–1128)
  • Ala-al-Din Abol Mozaffar Aziz ebne Ghotb-al-Din ebne Mohammad (1128–1156)
  • Taj-al-Din Abolfath IlIl-Arslan (1156–1171)
  • Jalal-al-Din Mahmud Soltanshah ebne Il Arsalan (1171–1172)
  • Muhammad II of Khwarezm (Ala-al-Din Takesh ebne Il Arsalan) (1172–1199)
  • Soltan Jalal-al-Din Mohammad ebne Aladdin Takesh (1199–1220)
  • Jalal-al-Din Mingburnu ebne Ala-al-Din Mohammad (1220–1230)

Permanently destroyed by Mongol empire.

Ilkhans, 1256–1380 ایلخانان

The preceding era of disunity, also called First era of fragmentation, was ended through conquest by the Ilkhans, a Mongol khanate, nominally subject to the Great Khan. (Ilkhan means governor of an il, i.e. province).

The Second era of fragmentation begins in 1343, as remnants of the Hordes competed with local dynasts for authority. This era ends with the conquests by Timur, around 1380

Muzaffarid Dynasty, 1314–1393 مظفریان

  • Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar, Emir 1314–1358
  • Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1335–1364 with...
  • Qutb Al-Din Shah Mahmud (at Isfahan) ( d. 1375), 1358–1366
  • Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1366–1384
  • Mujahid ad-Din Zain Al-Abidin 'Ali, 1384–1387

In 1387 Timur captured Isfahan.

  • Imad ad-Din Sultan Ahmad (at Kerman), 1387–1391 with...
  • Mubariz ad-Din Shah Yahya (at Shiraz), 1387–1391 and...
  • Sultan Abu Ishaq (in Sirajan), 1387–1391
  • Shah Mansur (at Isfahan), 1391–1393

Timurid dynasty, 1380–1507

The third era of fragmentation follows, as Timur's Empire loses cohesion and local rulers strive against each other.

In 1410 the Turcoman horde Kara Koyunlu (Black Sheep) captured Baghdad and their leaders ruled the western parts of the Timurid realm. In the East however, Shah Rukh was able to secure his rule in Transoxiana and Fars.

Rulers in Transoxiana:

Rulers in Khurasan:

Abu Sa'id, agreed to divide Iran with the Black Sheep Turcomans under Jahan Shah, but the White Sheep Turcomans under Uzun Hassan defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id.

After Abu Sa'id's death a fourth era of fragmentation follows. While the White Sheep Turcomans dominated in the western parts until the ascent of the Safavid dynasty, the Timurides could maintain their rule in Samarkand and Herat.

Rulers in Samarkand:

  • Sultan Ahmad, son Abu Sa'id, 1469–1494
  • Sultan Mahmud, son of Abu Sa'id, 1494–1495
  • Masud, 1495
  • Sultan Baysunghur, 1495–1497
  • Sultan Ali Mirza 1495–1500

conquered by the Uzbeks

Rulers in Herat:

conquered by the Uzbeks, later recaptured by the Safavids

Shahs of modern Iran

The modern Iranian monarchy was established in 1502 after the Safavid Dynasty came to power under Shah Ismail I, and ended the so-called "fourth era" of political fragmentation.

List

Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office
Safavid dynasty (1502–1736 )
1 Ismail I Сефи 1й 1629-42.jpg Shah, Sultan 1487 - 1524 7 November 1502 23 May 1524
2 Tahmasp I Tahmasb-1.jpg Shah, Sahib-i-Qiran, Sultan bar Salatin 1514 - 1576 23 May 1525 25 May 1576
3 Ismail II Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Shah 1537 - 1577 25 May 1576 24 November 1577
4 Mohammed Khodabanda Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Ashraf Marash 1532 - 1596 25 May 1576 1 October 1587
5 Abbas I Shah Abbas I.jpg Shahanshah, Sultan, Great 1571 - 1629 1 October 1587 19 January 1629
6 Safi Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Shah, Mirza 1611 - 1642 19 January 1629 12 May 1642
7 Abbas II Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Shah 1632 - 1666 12 May 1642 26 October 1666
8 Suleiman I Shah soleiman safavi.jpg Shah, Hakem-ol Hokama 1645 - 1694 26 October 1666 29 July 1694
9 Sultan Hossein Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Shah, Sultan, Sadr-ol Hakem 1668 - 1726 29 July 1694 11 September 1729
10 Tahmasp II Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Shah 1704 – 1740 11 September 1722 28 September 1726
11 Ahmad Marashi Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Shah, Sultan 1687 - 1728 28 September 1726 30 March 1728
12 Tahmasp II Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Shah 1704 – 1740 30 March 1728 16 April 1732
13 Abbas III Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Valiahd 1730 - 1739 16 April 1732 22 January 1736
Afsharid dynasty (1736–1797 )
1 Nadir Shah Afshar Nader Shah Afshar.jpg Shah, Sultan, Hakem-ol Hokama, Hazrat-e Ashraf 1698 - 1747 22 January 1736 19 June 1747
2 Adil Shah Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Shah 1713 - 1748 19 June 1747 29 July 1748
3 Ebrahim Afshar Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Shah 1724 - 1748 29 July 1748 3 September 1748
4 Shahrukh Afshar Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Shah Afshar 1730 – 1796 3 September 1748 3 September 1760
Zand dynasty (1750-1794)
1 Karim Khan Zand Karim-Khan.jpg Vakil e-Ra'aayaa 1705 - 1779 3 September 1760 6 March 1779
2 Abol Fath Khan Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Vakil e-Ra'aayaa 1755 – 1787 6 March 1779 22 August 1779
3 Mohammad Ali Khan Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Vakil e-Ra'aayaa 1760 - 1779 22 August 1779 14 March 1781
4 Ali Murad Khan Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Vakil e-Ra'aayaa 1720 - 1785 14 March 1781 18 February 1785
5 Jafar Khan Coat of arms of Persia (16th century - 1907).png Vakil e-Ra'aayaa 1698 - 1747 18 February 1785 23 January 1789
6 Lotf Ali Khan Lotf Ali Khan.jpg Vakil e-Ra'aayaa 1769-1794 23 January 1789 20 March 1794
Qajar dynasty (1794-1925)
1 Mohammad Khan Qajar Mohammad Khan Qajar.jpg Shahanshah 1742 - 1797 20 March 1794 17 June 1797
2 Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar Fath Ali Shah(hermitage2).jpg Shahanshah 1772 - 1834 17 June 1797 23 October 1834
3 Mohammad Shah Qajar Mohammadshah.jpg Shah 1808 - 1848 23 October 1834 5 September 1848
4 Naser al-Din Shah Qajar Nāser al-Dīn Schah.jpg Shahanshah and Aryamehr 1831 - 1896 5 September 1848 1 May 1896
5 Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar Mozaffar-ed-Din Shah Qajar - 1.jpg Shahanshah and Sultan 1853 - 1907 1 May 1896 3 January 1907
6 Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar Mohammadalishah.jpg Shahanshah 1872 - 1925 3 January 1907 16 July 1909
7 Ahmad Shah Qajar AhmadShahQajar2.jpg Sultan 1898 - 1930 16 July 1909 15 December 1925
Pahlavi dynasty (1925-1979)
1 Reza Shah Reza Pahlavi.jpg Shah 1878 - 1944 15 December 1925 16 September 1941
2 Mohammad Reza Pahlavi محمدرضا شاه پهلوی.jpg Shahanshah, Aryamehr, Shahyad and Emperor 1919 - 1980 16 September 1941 11 February 1979
3 Farah Pahlavi Empress Farah.jpg Empress 1938 - 26 October 1967 11 February 1979


