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Current distribution of Human Language Families
The nine languages with the estimated largest numbers of native speakers in the world, according to SIL Ethnologue, 2005.

This is a list of languages ordered by the number of native-language speakers.

Since the definition of a single language is to some extent arbitrary, some mutually intelligible idioms with separate national standards or self-identification have been listed separately, depending on conventional use, including Scandinavian, Urdu/Hindi, Dutch and Afrikaans, Indonesian and Malay.

The relevant estimate for the number of native speakers for the purposes of this list is that of SIL Ethnologue. Other estimates may vary, and the numbers should not be taken as more than indicating the rough order of magnitude of a linguistic community.

Contents

100 million and more speakers


Language Family Ethnologue
(estimate)[1]
Encarta estimate[2] Other estimates Estimated ranking[3]
Mandarin Chinese Sino-Tibetan,
Chinese
845,000,000 800,000,000[4] 1,052 million including second language speakers (Ethnologue, 1999 [5])/ 1,151 million (982 native, 179 second language)[6] / It is also one of the six official languages of the United Nations. 1
Spanish Indo-European,
Italic,
Romance
329,000,000 358,000,000 [7] 417 million including second-language speakers (Ethnologue 1999).[8]/ 500 million currently[9]/ It is also one of the six official languages of the United Nations. 2
English Indo-European,
Germanic,
West Germanic,
Anglo-Frisian,
English
328,000,000 350,000,000 [10] 508 million including second speakers (Ethnologue, 1999 [11])/More than 1,000 million (as a total of first, second and foreign language spoken according to List of countries by English-speaking population)/ It is also one of the six official languages of the United Nations. 3
Hindi/Urdu Indo-European,
Indo-Iranian,
Indo-Aryan
182,000,000 Hindi,
60,600,000 Urdu
200,000,000 Hindi,[12]
40,000,000 Urdu [13]
487 million (366 million with all varieties of Hindi and Urdu + 120 million as a second language in 1999[14])/ 484.5 million (258 mill. properly Hindi, 422 million all varieties of Hindi and 51,5 of Urdu according to Indian Census 2001[15] + 11 million Urdu speakers in 1993 census of Pakistan [16])/ 552 million currently. 473.5 million of 1,028 million spoken some variety of Hindi or Urdu according to Indian Census (46%).[17] In Pakistan 7.57% speak Urdu.[18] Currently the population of India is 1,173 million [19] and 168 million [20] is currently the population of Pakistan. (294.4 million speak properly Hindi as a first language): 258 million of 1,028 million spoken Hindi according to the 2001 Indian census (25.08%). 4
Arabic Afro-Asiatic,
Semitic
221,000,000* 150,000,000 [21]

246 million including second language speakers (Ethnologue, 1999)[22] It is also one of the six official languages of the United Nations.
*Ethnologue further counts each of sixteen dialects.

5
Bengali Indo-European,
Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan
181,000,000 170,000,000 [23] 211 million including second language speakers, official language of Bangladesh (Ethnologue, 1999 [24]). 6
Portuguese Indo-European,
Italic,
Romance
178,000,000 150,000,000 [25] 191 million including second language speakers (Ethnologue, 1999 [26])/ 220 million native, 20 million second language = 240 million total [27] 7
Russian Indo-European,
Slavic,
East Slavic
144,000,000 160,000,000 [28] 277 million including second language speakers (Ethnologue, 1999[29])/ It is also one of the six official languages of the United Nations.[30] 8
Japanese Japonic,
formerly Language isolate
122,000,000 126,000,000 [31] 130 million native, 2 million second language = 132 million total 9

50 to 100 million native speakers

Language Family Ethnologue (estimate)[1] Encarta estimate[2] Other estimates Estimated ranking[3]
German Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic 90,300,000 100,000,000 [32] 101 million native (88 million Standard German, 8 million Austrian German, 5 million Swiss German), 60 million second language in EU[33] + 5–20 million worldwide. 10
Javanese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi 84,600,000 70,000,550 [34] Java (Indonesia), Peninsular Malaysia, Suriname, New Caledonia 11
Punjabi Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan 78,300,000 70,000,000 [35] Both counts include the two Lahnda dialects of Western Punjabi and Siraiki 61–62 million (2000 WCD) (taken together with Eastern Punjabi (28 million): approx. 90 million total) 12
Wu Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 77,200,000 90,000,000 [36] Shanghai; most of Zhejiang province; southern Jiangsu province; Xuancheng prefecture-level city of Anhui province; Shangrao County, Guangfeng County and Yushan County, Jiangxi province; Pucheng County, Fujian province; North Point, Hong Kong 13
French Indo-European, Italic, Romance 77,000,000[37] 70,000,000 [38] 128 million “native and real speakers" (includes 64,473,140 French people) and 72 million "bilinguals". More than 200 total both native and second language.[39][40] Not including partial speakers, and up to 450+ million total with significant knowledge of the language.[41] French is the ninth most spoken language in the world when including second language speakers.[42][43] It is also one of the six official languages of the United Nations.[30] 14
Telugu Dravidian, South Central 69,800,000 69,666,000 74,002,856 (2001 census)[44] 15
Vietnamese Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Vietic 68,600,000 60,000,000[45] 70 million native, perhaps up to 16 million second language, = ~86 million total 16
Marathi Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan 68,100,000 70,000,000[46] Indian census:71,936,894
68 million native, 3 million second language = 71 million total
17
Korean language isolate 66,300,000 60,000,000 [47] 42,000,000 in South Korea (1986). Population total all countries 78,000,000 (1999 WA) 18
Tamil Dravidian 65,700,000 50,000,000[48] Indian census:60,793,814
78 million [49]
19
Italian Indo-European, Italic, Romance 61,700,000 60,000,000[50] 20
Turkish Altaic, Turkic, Oghuz 59 million 50,000,000[51] Official in Turkey; spoken in Cyprus, Germany, Switzerland, Bulgaria, France, United Kingdom, Kosovo by Turkish Population 21
Cantonese/Yue Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 55,500,000 70,000,000[52] 22

