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Warfare

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Ancient

Illyria

  • Agron (250 BC230 BC) The first king to unite the Illyrian tribes together and form a kingdom. During his rule Illyria was a strong kingdom which had a strong military force, especially naval. He successfully stopped the attacks of the Roman Empire and the Aetolians by keeping his kingdom free till his death.

Armenia

Berbers

  • Lusius Quietus governor of Judaea and one of the best Trajan's chief generals. See Kitos War.
  • Masinissa (c. 238 BC - c. 148 BC) was the first King of Numidia, an ancient Amazigh North African nation of ancient Libyan peoples, and is most famous for his role as a Roman ally in the Battle of Zama.

Britons

Carthage

Ancient China

Ancient Egypt

Gaul

Germania

Ancient Greece

Huns

India

Ancient Israel

Korea

Mesopotamia

  • Gilgamesh King of Uruk
  • Hammurabi King of Babylon conquered many native peoples.
  • Nebuchadrezzar II King of the Chaldeans and conqueror of Judah.
  • Tiglath-Pileser III King of Assyria. Conqueror of Israel, Syria, other lands that became Assyria, force Judah to pay tribute.
  • Sargon King of Akkad. Created strong Akkadian kingdom.
  • Ben-hadad King of Aram. Often fought Israel and, on occasion, Judah.

Persia (during Classical Antiquity)

Persian Empire

Seleucid Empire

Parthian Empire

Sassanid Empire

  • Ardashir I, established the Sassanid Empire by conquering the Parthian Empire and defeating King Artabanus IV after several years of brutal warfare. Artabanus IV was killed in 216 BC ending the 400-year rule of the Parthian Empire. Ardashir I conquered the provinces of Sistan, Gorgan, Khorasan, Margiana (in modern Turkmenistan), Balkh, and Chorasmia. Bahrain and Mosul were also added to Sassanid possessions later as well. He defeated Roman Emperor Alexander Severus in 232 at the Battle near Ctesiphon.
  • Shapur I conquered the Mesopotamian fortresses Nisibis and Carrhae and advanced into Syria. But was defeated by Timesitheus at the Battle of Resaena in 243. He defeated Roman emperor Philip the Arab (244–249) at the Battle of Misiche. In 253 he defeated Roman Emperor Valerian at the Battle of Barbalissos. This resulted in the conquest of Armenia and invasion of Syria, and he plundered Antioch. Valerian marched against him, but was defeated and captured at the Battle of Edessa by Shahpur I. The outcome of the battle was an overwhelming victory, with the entire 70,000-strong Roman force being slain or captured.
  • Narseh, in 296, fed up with incursions made by the Armenian monarch Tiridates III, Narseh invaded Armenia.Surprised by the sudden attack, Tiridates fled his kingdom. The Roman emperor Diocletian dispatched his son-in-law Galerius with a large army to Tiridates's aid. Galerius invaded Mesopotamia, which Narseh had occupied hoping to check his advance. Three battles were fought subsequently, the first two of which were indecisive. In the third fought at Callinicum, Galerius suffered a complete defeat and was forced to retreat. Later Galerius would have his revenge and defeat Narseh. The end result was a peace treaty.
  • Shapur II, led an expedition through Bahrain, defeated the combined forces of the Arab tribes of "Taghleb", "Bakr bin Wael", and "Abd Al-Qays" and advanced temporarily into Yamama in central Najd. He resettled these tribes in Kerman and Ahvaz. Arabs named him Shabur Dhul-aktaf which means "The owner of the shoulders" after this battle. A twenty-six year conflict (337–363) began in two series of wars with Roman Empire, the first from 337 to 350 against Constantius II. Although often victorious, Shapur II made scarcely any progress. The second series of war began in 359 with Shahpur II conquering Amida and he took Singara and some other fortresses in the next year (360). In 363 Emperor Julian defeated a superior Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, but was killed during his retreat at the Battle of Samarra. His successor Jovian (363–364) made an ignominious peace, by which the districts beyond the Tigris which had been acquired in 298 were handed over along with Nisibis and Singara, and the promise not to interfere in Armenia. The outcome was a strategic victory for Shahpur II. Shapur II invaded Armenia, where he took King Arshak II prisoner and forced him to commit suicide. Shapur II subdued the Kushans and took control of the entire area now known as Afghanistan and Pakistan. By his death in 379 the Sassinid Empire was stronger than ever before, considerably larger than when he came to the throne, the eastern enemies were pacified and had gained control over Armenia.

