List of nuclear weapons: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of nuclear weapons listed according to country of origin, and then by type within the states.

Nuclear weapons
One of the first nuclear bombs.

History
Warfare
Arms race
Design
Testing
Effects
Delivery
Espionage
Proliferation
Arsenals
Terrorism
Civil defense
Anti-nuclear opposition

Nuclear-armed states

United States · Russia
United Kingdom · France
China · India · Israel (unofficial)
Pakistan · North Korea
South Africa (fmr.)

Contents

United States United States

Notes: US nuclear weapons of all types (bombs, warheads, shells, and others) are numbered in the same sequence starting with the Mark 1 and (as of March 2006) ending with the W-91 missile warhead (which was canceled prior to introduction into service). All designs which were formally intended to be weapons at some point received a number designation. Pure test number, such as the B61 nuclear bomb which was the parent design for the W80, W81, and W84.

This list includes weapons which were developed to the point of being assigned a model number (and in many cases, prototypes were test fired), but which were then canceled prior to introduction into military service. Those models as listed as canceled, along with the year or date of cancellation of their program.

  • Bombs — designated with Mark ("Mk") numbers until 1968, and with "B" numbers after that. "Test Experimental" bombs designated with "TX".
    • Mark 1 – "Little Boy" gun-type weapon (used against Hiroshima). (13-18 Kt, 1945-1950)
    • Mark 2 – "Thin Man" plutonium gun design—cancelled in 1944
      • Implosion Mark 2 – Another Manhattan Project plutonium implosion weapon, a hollow pit implosion design, was also sometimes referred to as Mark 2. Also cancelled 1944.
    • Mark 3 – "Fat Man" implosion weapon (used against Nagasaki). (21 Kt, 1945-1950)
    • Mark 4 – Post-war "Fat Man" redesign. Bomb designed with weapon characteristics as the foremost criteria. (1949-1953)
    • Mark 5 – Significantly smaller high efficiency nuclear bomb. (1-120 Kt, 1952-1963)
    • Mark 6 – Improved version of Mk-4. (8-160 Kt, 1951-1962)
    • Mark 7 – Multi-purpose tactical bomb. (8-61 Kt, 1952-1967)
    • Mark 8 – Gun-assembly, HEU weapon designed for penetrating hardened targets. (25-30 Kt, 1951-1957)
    • Mark 10 – Improved version of Mk-8 (12-15 Kt, cancelled May 1952).
    • Mark 11 – Re-designed Mk-8. Gun-type (8-30 Kt).
    • Mark 12 – Light-weight bomb to be carried by fighter planes (12-14 Kt).
    • Mark 13 – Improved version of Mk-6 (cancelled August 1954).
    • TX/Mark 14 – First deployable solid-fuel thermonuclear bomb (Castle Union device). Only five produced. (5 Mt)
    • Mark 15 – First "lightweight" thermonuclear weapon. (1.7-3.8 Mt, 1955-1965)
    • TX/Mark 16 – First weaponized thermonuclear weapon (Ivy Mike device). Only cryogenic weapon ever deployed. Only five produced. (6-8 Mt)
    • Mark 17 – High-yield thermonuclear. Heaviest U.S. weapon, second highest yield of any U.S. weapon. Very similar to Mk-24. (10-15 Mt)
    • Mark 18 – Very high yield fission weapon (Ivy King device).
    • Mark 20 – Improved Mark 13 (cancelled 1954)
    • Mark 21 – Re-designed variant of Castle Bravo test
    • Mark 22 – Failed thermonuclear design (Castle Koon device, cancelled April 1954).
    • Mark 24 – High-yield thermonuclear, very similar to Mk-17 but had a different secondary.
    • Mark 26 – Similar design to Mk 21 (cancelled 1956).
    • Mark 27 – Navy nuclear bomb (1958-1965)
    • B28 nuclear bomb (Mark 28) (1958-1991)
    • Mark 36 – Strategic nuclear bomb (1956 - 1961) 9-10 Mt
    • B39 nuclear bomb (Mark 39) (1957-1966)
    • B41 nuclear bomb (Mark 41) (1960-1976); highest yield US nuclear weapon (25 mt).
    • B43 nuclear bomb (Mark 43) (1961-1991)
    • B46 nuclear bomb or (Mark 46); experimental, design evolved into B53 nuclear bomb and W-53 warhead (cancelled 1958)
    • B53 nuclear bomb (1962-1997; still in enduring stockpile)
    • B57 nuclear bomb (1963-1993)
    • B61 nuclear bomb (1966-current service)
    • B77 nuclear bomb (cancelled 1977)
    • B83 nuclear bomb (1983-current service)
    • B90 nuclear bomb (cancelled 1991)
  • Nuclear artillery shells
    • 16-inch (406 mm)
      • W23 (1956-1962) Gun-type
    • 280mm:
      • W9 (1952-1957) Gun-type
      • W19 (1953-1956) Gun-type, W9 derivative
    • 8-inch (203 mm)
      • W33 (1956-1980s) Gun-type
      • W75 (cancelled 1973)
      • W79 (1981-1992)
    • 155mm

See also Enduring Stockpile.

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Common nuclear primaries

A number of American weapons designs shared common components between several designs. These include publicly identified models listed below.