10 to 50 million native speakers

Language Family Ethnologue (2005 estimate)[53] Encarta estimate[54] Other Estimated ranking[3]
Tagalog
(including Filipino)
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine 48.9 million 17 million (2006) Official in Philippines (in the form of Filipino). Significant communities in Canada, People’s Republic of China (Hong Kong), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, United States (Alaska, California, Guam, Hawaii, Northern Mariana Islands).
~49 million native[citation needed], ~51 million second language = ~100 million total
23
Gujarati Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan 46.5 million 46.1 million -- 24
Min Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 46,200,000 -- Southern Min: 49m, Northern Min 10.43m 25
Maithili Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan 45,000,000 24,191,900 26
Polish Indo-European, Slavic, West Slavic 40,000,000 44 million 27
Ukrainian Indo-European, Slavic, East Slavic 39,400,000 47 million -- 28
Malay Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, Malayic 39,100,000 23.6 million (2006) Official in Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore. Native to Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand. Significant communities in Australia, Bahrain.
18 million native, 3 million second language, = 21 million total (not counting Indonesian)
29
Bhojpuri Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan 38,500,000 26,254,000 30
Xiang Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 36,000,000 31
Malayalam Dravidian, Kerala, Southern - India 35,706,000 35,706,000 Indian census:33,066,392 32
Kannada Dravidian, Southern 35,400,000 35,400,000 38 million native, 9 million second language, = 47 million total 33
Sunda Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi 34,000,000 27 million 34
Burmese Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese 32,300,000 32,300,000 50-56 million total speakers, including 18 to 23 million as second language (Myanmar Language Commission) 35
Oriya Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan 31,700,000 32.3 million Oriya is an official language of India and is spoken by over 35 million people all over the world. Indian Census:33,017,446 36
Persian Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian 31.3 million[55] 31.3 million 63 million (Encylopedia of Orient)[56] 59.4 million 2009 CIA Factbook(Afghan Persian, Iranian Persian and Tajiki are considered dialects of one language);[57][58][59][60][61] 23.9 million Farsi Western in Iran (1997) Ethnologue ;[62]. ca. 60-70 million, as their mother tongue (2006 estimates)[63][64][65][66][67] 37
Hakka Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 30,000,000 -- 38
Hausa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West Chadic 24,200,000 24.2 million (2006) Official in Niger, north Nigeria. Significant communities in Chad, Benin, Ghana, Sudan
24 million native, ~15 million second language, = ~39 million total
39
Romanian Indo-European, Italic, Romance 23,400,000 26,265,555 Official in Moldova, Romania, Serbia (Vojvodina). Significant communities in Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Spain, Ukraine.
26 million native,[2] 4 million second language. The total is about 30 million.[68]
40
Indonesian
(also known as Bahasa Indonesia)
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian 23.2 million 17.1 million national language in Indonesia
over 140 million second language speakers per Ethnologue. Almost 100% of the population of Indonesia speaks Bahasa Indonesia, a dialect of Malay.
41
Azerbaijani Altaic, Turkic, Oghuz 21.7 million[69][70][71] 31.4 million 25–35 million native, including Qashqai (data for Iran uncertain); 8 million second language (outside Iran) ;Azerbaijani, South 24.4 (1996) www.photius.com [72] - 12.7 million Johnstone and Mandryk 2001(irak 0.6 million 1982 , Suria 0.03 1961 ,Turkey 0.53 million ;Azerbaijani, Iran 15.9 million 2009 24% [73][74] ;Azerbaijani, North 7.5 million 2007;[75] Azerbaijani, Qashqai 1.5 miilion 1997[76] 42
Dutch Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic 21,700,000 20 million (2006) 25 million[33][77] Official in Belgium, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Suriname. Significant communities in the United States, Canada, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa (excluding Afrikaans). 43
Gan Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 21 million -- 48 million, 29 million in Jiangxi[78] 44
Thai Kradai, Tai 20.3 million (2000) 46.1 million (2006) Encarta includes Northern, Northeastern and Southern Thai as well as Central whereas ethnologue Thai is just Central Thai
~31 million native (1983 SIL, 1990 Diller, 2000 WCD) (dated data), = ~60 million first and second language (2001 A. Diller). Includes Southern Thai, Northern Thai/Western Lao, but not Shan, Isan, or Lao.
45
Yoruba Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid 20,000,000 20 million (2006) Official in Nigeria. 46
Sindhi Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan 19,720,000 19,720,000 (2006) Official in Pakistan, India. Significant communities in People’s Republic of China (Hong Kong), UK, Philippines Oman. 17 million native, 13 million second language, = 30 million total (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk) 47
Pashto Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern Iranian 19,000,000 26,811,657 Official in Afghanistan. Native to Pakistan. Significant communities in Iran, United Arab Emirates. 48
Uzbek Altaic, Turkic, Eastern Turkic 18,466,000 20.1 million (2006) Official in Uzbekistan. Native to Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan 49
Igbo Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid 18 million 18 million Official in Nigeria
unknown number second language.
50
Amharic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South 17,413,000 17.4 million (2006) Official in Ethiopia. Significant communities in Israel.27 million native (32.7% Ethiopia [1994 census] and 2.7 million emigrants), 10% (7 million) as a second language = 34 million total 51
Nepali Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan 16,056,000 16,056,000 Official in Nepal, India (Sikkim). Significant communities in Bhutan.approx. 30 million in Nepal, 16 million as native tongue and 15 million as a second language (2006) 52
Serbo-Croatian Indo-European, Slavic, South Croatian 6,200,00, Bosnian 1,800,000, Serbian 8,600,000 Croatian 6,200,00, Bosnian 1,800,000, Serbian 8,600,000 (1996) Official in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia. Variant language; Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian respectively. Significant communities in Austria, Germany, Hungary, Macedonia, Romania, Slovenia. 53
Kurdish Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern 10,600,000 Kurdish is absent from Encarta's list of "Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People" Official in Iraq. Native to Armenia, Iran, Syria, Turkey. Significant communities in Germany, Lebanon. 54
Cebuano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippines 15.8 million 15 million (2006) Native to Philippines
18.5 million native, ~11.5 million second language, = 30 million total (2000 census)
55
Assamese Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan 15,334,000 15,374,000 Official in India (Assam). Significant communities in Bhutan and Bangladesh. Assamese is spoken and/or understood by almost everyone in the state of Assam. Assam had a population of 26.7 million in 2003-04. So, Assamese has another 8-10 million second language speakers. Assamese is also understood and spoken widely in Arunachal Pradesh, which has a population of 1.1 million. These are mostly second or third language speakers. Various tribes in Nagaland, with a population of 2 million, use Nagamese, a variant of Assamese, for communication. Thus, a total of approximately, 28-30 million people speak and understand Assamese. 56
Malagasy Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bornean, Barito 15 million 10.5 million (2006) Official in Madagascar. Significant communities in Mayotte.
17 million
57
Hungarian Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Ugric 14,500,000 14.5 million (2006) Official in Hungary, Serbia (Vojvodina), Slovenia, Austria. Significant communities in Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, United States, Israel
14 million native (1995)
58
Zhuang Kradai, Tai 14 million 14 million Official in People's Republic of China (Guangxi)
14 million native (1992), unknown number second language
59
Madurese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi 13,694,000 13,694,000 Native to Indonesia (Originally Java, Madura) 60
Sinhalese Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan 13,220,000 13.2 million (2006) Official in Sri Lanka. Significant communities in United Arab Emirates
13 million native, 2 million second language, = 15 million total (1993)
61
Greek Indo-European, Greek 12 million 12 million Official in Cyprus, Greece. Significant communities in Albania, Australia, Canada, Egypt, France, Georgia, Germany, Italy, Russia, South Africa, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, USA.
12 million (2004), up to 10–12 million more second language
62
Fula/Fulfulde Niger-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian ~13 million (all varieties) 11,428,700 Official in Niger, Nigeria. National language in Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal. Significant communities in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Sierra Leone. 63
Czech Indo-European, Slavic, West Slavic 12 million (2006) 12 million (1990 WA). Official in Czech Republic. 64
Shona Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu 7,000,000 14 million National language of Zimbabwe. Significant communities in Botswana, Mozambique.
15 million native, 1.8 million second language, = 16–17 million total, including Ndau, Manyika (2000 A. Chebanne)
65
Oromo Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East Cushitic split into different dialects in their consideration 17.2 million (2006) National language of Ethiopia. Significant communities in Kenya
24 million native (31.6% of Ethiopia [1994 census]), ~2 million second language, = 26 million total (1998 census)
66

