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List of leaders of the Soviet Union: Wikis

  
  

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An approximately chronological list of leaders of the Soviet Union (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union).

The formal structure of power in the Soviet Union consisted of three main branches that gave rise to three top positions.

The first position of importance was that of the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, informally translated as President of the Soviet Union. Theoretically it was the highest position, since the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was an interim organ of the Congress of Soviets, the latter being the supreme power of people, according to the Constitution of the Soviet Union.

The head of the government was the Premier of the Soviet Union. This was the most important position in Lenin's time.

In practice, the leader or General Secretary of the Communist Party used to occupy another position, which led to confusion in the West as to who the number one person in the USSR was: Lenin, Stalin and Malenkov preferred the post of the premier, while Khrushchev, Brezhnev and his successors preferred that of the president (called Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and changed to President of the Soviet Union in 1990).

Soviet leaders
Picture Name Title Period Supreme Ruler
Lenin CL Colour.jpg Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
Владимир Ильич Ленин
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars[1]. Informally, leader of the Bolsheviks since their inception. October 26, 1917 - January 21, 1924 December 30, 1922 - January 21, 1924
JStalin Secretary general CCCP 1942.jpg Joseph Stalin
Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks April 3, 1922 - March 5, 1953 1927 - March 5, 1953
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR May 6, 1941 - March 5, 1953
Malenkow.jpg Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov
Гео́ргий Максимилиа́нович Маленко́в
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR March 5, 1953 - February 8, 1955 March 5, 1953 - September 7, 1953
Nikita Khruchchev Colour.jpg Nikita Khrushchev
Никита Сергеевич Хрущёв
First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union September 7, 1953 - October 14, 1964 September 7, 1953 - October 14, 1964
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR March 27, 1958 - October 14, 1964
Troika Leonid Brezhnev, Леони́д Ильи́ч Бре́жнев First Secretary of the CPSU October 14, 1964 - April 8, 1966
Alexei Kosygin, Алексе́й Никола́евич Косы́гин Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR October 14, 1964 - October 23, 1980
Anastas Mikoyan, Анаста́с Ива́нович Микоя́н Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR October 14, 1964 - December 9, 1965
Brezhnev-color.jpg Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev
Леонид Ильич Брежнев
First Secretary of the CPSU October 14, 1964 - April 8, 1966 October 14, 1964 - November 10, 1982
General Secretary of the CPSU April 8, 1966 - November 10, 1982
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR May, 1960 - October 14, 1964 and June 16, 1977 - November 10, 1982
Andropov1.jpg Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov
Ю́рий Влади́мирович Андро́пов
General Secretary of the CPSU November 12, 1982 - February 9, 1984 November 12, 1982 - February 9, 1984
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR June 16, 1983 - February 9, 1984
Konstantin Chernenko.jpg Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko
Константин Устинович Черненко
General Secretary of the CPSU February 13, 1984 - March 10, 1985 February 13, 1984 - March 10, 1985
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR April 11, 1984 - March 10, 1985
Mikhail Gorbachev 1987.jpg Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
Михаил Сергеевич Горбачёв
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union March 11, 1985 - August 24, 1991 March 11, 1985 - December 25, 1991
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR October 1, 1988 - May 25, 1989
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR[2] May 25, 1989 - March 15, 1990
President of the Soviet Union[3] March 15, 1990 - December 25, 1991
  1. ^ The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was only created in 1922. From August 1917, after the February Revolution, the state name was the Russian Republic, and after the October Revolution from 1918 to 1922 its name was the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (the RSFSR continued after 1922 as one of 15 republics in the USSR).
  2. ^ Office of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet renamed to Chairman of the Supreme Soviet.
  3. ^ On March 15, 1990 the office of the President of the Soviet Union was created and executive power was transferred from the office of the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet. Although the Chairman's office remained, it was now that of a parliamentary speaker, not a head of state.

The post of General Secretary was created in April 1922 but did not come to signify the party leader or leader of the country until after Stalin won the struggle with Trotsky and Kamenev to succeed Lenin (1925). The title was informal between 1934 and 1953, since it was officially abolished by the XVII Party Congress, and was called First Secretary between September 1953 and April 1966. The "Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet" was the equivalent of President of the state while "Chairman of the Council of Ministers" and "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars" were equivalent to Premier or Prime Minister.

On March 14, 1990, the newly created (1989) Congress of People's Deputies voted to end the Communist party's control over the government and elected Gorbachev President of the Soviet Union.

Leaders of post-Soviet independent states

For details of the leaders of the 15 independent states that replaced the Soviet Union, see the following articles:

See also

External links








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