Ancient Rome

Middle Ages

Africa

Albania

Franks

China

Korea

Bulgaria

in 896, annihilated the entire Byzantine army in the Battle of Anchialus in 917.

  • Samuil - Warred incessantly to preserve Bulgarian independence from the Byzantines.
  • Ivan Asen I - recovered Bulgarian territories from the Byzantines and ultimately restored Bulgarian independence.
  • Kaloyan- Also known as the 'Romanslayer', during the Fourth Crusade, he crushed the Latin Crusaders at the Battle of Adrianople and defeated them repeatedly afterwards thus sealing the fate of the gravely weakened Latin Empire.

Byzantine Empire

Arabs

Rashidun Caliphate Generals

Umayyad Caliphate Generals

Abbasid Caliphate Generals

Mashriq Muslim Dynasties Generals

Zengid dynasty: 1127-1250

Ayyubid dynasty: 1171-1246

Mamluks: 1250-1517

Maghreb Muslim Dynasties Generals

Afghan Generals

Ghaznavid empire

Ghurids Sultanate

Durrani Empire

Turkic Muslim Generals

Seljuks

Ortoqids

Danishmends

Ottoman Empire

others

Normans

Vikings

  • Cnut the Great (King of England, Denmark, Norway, and parts of Sweden)
  • Rurik (founder of the Rus' rule in Eastern Europe)
  • Erik the Red (colonizer of Greenland)
  • Leif Ericson (explorer who is reguarded to be the first european to reach North America)
  • Olaf Tryggvason (king of Norway from 995 to 1000. He forced thousands to convert to Christianity. He once burned London Bridge down out of anger because people were disobeying his orders)
  • Bagsecg (A Viking who Invaded and pillaged in England in 870, But was killed in 871 at The Battle of Ashdown)
  • Oleg of Novgorod (Varangian prince (or konung) who ruled all or part of the Rus people during the early tenth century, launched attack on Constantinople)

Persia (during the Middle Ages)

Sassanid Empire

Muslim Iran

Crusaders

Indonesia

  • Raden Wijaya, (1293–1309), the founder and the first Raja (king) of Majapahit, his army defeated Mongol army at Tuban East java in 1293
  • Gajah Mada, (14th century), the Majapahit Prime Minister that united Nusantara (southeast Asia)
  • Sultan Agung of Mataram or Sultan Agung Anyokrokusumo or Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo, (1613–1645), He was the constructor of the Karta Palace, and the Royal Graveyard of Imogiri.
  • Cut Nyak Dien, Commander of Aceh war against Dutch occupation
  • Imam Bonjol, Commander of Padri war against Dutch occupation during 1825-1830 at center of Java
  • Pattimura, Commander of war against Dutch occupation at Saparua, Ambon.

India

Japan

  • Takeda Shingen, daimyo during the Sengoku period of Japan. Known for the famous phrase "Swift as the Wind, Silent as a Forest, Fierce as Fire, and Immovable as a Mountain" on his standard; demonstrating his political and military strategies.
  • Uesugi Kenshin daimyo during the Sengoku period Japan. Known as the "Dragon of Echigo for his prowess on the battlefield, considered the primary rival of Takeda Shingen.
  • Sanada Yukimura, retainer of Takeda Shingen, praised as "a hero who may appear once in hundred years" and "crimson demon of war". In legend, he is the leader of the Sanada Ten Braves.
  • Minamoto no Yoshitsune, general whose decisive victories brought down the Taira clan during the Genpei War.
  • Oda Nobunaga (1534–1582), warlord during the Sengoku period of Japan. First of the three unifiers of Japan.
  • Toyotomi Hideyoshi, seized control over Japan after the death of Oda Nobunaga.
  • Tokugawa Ieyasu, finally ended the Sengoku period, pacified and united Japan, and founded the Tokugawa shogunate that would last over 250 years.
  • Date Masamune, daimyo during the Edo period of Japan. He went on to found the modern-day city of sendai. He was more iconic for being called dokuganryu the one-eye dragon.

Mongols

Vietnam

  • Tran Hung Dao, general during the Trần Dynasty. Lead the armies that thrice repelled Mongol invasions of Vietnam.
  • Le Loi, A military commander and founder of the le dynasty, he is among the most famous figures from the medieval period of Vietnamese history and one of its greatest heroes.
  • Nguyen Hue known as Emperor Quang Trung (光中皇帝; Quang Trung Hoàng đế ) .He was also one of the most successful military commanders in Vietnam's history

Russian

English

Scottish

Irish

French

Iberian

Serbian

Welsh

Modern era

Early Modern Era

World War II - 1990

After 1990

See also








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