1 to 10 million native speakers

Language Family Official status and where spoken natively by more than 1% of the population SIL estimate[79] Number of speakers
Somali Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East Cushitic Official in Somalia. Native to Ethiopia, Kenya, Kenya, Djibouti. Significant communities in Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Yemen, Japan.10-16 million native and at least 500,000 second-language speakers.million (2004 WCD) 9.8 million (2006)
Zulu Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in South Africa. Significant communities in Lesotho, Swaziland 9.6 million (2006) 9.6 million native, ~16 million second language, = ~25 million total (1996 census)
Quechua Quechuan Official in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru. Significant communities in Argentina 8.3 million (2006) 10.4 million, all varieties
Kazakh Altaic, Turkic, Northwestern, Southern Official in Kazakhstan. Significant communities in People's Republic of China (Xinjiang), Russia, Mongolia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan 8.2 million (2006) 12 million
Tibetan Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tibeto-Kanauri Official in People's Republic of China (Tibet Autonomous Region and part of Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu). Significant communities in India 7.1 million (2006) 7.6 million
Chichewa (Nyanja) Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in Malawi, Zambia. Significant communities in Mozambique, Zimbabwe. 9.3 million native (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk), 0.4 million second language (1999 WA), = 9.7 million total
Haitian Creole Indo-European, Romance, Creole Official in Haiti. Significant communities in Bahamas, Canada (Quebec), Cuba, Cayman Islands (UK), Dominican Republic, France (Guadeloupe), United States (Connecticut, Florida, New Jersey, Massachusetts, New York). 7.4 million (2006) 12 million (2005)
Belarusian Indo-European, Slavic, East Slavic Official in Belarus. Significant communities in Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Poland, Russia 10.2 million (2006) 9.1 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Lombard Indo-European, Romance Native to Italy -- 5 million Western Lombard + 3 million Eastern Lombard + others = 9.13 million (Ethnologue 2006)
Hebrew Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, North Central Official in Israel. Significant communities in USA (New York, California) and Canada (Ontario). 9.42 million (2006) Up to 10 million speakers including second language speakers. Mostly those from the Palestinian Territories
Swedish Indo-European, Germanic, North National language of Sweden. National language in Finland. 9 million (2006) 8.8 million (1986), ~9 million (2005)
Kongo Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu National language in Angola, Congo-Brazzaville (Kituba), Congo-Kinshasa. 4.7 million (2006) 8.7 million, all varieties, including Yombe and creolized Kituba (1986–2002) (dated data)
Akan Niger-Congo, Kwa National language in Ghana 7 million (2006) 8.3 million native, ~1 million second language, = ~10 million total (2004 SIL)
Tshiluba Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu National language of Congo-Kinshasa 7.8 million native, 0.7 million second language, = 8.5 million total (1991 UBS). Includes 1.5 million Kiluba.
Ilokano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippines Philippines. Significant communities in United States (Hawaii). 8 million (2006) 7.7 million native (2000 census), ~2.3 second language = 10 million total
Uyghur Altaic, Turkic, Southeastern, Eastern Official in People's Republic of China (Xinjiang). Significant communities in Kazakhstan 7.6 million (2006) 7.6 million
Neapolitan Indo-European, Romance Native to Italy -- 7.5 million native
Bulgarian Indo-European, Slavic, South Official in Bulgaria. Significant communities in Moldova, Ukraine, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, USA 9 million (2006) 7.7 million in Bulgaria (2005) and ~1 million abroad = 8.5 million native
Kinyarwanda Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in Rwanda. Significant communities in Congo-Kinshasa, Uganda 7.3 million (1998)
Khmer Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Khmer 7,039,200 8 million (2006) Official in Cambodia. Significant communities in Thailand, United States (California), Vietnam
14 million native, 1 million second language, = 15 million total (2004)
Xhosa Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in South Africa. Significant communities in Lesotho 6.9 million (2006) 7.2 million (1996 census)
Balochi Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian Native to Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan. Significant communities in Oman, United Arab Emirates 7 million (2006) 7.0 million (1998)
Hiligaynon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippines Philippines 7 million (2006) 6.9 million (2000 census), est. 4.1 million second language = ~11 million total
Tigrinya Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South Official in Eritrea, Ethiopia 5.1 million (2006) 4.5 million in Ethiopia (6% of population (1994 census)), ~2.25 million in Eritrea (50% of population (CIA)), = 6.75 million native, 146,934 as second language (1994 census), = 6.9 million total
Catalan Indo-European, Romance Official and Native to Andorra, Spain (Balearic Islands, Catalonia, Valencia, Aragon (La Franja), France (Pyrénées-Orientales), Italy (Alghero). 6.6 million (2006) 6.7 million native, ~5 million second language, = ~12 million total (1996) (includes Valencian)
Minangkabau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, Malayic Indonesia (Sumatra) 6.5 million (2006) 6.5 million (1981 Moussay) (dated data)
Turkmen Altaic, Turkic, Southwestern, Eastern Official in Turkmenistan. Significant communities in Afghanistan, Iran. 6.4 million (2006) 6.4 million (1995)
Makhuwa Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Major language of Mozambique. Significant communities in Tanzania 2.5 million (2006) 6.4 million, all varieties, including Lomwe
Santali Austro-Asiatic, Munda Official in India 6.2 million (2006) 6.2 million (1997)
Albanian Indo-European, isolate Official in Albania, KosovoSignificant communities in Greece, Macedonia, Italy. 6.0 million 3.6 million (data from Albania)
Armenian Indo-European, isolate Official in Armenia. Significant communities in Russia, USA, Georgia, Iran, Lebanon, Syria, France. 6 million (2006) 6.7 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk, etc.)
Afrikaans Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic Official in South Africa. Significant communities in Namibia,Botswana, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and United Kingdom. 6.0 million (2006) 6.0 million native, 10.3 million second language, = 16 million total (1996 census)
Mongolian Altaic, Mongolian Official in People's Republic of China (Inner Mongolia), Mongolia 5.7 million (2006) 5.7 million
Bhili Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan India 1.3 million (2006) 5.6 million, all varieties (1994). Includes 1.6 million Wagdi, etc.
Danish Indo-European, Germanic, North Official in Denmark, Faroe Islands (Denmark). Significant communities in Germany (Southern Schleswig) and Greenland. 5.3 million (2006) 5.6 million (2006?)
Finnish Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic Official in Finland. Significant communities in Sweden and Estonia. 6.1 million (2006) 5.4 million (1993)
Tatar Altaic, Turkic, Northwestern, Northern Official in Russia (Tatarstan). Significant communities in Bashkortostan, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 5.7 million (1989 USSR census),[80][81] at least 5.34 million (2002 census: ethnic Tatars in Russia only)[82]
Gikuyu Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Major language of Kenya 5.4 million (2006) 5.3 million (1994 I. Larsen BTL)
Slovak Indo-European, Slavic, West Slavic Official in Slovakia and Vojvodina district of Serbia. 5.6 million (2006) 5.0 million (1990 WA)
More Niger-Congo, Gur National language of Burkina Faso 5.1 million (2006) ~5 million (1991)
Guarani Tupi Official in Paraguay. Significant communities in Argentina. 5.1 million (2006) 4.9 million (1995)
Swahili Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in Congo-Kinshasa, Kenya, Tanzania. Significant communities in Comoros, Mayotte, Oman 5 million (2006) ~5 million native, ~80 million second language
Southern Quechua Quechuan Official in Peru, Bolivia ~5,000,000
Kirundi Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in Burundi. 4.9 million (1986) (dated data)
Sesotho (southern) Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in Lesotho, South Africa. 4.9 million (1996 census)
Central Morocco Tamazight (Berber) Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern 3,500,000National language in Algeria, Mali and Niger (Tuaregs); unrecognized in Morocco, Libya and Tunisia. Large migrant communities in France, Benelux, Spain and Germany . 32.3 million (2006) 37+ million (1998)
Romani Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan Significant communities in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Turkey, and USA 3.1 million (2006) 4.8 million, all varieties, including Domari (data for Vlax 2002–2004; for Domari 2000 WCD).
Norwegian Indo-European, Germanic, North Official in Norway. Significant communities in the United States. 5 million (2006) 4.7 million (2006, Statistics Norway)
Pahari-Potwari Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan Pakistan: Areas of Pakistani administered Kashmir e.g. Mirpur District, Rawalpindi. Dialects include Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Pothwari (Potwari), Chibhali, Pindiwali, Punchhi (Poonchi), and Mirpuri.[83] (Mirpuri can also refer to Mirpur Punjabi, a Lahnda language. Pahari-Potwari is related to Punjabi. 4.7 million, all varieties