In Revolution of 1979 led by Ayatollah Khomeini forced Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi into exile, and established an Islamic Republic on 1 April 1979.

Notes

  1. ^ The first three kings of Awan were also kings of Mesopotamia.
  2. ^ He was also king of Mesopotamia.
  3. ^ He and his three successors are known only from the king lists.
  4. ^ Orders & dates of the kings of the Epartid dynasty are prepared based on Vallat , Francois. Elam: The History of Elam. Encyclopaedia Iranica , vol. VIII pp. 301-313. London/New York , 1998.
  5. ^ "Ruhushak" means son of sister but probably it refers to a dynastical marriage between siblings.
  6. ^ Orders & dates of the kings of the Igehalkid dynasty are prepared based on Vallat , Francois. Elam: The History of Elam. Encyclopaedia Iranica , vol. VIII pp. 301-313. London/New York , 1998.
  7. ^ He was also king of Babylon.
  8. ^ Orders & dates of the kings of the Humban-Tahrid dynasty are prepared based on these articles: Henkelman , wouter. Defining Neo-Elamite History. ARTA , 2003. Reade , Julian E. Elam after the Assyrian Sack of Susa in 647 B.C. NABU , 2000. Tavernier , Jan. Some Thoughts on Neo-Elamite Chronology. ARTA , 2004 The Cambridge Ancient History. Vol. I.2. Vallat , Francois. Shutruk-Nahunte , Shutur-Nahunte et l'imbroglio neo-elamite. NABU , 1995. Vallat , Francois. Elam: The History of Elam. Encyclopaedia Iranica , vol. VIII pp. 301-313. London/New York , 1998.
  9. ^ The dates of early Arsacids here is based on these articles: Assar, G.R.F., "Genealogy & Coinage of the Early Parthian Rulers. I", Parthica, 6, 2004, pp. 69-93. Assar, G.R.F., "Genealogy & Coinage of the Early Parthian Rulers, II a revised stemma", Parthica, 7, 2005, pp.29-63. Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C.", Electrum, vol. 11, 2006, pp. 87-158. Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 91-55 B.C.", Parthica, 8, 2006, pp. 55-104. Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II", Bulletin of Ancient Iranian History (UCLA), vol. 5, March 2009.
  10. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "Genealogy & Coinage of the Early Parthian Rulers. I", Parthica, 6, 2004, pp. 69-93.
  11. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C.", Electrum, vol. 11, 2006, pp. 87-158. Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II", Bulletin of Ancient Iranian History (UCLA), vol. 5, March 2009.
  12. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C.", Electrum, vol. 11, 2006, pp. 87-158. Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II", Bulletin of Ancient Iranian History (UCLA), vol. 5, March 2009.
  13. ^ Assar, G.R.F., "A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 B.C.", Electrum, vol. 11, 2006, pp. 87-158. Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II", Bulletin of Ancient Iranian History (UCLA), vol. 5, March 2009.
  14. ^ Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II", Bulletin of Ancient Iranian History (UCLA), vol. 5, March 2009.
  15. ^ Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II", Bulletin of Ancient Iranian History (UCLA), vol. 5, March 2009.
  16. ^ Ghashghai, H.R., "The successors of Mithridates II", Bulletin of Ancient Iranian History (UCLA), vol. 5, March 2009.
  17. ^ Josephus Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, Book XVI, Ch.8.4
  18. ^ Tacitus, The Annals, 11.10

See also








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