Common nuclear fission primaries
Model Used in these weapons
RACER IV primary TX/Mark 14,TX/Mark 16,Mark 17
Python primary B28 W28 W40 W49
Boa primary W30 W52
Robin primary W38 W45 W47
Tsetse primary B43 W44 W50 B57 W59
Kinglet primary W55 W58
B61 Family B61 W69 W73 W80 W81 W84 W85 W86

Soviet Union/Russia Soviet UnionRussia

At the peak of its arsenal, Russia possessed around 16,000 nuclear weapons in its stockpile, rivaled only by the United States arsenal.

United Kingdom United Kingdom

Blue Steel

  • Missile warheads
  • Other nuclear weapons
    • WE.177 (also used as a nuclear depth charge)
    • Blue Peacock (nuclear land mine, a.k.a. the "chicken-powered nuclear bomb")

Canada Canada

Canada has not maintained a stockpile of nuclear weapons since 1984.

France France

France is said to have an arsenal of 350 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 2002.

China People's Republic of China

China is believed to possess around 400 nuclear weapons, but has released very little information about the contents of its arsenal.

India India

India is believed to possess between 60-80 nuclear weapons according to an estimate in 2004. The specifications of its weapon production are not disclosed to the public.

Iran Iran

Persistent rumors throughout the 1990s that Iran had obtained ex-Soviet nuclear weapons have never been confirmed or conclusively refuted.

Iran is actively seeking to develop nuclear power capability, allegedly for non-military use and in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty under the supervision of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Many experts have concluded that Iran's contemporary late 1990s and 2000 formerly covert uranium enrichment program was part of a secret nuclear weapons program. Iran disputes this conclusion. As of April 2007, the International Atomic Energy Agency and United Nations Security Council are involved in addressing this question.

Israel Israel

Israel is widely believed to possess a substantial arsenal of nuclear weapons and missiles, estimated at 75-130 and 100-200[1] warheads, but refuses officially to confirm or deny whether it has a nuclear weapon program, leaving the details of any such weapons unclear. Mordechai Vanunu, a former nuclear technician for Israel, confirmed the existence of a nuclear weapons program in 1986.

Unconfirmed rumors have hinted at tactical nuclear artillery shells, light fission bombs and missile warheads, and perhaps thermonuclear missile warheads. [2]

The BBC News Online website published an article[6] on the 28 May 2008, which quotes former U.S. President Jimmy Carter as stating that Israel has at least 150 nuclear weapons. The article continues to state that this is the second confirmation of Israel's nuclear capability by a U.S. spokesman following comments from U.S. Defence Secretary Robert Gates at a Senate hearing and had apparently been confirmed a short time later by Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. [3]

Pakistan Pakistan

Pakistan is believed to have around 80-120 HEU based nuclear weapons. While Plutonium based research is also available, the estimated stockpile is not enough to be comparable to Uranium ones, and the specifications of these are not available publicly. The main series for nuclear transportation is Hatf.

The first two in the above mentioned series are not confirmed to be capable for nuclear standoff

North Korea North Korea

North Korea claims to possess nuclear weapons, however, the specifications of its systems are not public. On 9 October 2006, North Korea carried out an alleged nuclear test. (See 2006 North Korean nuclear test) Nuclear weapons produced by North Korea are known to have failed.

On the 25th May 2009 N. Korea conducted a second test of nuclear weapons at the same location as the original test (not confirmed). The test weapon was of the same magnitude as the atomic bombs dropped on Japan in the 2nd World War,. At the same time of the test N. Korea tested 2 short range ballistic missiles (reported a S. Korean News Network- not officially confirmed).

South Africa South Africa

South Africa built six or seven gun-type weapons. All constructed weapons were verified by International Atomic Energy Agency and other international observers to have been dismantled, along with the complete weapons program, and their highly enriched uranium was reprocessed back into low enriched form unsuitable for weapons.

See also

References

  1. ^ Normark, Magnus, Anders Lindblad, Anders Norqvist, Björn Sandström and Louise Waldenström. "Israel and WMD: Incentives and Capabilities." Swedish Defence Research Agency FOI-R--1734--SE December 2005 <http://www.foi.se/FOI/templates/Page____4657.aspx>
  2. ^ The Samson option: Israel's nuclear arsenal and American foreign policy, Hersh, Seymour M., New York, Random House, 1991, ISBN 0-394-57006-5
  3. ^ "Israel 'has 150 nuclear weapons'", BBC News Online May 28, 2008

Bibliography

  • Holloway, David, "Stalin and the Bomb," New Haven & London, Yale University Press, 1994, ISBN 0-300-06056-4.
  • Zaloga, Steven J., "The Kremlin's Nuclear Sword" Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002, ISBN1-58834-007-4.
  • Hansen, Chuck. U.S. Nuclear Weapons. Arlington, Texas, Areofax, Inc., 1988. ISBN 0-517-56740-7.
  • Gibson, James N. "Nuclear Weapons of the United States," Altglen, PA, Schiffer Publishing, 1996, ISBN 0-7643-0063-0.
  • Cochran, Thomas, Arkin, William, Hoenig, Milton "Nuclear Weapons Databook, Volume I, U.S. Nuclear Forces and Capabilities," Cambridge, Massachusetts, Ballinger Pub. Co., 1984, ISBN 0-88410-173-8.
  • Hansen, Chuck, "Swords of Armageddon," Sunnyvale, CA, Chucklea Publications, 1995.

External links

  • CNS Resources on South Africa's Nuclear Weapons Program indicates that "most international experts conclude that South Africa has completed its nuclear disarmament. South Africa is the first and to date only country to build nuclear weapons and then entirely dismantle its nuclear weapons program."

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