Tibetan Sino-Tibetan,Tibeto-Burman, Bodic Official in People's Republic of China (Tibet, Qinghai, parts of Sichuan, Gansu) 1.3 million (2006) 4.6 million, all varieties
Kanuri Nilo-Saharan, Saharan Official in Niger, Nigeria. Significant communities in Chad (Kanembu) 4.4 million native, 0.5 million second language, = 4.9 million total (data mostly from 1985) (dated data)
Kashmiri Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan Official in and native to India. 4.5 million (2006) 4.6 million (1997)
Bikol Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippines Philippines 3.3 million (2006) 4.5 native, all varieties (2000 census), unknown number second language
Yi Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmic People's Republic of China 4.2 million (2006) 7.8 million ethnic Yi (2000 census)
Georgian Kartvelian Official in Georgia. Significant communities in Israel. 4.1 million (2006) 4.2 million (1993 UBS)
Qusqu-Qullaw Quechuan Official in Peru (Cusco and Puno departments) Also spoken in Bolivia, Argentina 4 million
Tswana Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in Botswana, South Africa. National language of Namibia 4 million (2006) 4.4 million native, 200,000 second language, = 4.6 million total (1993 Johnstone) (dated data)
Umbundu Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu National language of Angola ~4 million native, unknown number second language (1995 WA)
Konkani Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan Official in India (Goa).Significant communities in Uttara Kannada,Dakshina Kannada. 6 million (2006) ~4 million (1999 WA)
Balinese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, Bali-Sasak Indonesia (Bali, Lombok) 3.8 million (2006) 3.9 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Northern Sotho (sePedi) Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in South Africa. Significant communities in Botswana 3.7 million (1996 census)
Luyia Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Kenya 3.6 million (2006) 3.6 million (1989 census) (dated data)
Wolof Niger-Congo, Atlantic National language in Mauritania, Senegal. Significant communities in The Gambia. 3.4 million (2006) 3.6 million native (2002), unknown number second language
Buginese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, South Sulawesi Indonesia 3.5 million native, 0.5 million second language, = ~4 million total (1991 SIL)
Luo (Dholuo) Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic Kenya 3.4 million (2006) 3.5 million (1994 I. Larsen BTL) (dated data)
Maninka Niger-Congo, Mande National language of Guinea, Mali. Significant numbers in Liberia, Senegal, Sierra Leone. 2.5 million (2006) 3.3 million, all varieties
Mazanderani Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western Iranian Iran 3.3 million (2006) 3.3 million (1993) (dated data) (numbers may be confused with or include Gilaki)
Gilaki Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western Iranian Iran 3.3 million (2006) 3.3 million (1993) (dated data) (numbers may be confused with or include Mazanderani)
Shan Kradai, Tai Myanmar 3 million (2006) 3.3 million
Tsonga Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in South Africa. Significant communities in Mozambique, Swaziland. 3.2 million (2006) 3.3 million (1989, 1996) (dated data)
Galician Indo-European, Romance. Official in Galicia, Spain. 3.2 million (2006) 3.2 million (1986) (data dated)
Lao Kradai, Tai Official in Laos. Native to Thailand. 3.2 million (2006) ~19 million Lao-Phutai dialects (including Isan) (data dated)
Sukuma Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Tanzania 5 million (2006) 3.2 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Yiddish Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic official in Russia (Jewish Autonomous Oblast) Significant communities in Belarus, Israel, Latvia, Ukraine, USA. 3 million (2006) 3.2 million
Jamaican Creole Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic, Creole Jamaica. Significant communities in Panama, Costa Rica 2.8 million (2006) 3.2 million (2001)
Piemonteis Indo-European, Italic, North Italy (official in the Piedmont region), Argentina 3.1 million (2000) 3.1 million (2000), might not include speakers in Latin America
Kyrgyz Altaic, Turkic, Northwestern, Southern Official in Kyrgyzstan. Native to Tajikistan 3.1 million (2006) 3.1 million (1993 UBS) (dated data)
Waray-Waray Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippines Philippines 2.4 million 3.1 native (2000 census), unknown number second language
Ewe Niger-Congo, Kwa Official in Togo. National language of Ghana. 2.5 million (2006) 3.1 million native, 500,000 second language, = 3.6 million total (2003)
South Bolivian Quechua Quechuan Official in Bolivia, also spoken in Argentina 3,637,500 (ethnologue)sout
Lithuanian Indo-European, Baltic Official in Lithuania. Significant communities in Latvia. 4 million (2006) 3.1 million (1998)
Luganda Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Major language of Uganda 3.0 million native (1991 census), ~1 million second language (1999 WA), = ~4 million total
Lusoga Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Major language of Uganda, official status unclear/pending +/- 3 million native speakers (2002 census), +/- 100,000 second-language speakers (dated data)
Acehnese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, Malayic Indonesia 3 million (2006) ~3 million (1999 WA)
Kimbundu Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu National language of Angola ~3 million (1999 WA)
Hindko Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan Pakistan 2.5 million (2006) ~3 million (1993) (dated data)
Ibibio-Efik Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River Efik official in Nigeria 1.5 million (2006) ~3 million, including Anaang (1990; 1998 B. Connell) (dated data)
Rajbangsi Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan India 3.0 million (1991 census)
Garhwali Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan India 2.9 million (2000)
Bambara Niger-Congo, Mande National language of Mali 2.8 million native, 10 million second language, = 13 million total
Hmong Hmong-Mien China. Significant communities in France (French Guiana), Laos, United States (Minnesota, Wisconsin), Vietnam 2.8 million (2006)
~4 million (Lemoine, 2005)
Ometo Afro-Asiatic, Omotic Ethiopia 2.8 million, all varieties, including Welayta (1998 census)
Indian Sign Language Language isolate (Sign language) Bangladesh, India, Pakistan 2.7 million in India, plus unknown number in Bangladesh, Pakistan (2003). Same language as Pakistani Sign Language
Betawi creole Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, Creole Indonesia 2.7 million (1993 Johnstone)
Karen Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic Myanmar, Thailand, India 2.6 million, all varieties (dated data)
Gondi Dravidian India 2.6 million (1997)
Senoufo Niger-Congo, Gur National language of Mali. Native to Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire. 2.6 million, all varieties (1991, 1993, 2001)
Kalenjin Nilo-Saharan, East Sudanic, Nilotic Kenya 2.5 million (1989 census)
Kumauni Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan India 2.4 million in India (1998)
Kamba Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Kenya 2.4 million native, 600,000 second language, = 3.0 million total (1989 census)
Luri Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western Iranian Iran 2.4 million (1999, 2001)
K'iche' Mayan Guatemala 2.3 million (2000 SIL)
Kapampangan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippines Philippines 2.3 million (2000 census)
Bemba Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu National language of Zambia 2.2 million (2006)
3.6 million native, unknown number second language (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Central Aymara Aymaran Official in Bolivia, Peru. Significant numbers in Argentina. 2.2 million Central Aymara (1987)
Tiv Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid Nigeria 2.2 million native, unknown number second language (1991 UBS)
Brahui Dravidian Pakistan, Afghanistan 2.2 million
Gbaya Niger-Congo, Ubangian Central African Republic, Congo-Kinshasa 2.2 million, all varieties, including Ngbaka (2000 WCD)
Zarma Nilo-Saharan, Songhai Official in Niger 2.2 million (1998)
Baoulé Niger-Congo, Kwa Côte d'Ivoire 2.1 million (1993 SIL)
Dogri Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan Official in India (Jammu and Kashmir states) 2.1 million (1997)
Lingala Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu National language of Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa. 2.1 million native (2000 WCD), 7 million second language in Congo-Kinshasa (1999 WA), unknown additional second-language speakers in Congo-Brazzaville, = 9+ million total. According to Britannica (2005 Yearbook) more than 36 million people speak Lingala as lingua franca.
Sasak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi Indonesia 2.1 million (1989)
Kurux Dravidian India, Nepal 2.1 million (1997)
Mundari Austro-Asiatic, Munda India 2.1 million (1997)
Dinka Nilo-Saharan, East Sudanic, Nilotic Southern Sudan 2+ million
Slovene Indo-European, Slavic, South Slavic Official in Austria, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia. 2.0 - 2.5 million consisting of the population of Slovenia (1991 census) plus minorities in Austria, Croatia, Hungary and Italy; several hundred thousand (100 000 - 200 000) in US, Canada, Argentina and Australia
Batak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi, Northern Sumatra Indonesia 2 million (2006)
~6.2 million, all varieties (c. 1991 UBS) (dated data). Includes Toba, Dairi, Simalungun, etc.
Macedonian Indo-European, Slavic, South Official in Republic of Macedonia , also sizeable communities in Albania, Greece, Germany, Italy and USA 2.0 million (1995) [84]
Buyei Kradai, Tai China ~2 million (1990 census)
Beti-Pahuin Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Major language of Gabon, Equatorial Guinea. Significant communities in Cameroon, São Tomé and Príncipe. ~2 million. Includes Fang, Ewondo, etc.
Zazaki Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western Iranian Turkey 1.5–2.5 million (all dialects) (1998 Paul)
Occitan Indo-European, Romance France, Italy, Spain, Monaco 1,939,000
Tulu Dravidian India 1.9 million (1997)
Ligurian Indo-European, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italic Italy, France, Monaco 1,920,848
Sidamo Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East Cushitic Ethiopia 1.9 million native, 100,000 second language, = 2.0 million total (1998 census)
Bashkir Altaic, Turkic, Northwestern, Northern Official in Russia (Bashkortostan) 1.9 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Yao Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Malawi, Tanzania, Mozambique ~1.9 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Chuvash Altaic, Turkic Official in Russia (Chuvashia) 1.8 million native, 200,000 second language, = 2.0 million total (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk
Ijaw (Izon) Niger-Congo, Ijoid languages Indigenous in Nigeria 1.8 million (all varieties) (Izon 1 million)
Fon Niger-Congo, Kwa National language of Benin Significant communities in Togo 1.7 million native (2000 Hoddenbagh), unknown number second language
SiSwati Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in South Africa, Swaziland. Significant communities in Lesotho 1.7 million (1996 census, 1993 Johnstone)
Latvian Indo-European, Baltic Official in Latvia. Significant communities in Australia, USA, United Kingdom, Ireland, Brazil. 1.6 million[85]
Nyankore Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Uganda 1.6 million (1991 census)
Makasar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi Indonesia 1.6 million native, 400,000 second language, = 2 million total (1989)
Gusii Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Kenya 1.6 million (1994 I. Larsen BTL)
Khandeshi Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan India 1.6 million (1997)
Ndebele Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in South Africa. National language of Zimbabwe. 1.6 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Chin Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman Myanmar, India 1.6 million (1990 BAP, 1996 UBS). All varieties, but not including Mizo etc.
Limburgish Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic, Meuse-Rhenish Official in Netherlands (as a regional language). Belgium and Germany (no official status) 1.6 million
Vlax Romani Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania, Albania, Colombia, Hungary 1.5 million
Sara Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, Bongo-Bagirmi National language of Chad. Significant communities in Central African Republic. 1.5 million native, all varieties, large number second-language speakers (dated data)
Pangasinan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippines Philippines 1.5 million (2000 census)
Tonga Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Zambia, Zimbabwe 1.5 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Lampung Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi Indonesia ~1.5 million (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Sardinian Indo-European, Romance Official in Italy (Sardinia) ~1.5 million (1977 M. Ibba, Rutgers University)
Scots Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic Scotland, Significant communities in Northern Ireland ~1.5 million native (General Register Office for Scotland, 1996)
Dong Kradai, Kam-Sui China 1.5 million
Mende Niger-Congo, Mande National language of Sierra Leone 1.5 million native, unknown number second language (1987 UBS)
Tày Kradai, Kam-Tai, Tai Vietnam 1.5 million in Vietnam (1999 census)
Nahuatl Uto-Aztecan, isolate Mexico 1.4 million (all varieties) (dated data)
Afar Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East Cushitic Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti 1.4 million (1998 census)
Dagbani Niger-Congo, Gur National language of Ghana 1.4 million, including Kusaal, Mampruli (2004 SIL)
Koli Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan India, Pakistan 1.4 million, all varieties (some data dated)
Chiga Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Uganda 1.4 million (1991 census)
Chechen Caucasic, Nakh Official in Russia (Chechnya). 1.33 million (2002 census)
Tumbuka Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in Malawi. Significant communities in Zambia 1.3 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Iu Mien Hmong-Mien, Yao China 1.3 million, all varieties (1995 Wang and Mao)
Meru Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Kenya 1.3 million (1994 I. Larsen BTL) (dated data)
Gogo Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Tanzania ~1.3 million (1992 UBS) (dated data)
Teso Nilo-Saharan, East Sudanic, Nilotic Uganda. Significant communities in Kenya 1.3 million (1991 census)
Meithei Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman Official in India (Manipur) 1.3 million (1997)
Tamang Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman Nepal 1.3 million
Makonde Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Tanzania, Mozambique 1.3 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Bai Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, unclassified China 1.2 million (2003)
Tuareg Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Southern Official in Niger. National language of Mali. 1.2 million (1991–1998)
Mandinka Niger-Congo, Mande National language of Senegal. Significant communities in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau. 1.2 million (2002)
Jula Niger-Congo, Mande Native to Burkina Faso, Significant communities in Côte d'Ivoire ~1.2 million native, 3–4 million second language
Temne Niger-Congo, Atlantic National language of Sierra Leone
Haya Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Tanzania ~1.2 million (1991 UBS)
Serer Niger-Congo, Atlantic National language of Senegal. Significant communities in Gambia. 1.2 million (2002)
Beja Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic or isolate Sudan, Eritrea 1.2 million (1982 SIL)
Nyamwezi Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Tanzania 1.2 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Abron Niger-Congo, Kwa Ghana 1.2 million (2003)
Alur Nilo-Saharan, East Sudanic, Nilotic Congo-Kinshasa, Uganda 1.2 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Sena Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Mozambique, Malawi 1.2 million, all varieties
Azande Niger-Congo, Ubangian Congo-Kinshasa, Southern Sudan, Central African Republic 1.1 million (dated data)
Walloon Indo-European, Romance Belgium 1.1 million (1998)
Anyi Niger-Congo, Kwa Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana 1.2 million (1993 SIL)
Malvi Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan India 1.1 million (1997)
Kinaray-a Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippines Philippines 1.1 million native (2000 census)
Soninke Niger-Congo, Mande National language in Mali, Mauritania, Senegal. Significant communities in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia. 1.10 million (1991)
Ho Austro-Asiatic, Munda India 1.08 million (1997)
Estonian Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finnic Official in Estonia 1.08 million (1989 census)
Nyakyusa Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Tanzania, Malawi 1.05 million (1992 UBS)
Gwari Niger-Congo, Nupe Nigeria 1.05 million (1991 SIL, 2002 SIL)
Lugbara Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, Moru-Madi Congo-Kinshasa, Uganda 1.04 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk, 1983 SIL)
Basque Language isolate, Euskadi and Navarre (Spain) and Iparralde (France) Basque Country 1.03 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk, 1983 SIL)
Naga Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman India 1.03 million, all varieties (1997)
Susu Niger-Congo, Mande National language of Guinea. Significant communities in Sierra Leone. 1.03 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Tausug Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippine Philippines Significant communities in Indonesia (Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sabah) 1.02 million native (2000 census)
Chokwe Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu National language of Angola. Significant communities in Congo-Kinshasa 1.01 million (1990 UBS)
Kabardian Caucasic, Circassian Official in Russia (Kabardino-Balkaria). Significant communities in Karachay-Cherkessia, Turkey 1.01 million (1993 UBS, 2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Ryūkyū Japonic, Ryūkyūan Japan 1.01 million, all varieties (2000 WCD)
Magindanaw Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippine Philippines 1.0 million native (2000 census), unknown number second language
Maranao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Borneo-Philippine Philippines 1.0 million native (2000 census)
Ancash Quechua Waywash Official in Peru 1.0 million speakers
Welsh Indo-European, Celtic, Brythonic Official in Wales Also spoken by isolated populations in Argentina and England and United States. 1.0 million speakers

100,000 to 1 million speakers

Language Family Official status and where spoken natively by more than 1% of the population Number of speakers
Songe Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Congo-Kinshasa ~1 million (1991 WA)
Rejang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sunda-Sulawesi Indonesia ~1 million (1981 Wurm and Hattori)
Bini Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid Official in Nigeria ~1 million (1999 WA)
Ebira Niger-Congo, Nupe Nigeria ~1 million (1989 J. Adive)
Dagaare Niger-Congo, Gur National language of Ghana. Significant communities in Burkina Faso. ~1 million (2003)
Gujari Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan Afghanistan, India, Pakistan 0.99 million (2000 WCD)
Tharu Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan Nepal 0.99 million, all varieties
Venda Niger-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantu Official in South Africa 0.96 million (1996 census)
Arakanese Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman Myanmar, Bangladesh 0.95 million (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk)
Mauritian Creole French-based creoles spoken in Mauritius; no official status 806,000
Yucatán Maya Mayan, Yucatecan, Yucatec-Laca Mexico, Belize 705,000
Ossetic Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern Iranian, Northeastern Spoken in Russia Official in North Ossetia, South Ossetia), Georgia, Turkey ~700,000
Ndonga Bantu Spoken in Namibia, Angola 690,000
Kwanyama Niger-Congo Angola, Namibia 671,000
Mari Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Finno-Volgaic Russia (Official in Mari El) 600,569
Réunion Creole French-based creoles spoken in Réunion; no official status 600,500
West Frisian Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic, Anglo-Frisian, Frisian Official in Netherlands (Friesland). 600,000 fluent speakers in 2004
700,000 (Ethnologue 1976)
Avar North Caucasian (disputed), Northeast Caucasian, Avar-Andic Official in Russia's Republic of Dagestan Also spoken in the rest of Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkey ~600,000
Friulian Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian Italy ~600,000
Lozi Niger-Congo Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe 550,000
Udmurt Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Permic Russia (Official in Udmurtia), Kazakhstan 550,000
Kalmyk Altaic (controversial), Mongolic, Kalmyk-Oirat Spoken in Russia (Kalmykia), China, Mongolia 518,500
American Sign Language Sign language No official status, used in USA, Canada and Guatemala. Also used in varying degrees in Philippines, Singapore, Hong Kong, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Chad, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Mauritania, Kenya, Madagascar and Zimbabwe. 100,000 to 500,000 in the USA [86]
Breton Indo-European, Celtic, Brythonic Native in Brittany, no official status ≤ 500,000
Erzya Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Finno-Volgaic, Mordvinic Spoken in Russia ~500,000
Maltese Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South Central Official in Malta, European Union. Significant communities in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and Gibraltar ~500,000
Moksha Uralic, Finno-Ugric, Finno-Permic, Finno-Volgaic, Mordvinic Russia (Mordovia) ~500,000
Zapotec Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan Mexico (Oaxaca, Puebla Guerrero) Also spoken in USA ~500,000
Fiji Hindi Indo-European Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, USA, Canada 460,000
Fijian Malayo-Polynesian Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, other Pacific Islands 455,000
Lezgian Northeast Caucasian, Lezgic Spoken in Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan 450,000
Hakha-Chin Sino-Tibetan Burma, India, Bangladesh 446,264
Limbu Sino-Tibetan official in Nepal, India (Sikkim), significant communities in Bhutan, Assam (India) 441,633
Mapudungun language isolate Significant communities in Chile, Argentina 440,000 (ethnologue)
Dargin Caucasian (geographical convention), North (disputed), Northeast Spoken in Dagestan, Russia 439,000
Ingush Caucasian (disputed), North (disputed), Northeast, Nakh, Vainakh (Chechen-Ingush) Spoken in Russia (Ingushetia, Chechnya) 415,000
Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Huasteca Mexico 410,000
Karachay-Balkar Altaic, Turkic, Kypchak, Kypchak-Cuman Official languages of Russian areas of Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia 400,000
Buryat Altaic, Mongolic, Northern Mongolia, China, Russia 400,000
Western Huasteca Nahuatl Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Huasteca Mexico 400,000
Corsican Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian Native in Corsica. 402,000-100,000
Aklanon Austronesian, Borneo-Philippines, Central Philippine, Visayan, Western Visayan, Aklan, Native in the Philippines. 394,545
Luxembourgish West Central German group of High German languages Official in Luxembourg 390,000
Dhivehi / Mahl Indo-Aryan Official in the Maldives and Minicoy Island(India). 379,200
Samoan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian (MP), Nuclear MP Official in Samoa and American Samoa (United States) 370,337
Sakha Altaic, Turkic, Northern Turkic Russia 363,000
Awngi Afro Asiatic, Cushitic, Central Ethiopica (Agew Awi Zone, Amhara Region) 356,980
Irish Indo-European, Celtic, Goidelic Official in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, spoken by communities in the United States, Canada and Australia. 350,000
Komi Uralic, Permic Spoken in Russia (Komi Republic, Perm Krai 350,000
Mingrelian Kartvelian Georgia, Spoken in Georgia 500 000
Mazahua Oto-Manguean, Oto-Pamean, Otomian Mexico 350,000
Papiamento Portuguese Creole Official in Netherlands Antilles and Aruba 329,000
Pontic Greek Indo-European, Greek Greece, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Turkey 324,535
Japanese Sign Language Sign language no official status 320,000 signers
Icelandic Indo-European, Germanic, North Official in Iceland. Small community in Gimli, Manitoba, Canada. 310,000
Wayuu Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Caribbean Significant communities in Colombia, Venezuela 305,000 (ethnologue)
Aromanian Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Romance Greece, Albania, Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria, Macedonia 300,000-700,000
Adyghe Caucasian (disputed), North Caucasian (disputed), Northwest Caucasian, Circassian Official in Russia's Republic of Adygea, Significant communities in the rest of Russia, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Israel, Macedonia, Iraq 300,000
Laz South Caucasian Turkey, Georgia, Germany, Adjaria, Greece 300,000-500,000
Wanka Quechua Quechuan Official in Peru 300,000
Garifuna Arawakan, Carib Honduras, Belize, Guatemala 300,000
French Sign Language Sign language used in France, no official status. French Sign Language is related to Dutch Sign Language (NGT), German Sign Language (DGS), Flemish Sign Language (VGT), Belgian-French Sign Language (LSFB) Irish Sign Language (ISL), American Sign Language (ASL), and Quebec Sign Language (LSQ). 80,000 - 300,000 signers
Kumyk Altaic, Turkic, Kypchak, Kypchak-Cuman Russia Dagestan 282,000
Nàmá Khoisan, Khoe, Khoekhoe, North Khoekhoe Official in Namibia. 250,000
Central Huasteca Nahuatl Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec Mexico 200,000
Kenyan Sign Language Sign language Kenya ~200,000
Tuvan Altaic, Turkic, Northeastern Mongolia, Russia, China 200,000
Miskito Misumalpan Nicaragua, Honduras 183,400
Navajo Na-Dené, Athabaskan, Southern Athabaskan Spoken in the USA (Arizona, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico) 178,000
Maori Austronesian, Oceanic, Tahitic languages Official language of New Zealand/Aotearoa 165,000 fluent speakers (New Zealand Census, 2006. Statistics New Zealand).
Amis Austronesian Taiwan 137,651
Ngäbere Chibchan, Guaymi Spoken in Panamá 133,092 (1990 Panama Census)
Hererro Niger-Congo Namibia, Botswana 130,000
Chamula Tzotzil Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan Mexico 130,000
Abkhaz Northwest Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abaza Georgia, Abkhazia, diasporal communities elsewhere about 125,000
Highland Puebla Nahuatl Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec Mexico 125,000
Highland Totonac Totonacan, Totonac Mexico 120,000
Lak North Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian Russia (Southern Dagestan) 120,000
Orizaba Nahuatl Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec Mexico 120,000
P'urhépecha Language isolate Mexico Michoacán ~120,000
Tahitian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian (MP), Central-Eastern MP, Eastern MP, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear Polynesian, Eastern Polynesian, Central E. Polynesian, Tahitic France (French Polynesia) 120,000
Karelian Uralic Russia 118,000
Komi-Permyak Uralic Russia 116,000
Pardhan Gondi No official status, spoken in India 116,919
Franco-Provençal Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian (SIL), Oïl (SIL), Southeastern (SIL) Italy, Switzerland, France ~113,000
Tongan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Eastern Malayo-Polynesian... Official in Tonga 105,319
Bachajón Tzeltal Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan Mexico 100,000
Ladino Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Spanish Israel, Turkey 109,000
Gilbertese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Eastern, Eastern... Official in Kiribati 102,000
Spanish Sign Language Sign language Spain more than 100,000 signers
Mezquital Otomi Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian Mexico, USA 100,000

10,000 to 100,000 speakers

Language Family Official status and where spoken natively by more than 1% of the population Number of speakers
Tabasaran Northeast Caucasian, Lezgian Russia (Southern Dagestan) 95,905
Kodava Takk Dravidian Kodagu, Karnataka, India 300,000
Mexican Sign Language Sign language no official status 87,000-100,000 signers
Mara Sino-Tibetan, Kuki-Chin(Central) India- Official in Mara Autonomous District Council and Chin state, Myanmar 94,000
Atayal Austronesian Taiwan 84,330
South Estonian Uralic Estonia 80,000
Altay Altaic, Turkic Russia, Mongolia, China 71,600
Võro Uralic, Baltic-Finnic South Estonian Estonia 70,000
Nogai Altaic, Turkic Russia 67,800
Faroese Indo-European, Germanic, North Official in the Faroe Islands. 60,000 - 80,000
Santiago del Estero Quichua Quechuan Spoken in Argentina 66,000 (ethnologue)
Paiwan Austronesian Taiwan 61,000
Chamorro Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian (MP), Nuclear MP, Sunda-Sulawesi USA (Guam, Northern Mariana Islands) 60,000+
Khakas Altaic Russia ~60,000
Scottish Gaelic Indo-European, Celtic, Goidelic Official in Scotland. 58,652 speakers. Although 92,400 people aged three and over in Scotland had some Gaelic language ability in 2001[87]
Thai Sign Language Sign Language Thailand 56,000
Ojibwe Algonquian Canada and northern United States 55,000
Leonese Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Iberian, Leonese, Spain and Portugal 55,000
Kalaallisut Eskimo-Aleut, Inuit Official in Denmark (Greenland) 54,000
Kashubian Indo-European, Slavic, West Slavic, Pomeranian Poland 53,000
Quebec Sign Language Sign Language Canada (Quebec) 50,000-60,000
Cree Algonquin Canada and United States 50,000
Sanskrit Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan chiefly India, but also Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal; Used in religious practices in Hinduism. 49,736 fluent speakers (1991 Indian census)
Eastern Bolivian Guaraní/Western Argentine Guaraní Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guaraní (I) Official in Bolivia, Also spoken in Argentina 48,974 (ethnologue)
Cook Islands Maori Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian (MP), Central-Eastern MP, Eastern MP, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear Polynesian, Eastern Polynesian, Central E. Polynesian, Tahitic New Zealand (Cook Islands) 42,669
Ticuna Language isolate Peru, Brazil, Colombia 40,000
Meänkieli Dialect of Finnish, Baltic-Finnic, Uralic Sweden 40,000—70,000
Aguaruna Jivaroan Official in Peru 38,290 (2000 WCD)
Bunun Austronesian Taiwan 38,000
Romansh Indo-European, Romance Official in Switzerland. 35,000 native
Rutul Northeast Caucasian Russia, Azerbaijan +30,000
Ladin Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Rhaetian Italy 30,000
Inuktitut Eskimo-Aleut, Inuit Official in Canada ~30,000
Llanito Indo-European, Romance, Germanic, West Germanic Vernacular of Gibraltar. Although widely understood in the surrounding Campo de Gibraltar area, in Spain. 30,000 (Ethnologue 2006)
Evenki Altaic, Tungusic Russia, China, Mongolia 29,000
Nenets Uralic Russia 27,273
Mbyá Guaraní Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní (I) Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay 27,000
Sioux Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley, Dakotan USA, Canada 26,300
Wichí Lhamtés Vejoz Mataco-Guaicuru Argentina 25,000 (ethnologue)
Asháninka Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine Official language of Peru 23,750 - 28,500 (2000 SIL)
Huichol Uto-Aztecan Mexico (Nayarit, Zacatecas, Jalisco) 20,000
Taba Austronesian Indonesia 20,000
Warao Warao Venezuela, Guyana 18,000 (ethnologue)
Nivaclé Mataco-Guaicuru Paraguay 18,200 (ethnologue)
Agul Northeast Caucasian, Lezgian Russia, Azerbaijan 17,373 (1989 Census)
Kaiwá Brazil 15,512 (Ethnologue)
Cherokee Iroquoian, Southern Iroquoian USA (Oklahoma) 15,000-22,000
Northern Sami Uralic Norway, Finland, Sweden 15,000—20,000
Mahl Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Insular Indo-Aryan India 15,000-20,000
Mirandese Indo-European,Italic,Romance,Italo-Western,Gallo-Iberian,Ibero-Romance,West Iberian, Astur-Leonese Portugal 15,000
Tsez North Caucasian Russia 15,000
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay Mataco-Guaicuru Argentina 15,000 (ethnologue)
!Kung Khoisian Namibia, Angola 15,000
Norwegian Sign Language Sign Language Norway 4,000-15,000
Tuamotuan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian... France (French Polynesia) 14,400
Auslan BANZSL, Sign Language Australia 100,000
South Ucayali Ashéninka Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine Official in Peru 13,000
Yaghnobi Eastern Iranian Tajikistan 12,500
South African Sign Language Sign Language South Africa 12,200
Pajonal Ashéninka Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine Official in Peru 12,000
Pichis Ashéninka Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine Official in Peru 12,000
Khanty Uralic Russia 12,000
Chiripá Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guaraní (I) Brazil, Paraguay 11,500 (ethnologue)
Chayahuita Cahuapanan Official in Peru 11,384 (2000, WCD)
Tuvaluan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear Polynesian, Samoic, Ellicean Tuvalu, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand 10,670
Aragonese Indo-European, Romance Huesca province (Spain). No official status. 10,000 native, 30,000-50,000 with some knowledge (Dated data)
North Frisian Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic, Anglo-Frisian, Frisian Germany (recognized minority language in Nordfriesland) 10,000 (Ethnologue)
Míkmawísimk Eastern Algonquian Canada and United States About 10,000

1000 to 10 000 native speakers

Language Family Official status and where spoken natively by more than 1% of the population Number of speakers
Central Alaskan Yup'ik Eskimo-Aleut United States (Alaska) ~10,000
Israeli Sign Language Sign Language Israel ~10,000
Shor Altaic Russia 9,800
Zuñi Isolate United States (New Mexico and Arizona) Zuñi pueblo 9,651
Huambisa Jivaroan Spoken in Peru 9,333 (2000 WCD)
Lakota Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley, Dakotan, Sioux USA 8,000-9,000
Chukchi Chukotko-Kamchatkan Russia 7,742
Huitotot Bora-Huitoto, Huitoto-Ocaina Official in Peru Also spoken in Colombia 7,378-8,162 (Adelaar, 2004)
Southern Aymara Aymaran Official in Peru Also spoken in Brazil 7,212 (2001 SIL)
Ucayali-Yurúa Ashéninka Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine Official in Peru Also spoken in Brazil 7,212
Megleno-Romanian Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Romance Greece, Romania, Macedonia 5,000-12,000
Veps Uralic Russia 6,355
Western Desert Language Pama-Nyungan Australia 6,103 (Ethnologue)
Flemish Sign Language Sign Language Belgium (Flanders and Brussels-Capital Region) 6,000
Perené Ashéninka Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine Official in Peru 5,500
Achuar-Shiwiar Jivaroan Official in Peru, Also spoken in Ecuador 5,000
Cashibo-Cacataibo Panoan Peru 5,000 (Ethnologue, 1999)
Finnish Sign Language Sign Language Finland 5,000 (estimate)
Dolgan Altaic Russia ~5,000
Saisiyat Austronesian Taiwan 4,750
Rapa Nui (Easter Islander) Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Eastern, Eastern, Oceanic, Central-Eastern, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East, Polynesian, Nuclear Polynesian, Eastern Polynesian Chile (Rapa Nui (Easter Island)) 4,650
!Xóõ Khoisian Namibia, Botswana 4,200
Ajyíninka Apurucayali Arawakan, Maipuran Official in Peru 4,000
British Sign Language BANZSL, Sign Language United Kingdom 140,000
Akhvakh Northeast Caucasian Russia (Dagestan) 3,500
Koryak Chukotko-Kamchatkan Russia 3,019
Jaqaru Aymaran Official in Peru 3,009
Candoshi-Shapra Language Isolate Official in Peru 3,000 (1991, SIL)
Yague Peba-Yaguan Official in Peru 3,000-4,000 (dated)
Kala Lagaw Ya Pama-Nyungan Australia 3,000-4,000
Khinalug Northeast Caucasian languages Azerbaijan 1,500 ~ 4,000
Ludic Uralic Russia (Karelia) 3,000
Inupiaq Aleut Canada 3,500
Mansi Uralic Russia Khantia-Mansia 3,184
Carolinian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Eastern, Eastern, Oceanic, Central-Eastern, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ponapeic-Trukic United States Official in Northern Mariana Islands 3,000
Warlpiri Pama-Nyungan Australia 3,000
Godoberi Northeast Caucasian Russia (Dagestan) 3,000
Murui Huitoto Witotoan, Witoto, Witoto Proper, Minica-Murui Official in Peru, also spoken in Colombia 2,900 (SIL, 1995)
Bora Witotan Official in Peru Also spoken in Colombia 2,828
Saterland Frisian
(East Frisian)
Indo-European, Germanic, West Germanic, Anglo-Frisian, Frisian Germany (recognized minority language in Saterland, East Frisia) 2,250
11,000 (Ethnologue)
Kven Uralic Norway 2,000-8,000
Cashinahua Panoan Official in Peru Also spoken in Brazil 2,000
Inuinnaqtun Aleut Canada 2,000
Lule Sami Uralic Norway, Sweden 2,000
Esperanto Constructed language Vocabulary from Romance and Germanic languages; phonology from Slavic languages International auxiliary language 200 to 2000 N.B. Because it is an international language, most speakers speak it as a second language. Estimates of total number of speakers tend to fall around 2 million.[88]
Arrernte Pama-Nyungan Australia 1,500
Manx Gaelic Indo-European, Celtic, Goidelic Isle of Man 1,750
Minica Huitoto Witotoan Official in Peru, Also spoken in Colombia 1,705 (2000 WCD)
Selkup Uralic Russia (Yamalia) 1,570
Culina Arauan Official in Peru Also spoken in Brazil 1,303
Chipaya Uru-Chipaya Official in Peru 1,200
She Hmong-Mien China 1,200
Chickasaw Muskogean United States 1,000
Walmajarri Pama-Nyungan Australia 1,000
Istro-Romanian Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Romance Croatia 560-1,000

Below 1000

Language Family Official status and where spoken natively by more than 1% of the population Number of speakers
Ottoman Altaic-Turkic Turkey 900
Norfuk Caribbean Creole Norfolk Island, Pitcairn Islands 616
Kildin Sami Uralic Russia (Murmansk Oblast, Karelia) 500
Nganasan Uralic Russia (Taymyria) 500
Southern Sami Uralic Sweden, Norway 500
Inari Sami Uralic Finland 400
Skolt Sami Uralic Finland, Russia (Karelia) 400
Mlabri Austroasiatic Thailand, Laos (Karelia) <400
Ingrian Uralic Russia (Ingria) 300
Pirahã Muran Amazon River, Brazil. No official status 300
Washo Hokan United States (Washoe County, Nevada) 252[89]
Comanche Uto-Aztecan United States (Oklahoma) 200
Hinukh Northeast Caucasian Russia (Dagestan) 200
Livonian Uralic Latvia (Livonia) 150
Tobian Trukic Palau (In the states of Hatohobei and Sonsorol and in the southern areas of Palau) ≥100
Enets Uralic Russia (Krasnoyarsk Krai) 70
Pitkern (Or Pitcairnese) Caribbean Creole Pitcairn Island (and New Zealand) ≥70
Manchu Altaic Northern China (Heilongjian province), Southern Russia ≥60
Dugikian Sino-Tibetan East-Asia >33 (Still increasing)
Pite Sami Uralic Sweden, Norway 20
Ume Sami Uralic Sweden, Norway 20
Votic Uralic Russia ≥20
Kayardild Pama-Nyungan Australia <10
Keljovid Illini United States 3
Ter Sami Uralic Russia (Murmansk Oblast) 2[citation needed]
La Ayoûlà Gulf Créole Kuwait 2[citation needed]

Macrolanguages

The following are the largest ISO 639 macrolanguages, which in different sources may be counted as either one or several languages.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Ethnologue". SIL Haley. http://www.ethnologue.org/ethno_docs/distribution.asp?by=size. 
  2. ^ a b c "Encarta Dictionary". Microsoft Encarta 2006. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/dictionaryhome.aspx. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
  3. ^ a b c Ranking by Mean Average of the two estimates (Encarta and Ethnologue)
  4. ^ "Modern Standard Chinese definition - Dictionaries - MSN Encarta". Uk.encarta.msn.com. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1481582983/Modern_Standard_Chinese.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  5. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=CHN
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  7. ^ "Spanish definition - Dictionaries - MSN Encarta". Uk.encarta.msn.com. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861781790/Spanish.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  8. ^ Ethnologue - 1999 WA--source for the second figure)
  9. ^ UNAM and Instituto Cervantes ("El Mundo" news)
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  11. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=ENG
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  14. ^ ^Ethnologue, 1999
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  17. ^ "Census of India - Statement 1". Censusindia.gov.in. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/Statement1.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  18. ^ http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/pco/statistics/other_tables/pop_by_mother_tongue.pdf
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  21. ^ "Arabic definition - Dictionaries - MSN Encarta". Uk.encarta.msn.com. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861689162/Arabic.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  22. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=arb
  23. ^ "Bangla definition - Dictionaries - MSN Encarta". Uk.encarta.msn.com. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861812718/Bangla.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  24. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=BNG
  25. ^ "Portuguese definition - Dictionaries - MSN Encarta". Uk.encarta.msn.com. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861758655/Portuguese.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  26. ^ "Ethnologue 14 report for language code:POR". Ethnologue.com. http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=POR. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  27. ^ "IOL Diário - Somos 240 milhões de falantes". Diario.iol.pt. 2008-07-16. http://diario.iol.pt/sociedade/lingua-portuguesa-portugues-ensino-governo-alunos/972503-4071.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  28. ^ "Russian definition - Dictionaries - MSN Encarta". Uk.encarta.msn.com. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861770985/Russian.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  29. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=RUS
  30. ^ a b Contributor: flamiejamie (2008-06-26). "Top 10 Most Spoken Languages In The World". Listverse. http://listverse.com/miscellaneous/top-10-most-spoken-languages-in-the-world/. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  31. ^ "Japanese definition - Dictionaries - MSN Encarta". Uk.encarta.msn.com. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861766410/Japanese.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  32. ^ "German definition - Dictionaries - MSN Encarta". Uk.encarta.msn.com. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861706344/German.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  33. ^ a b "Europeans and Languages". European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_237.en.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-18. 
  34. ^ "Javanese definition - Dictionaries - MSN Encarta". Uk.encarta.msn.com. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861711446/Javanese.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  35. ^ "Punjabi definition - Dictionaries - MSN Encarta". Uk.encarta.msn.com. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861779420/Punjabi.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  36. ^ "Wu definition - Dictionaries - MSN Encarta". Uk.encarta.msn.com. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861758362/Wu.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  37. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=FRN
  38. ^ "French definition - Dictionaries - MSN Encarta". Uk.encarta.msn.com. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861790461/French.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  39. ^ Posted by 데이빛 / Mithridates (2008-10-15). "French in 9th place with 200 million French speakers in the world / 200 millions de francophones dans le monde". Page F30. http://www.pagef30.com/2008/10/french-in-9th-place-with-200-million.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
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  43. ^ "Cheer up French speakers, you’re not alone". France24. 2008-10-28. http://www.france24.com/en/20081018-cheer-french-speakers-francophone-francophonie-nadeau. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  44. ^ "Census of India - Statement 4". Censusindia.gov.in. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/Statement4.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
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  48. ^ "Tamil language". Encarta dictionary. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/DictionaryResults.aspx?lextype=3&search=tamil. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
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  51. ^ "Turkish language". Encarta Dictionary. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/DictionaryResults.aspx?lextype=3&search=turkish. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  52. ^ "Cantonese language". Encarta Dictionary. http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/DictionaryResults.aspx?lextype=3&search=cantonese. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
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  56. ^ Persian language in Encyclopedia of Orient: [1]
  57. ^ R. Khanam, "Encyclopaedic ethnography of Middle-East and Central Asia: J-O, Volume 2", Global Vision Publishing Ho, 2005. pg 730:"The Standard Tajiki dialect is mutually intelligble with the Persian of Iran and the Dari of Afghanistan and is increasingly being called either Farsi-Tojiki or Farsi (Persian)"
  58. ^ David Levinson, Karen Christensen, "Encyclopedia of modern Asia", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002. pg 50: "The most important modern languages of the Iranian family are (West Iranian) Persian (Farsi, Dari, and Tajiki), Tati, Baluchi, Zaza, and numerous unwritten "
  59. ^ Bernard Lewis, "The Middle East: a brief history of the last 2,000 years",Simon and Schuster, 1995. pg 247: "Persian- Zaban-i Farsi, the language of the province of Fars, or Pars, from which the Greek and hence the Western names of the country are derived -- was spoken and written in Iran (the ancient name of the country), and in a zone extending eastward into Central Asia, in regions now included in Afghanistan and in the republic of Tajikistan. Tajik and also Dari, one of the two languages of Afghanistan (the other is Pashto, also of Iranic family), are variants of Persian
  60. ^ Bernard Lewis,"The multiple identities of the Middle East", Schocken Books, 1998. ISBN-0805241728, 9780805241723 pg. 55: "Apart from Iran, Persian has official status in two other countries; in Afghanistan, where the local form of Persian is known as Dari, and in the former soviet Republic of Tajikistan.
  61. ^ 2009 CIA Factbook: Iran:[2][3] (Persian and Persian dialects 58%) (38.514), Afghanistan [4], Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50% (14.1), Tajikistan 79.9% (5.8 million), Uzbekistan (4.7% 1 million),
  62. ^ Ethnologue: [5] 23.9 M (Farsi, Western)
  63. ^ Iran 36 M (51%) - 46 M (65%) [6], Afghanistan 16.369 M (50%), Tajikistan 5.770 M (80%), Uzbekistan 1.2 M (4.4%)
  64. ^ Svante E. Cornell, "Uzbekistan: A Regional Player in Eurasian Geopolitics?", European Security, vol. 20, no. 2, Summer 2000.
  65. ^ Richard Foltz, "The Tajiks of Uzbekistan", Central Asian Survey, 15(2), 213–216 (1996).
  66. ^ Karl Cordell, "Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe", Published by Routledge, 1999. Excerpt from pg 201: "Consequently, the number of citizens who regard themselves as Tajiks is difficult to determine. Tajikis within and outside of the republic, Samarkand State University (SamGU) academic and international commentators suggest that there may be between six and seven million Tajiks in Uzbekistan, constituting 30% of the republic's 22 million population, rather than the official figure of 4.7%(Foltz 1996;213; Carlisle 1995:88).
  67. ^ Lena Jonson, "Tajikistan in the New Central Asia", Published by I.B.Tauris, 2006. pg 108: "According to official Uzbek statistics there are slightly over 1 million Tajiks in Uzbekistan or about 4% of the population. The unofficial figure is over 6 million Tajiks. They are concentrated in the Sukhandarya, Samarqand and Bukhara regions."
  68. ^ The Latin Union reports 28 million speakers for Romanian, out of whom 24 million are native speakers of the language: Latin Union - The odyssey of languages: ro, es, fr, it, pt; see also Ethnologue report for Romanian
  69. ^ Azerbaijani, South 12.6 million Johnstone and Mandryk 2001(irak 0.6 million 1982 , Suria 0.03 1961 ,Turkey 0.53 million) [7]
  70. ^ Azerbaijani, North 7.5 million 2007
  71. ^ Azerbaijani, Qashqai 1.5 miilion 1997[8]
  72. ^ "The 50 Most Widely Spoken Languages (1996) Azerbaijani, South 24.4". Photius.com. http://www.photius.com/rankings/languages2.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  73. ^ [9]Azerbaijani, Iran 15.9 million 2009 24%
  74. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=azb
  75. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=azj
  76. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=qxq
  77. ^ "Het Nederlandse taalgebied" (in Dutch). Taalpeil. http://taalunieversum.org/taalpeil/het_nederlandse_taalgebied.html. Retrieved 2007-02-18. 
  78. ^ http://ling.cass.cn/fangyan/dituji/LANGUAGE%20ATLAS%20OF%20CHINA.html The population of Gan speakers is 48 million
  79. ^ Microsoft Encarta 2006, Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People. Archived 2009-10-31.
  80. ^ Народы и языки Российской Федерации. статистика(Russian)
  81. ^ "Ethnologue 14 on Tatar (version 15 gives data obviously invompatible with this and the next shown source)". Ethnologue.com. http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=TTR. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
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