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List of political parties in Italy: Wikis

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Italian Republic

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Italy



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Several political parties operate in Italy, and historically there have been even more than today. No one party has ever had the chance of gaining power alone and thus parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.

However, since the 2008 general election, only five major parties have been represented in Parliament. On one side the centre-right People of Freedom and Lega Nord support the Berlusconi IV Cabinet. On the other side there is the centre-left opposition, composed of the Democratic Party, which includes in its parliamentary ranks the Italian Radicals, and Italy of Values. The Union of Christian and Centre Democrats and Alliance for Italy are the only parties outside the two big coalitions to be represented in Parliament.

Other minor regional parties are represented in Parliament, notably the Movement for Autonomy, the South Tyrolean People's Party and the Valdotanian Union, while many other parties are active or represented at the regional level.

Contents

History

Between 1945 and 1994, Italian politics was dominated by two major parties: Christian Democracy, which was the party of government, and the Italian Communist Party, the main opposition party. The other opposition party was the post-fascist Italian Social Movement. During its almost fifty years in government, Christian Democracy chose its coalition partners among four parties: the Italian Socialist Party, the Italian Democratic Socialist Party, the Italian Republican Party and the Italian Liberal Party.

Christian Democrats led the government consecutively for 46 but five years. Between 1983 to 1991, they steadily shared government with Socialists, Republicans, Democratic Socialists and Liberal altogether. These were the years when several Northern regional parties demanding autonomy organized themselves at the regional level. In 1991 they federated themselves into Lega Nord, which surprisingly became the fourth largest party of the country in the 1992 general election.

In 1992–1994, the political system was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known collectively as Tangentopoli and the subsequent police investigation called Mani pulite. These events led all the major parties of government to disappear. Consequently the Communists, who had gathered themselves in the Democratic Party of the Left in 1991, and the post-fascists, who launched National Alliance, gained strength. Following the 1994 general election media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi became Prime Minister at the head of a coalition composed mainly of three parties: its brand new party called Forza Italia (joined by many members of the five parties of government), National Alliance and Lega Nord.

Between 1996 and 2008, Italian political parties were organized into two big coalitions, the centre-right Pole of Freedoms (which was re-named House of Freedoms after the re-entry of Lega Nord in 2000) and The Olive Tree (re-named The Union in 2005) on the centre-left. The centre-left governed from 1996 to 2001 and again between 2006 and 2008, while the House of Freedoms was in government between 2001 and 2006.

In 2008, The Union ceased to exist, because the new-born Democratic Party decided to break the alliance with the Communist Refoundation Party and the other parties of the coalition, except Italy of Values and the Italian Radicals. In the centre-right, the foundation of Forza Italia and National Alliance merged to form The People of Freedom, which continued the alliance with Lega Nord.

Active parties

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Major parties

Having their own group in at least one of the two chambers of the Italian Parliament or having scored more than 4% in the 2008 general election:

Minor parties

Having a minor representation in elective bodies, at national or regional level, or having scored less than 4% in the 2008 general election:

Micro parties

Less than 0.5% in the 2008 general election (or notable parties which did not take part to the election):

Regional parties

More than 1% in a previous regional election (or at least 2 regional councillors):

Aosta Valley
Piedmont
Lombardy
Alto Adige/Südtirol
Trentino
Veneto
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Emilia-Romagna
Liguria
Tuscany
Campania
Basilicata
Apulia
Sardinia

Parties of the Italians abroad

More than 15% in one constituency in the 2008 general election (or at least 1 MP):

Former parties

Coalitions

Having scored at least 15% in a general election (or at least 30 MPs):

Parties

Having scored at least 1% in a general election (or at least 5 MPs):

Regional parties

Having scored at least 1% in a regional election (or at least 2 regional councillors):

Aosta Valley
Piedmont
Lombardy
Liguria
  • New Liguria (Liguria Nuova)
Alto Adige/Südtirol
Trentino
Veneto
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Molise
  • Christian Inspiration Populars (Popolari di Ispirazione Cristiana)
Campania
Basilicata
  • The Democrats (I Democratici)
Calabria
Sicily
Sardinia

See also

External links

Emblem of the Italian Republic Flag of Italy Italian political parties (simple version, historical parties)
    Represented in the Italian Parliament or in the European Parliament Other allied parties and movements
Left Major: Democratic Party | Italy of Values
Minor: Italian Radicals | Anticapitalist List (Communist Refoundation Party, Party of Italian Communists, United Consumers, Socialism 2000) | Federation of the Greens | Left, Ecology, Freedom (Movement for the Left, Unite the Left, Democratic Left, Socialism and Left, Ecologists) | Italian Socialist Party | United Socialists
Micro: Democratic Union for Consumers Communists – Popular Left | Federation of Italian Liberals | Radicals of the Left | United Democratic Christians
Regional: Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party | South Tyrolean People's Party | Autonomy Liberty Democracy (Valdotanian Renewal, Lively Aosta Valley) | United Populars | Moderates for Piedmont Autonomists for Europe | Convergence for Friuli | IDEA – List for Veneto | Lega Alleanza Lombarda | Ladin Autonomist Union | Liga Veneta Repubblica | Venetian People's Unity | Loyal to Trentino |
Right Major: The People of Freedom | Lega Nord
Minor: Pole of Autonomy (The Right, Movement for Autonomy, Pensioners' Party, Alliance of the Centre, Lombardia Autonoma, Autonomist Trentino, S.O.S. Italy) Liberal Democrats
Micro: Italian Liberal Party Christian Democracy | Christian Extended Pact | No Euro Movement | Party of Social Democrats | United Pensioners | Libertarian Right | Movement for Italy | Federal Right
Regional: Federalist Alliance | North-East Project | Sardinian Reformers Fassa | Sardinian People's Party | Sardinian Democratic Union | New Sicily | United Valleys | Venetian People's Movement
Minor With MPs/MEPs: Union of the Centre (Union of Christian and Centre Democrats, White Rose, Christian Democratic Party, Party of Christian Democracy, Veneto for the European People's Party, Democratic Populars) | Tricolour Flame Social Movement | Alliance for Italy (incl. Union for Trentino) | UDEUR Populars | Italian Associations in South America | Critical Left | For the Common Good (Citizens' Political Movement, Federation of Liberal Democrats, Humanist Party, Green Front) | Italian Democratic Socialist Party | Associative Movement Italians Abroad
Regional: Autonomy Progress Federalism (Valdotanian Union, Edelweiss Aosta Valley, Autonomist Federation) | Union for South Tyrol | The Libertarians | Political Movement Ladins | Democratic Party of South Tyrol | South Tyrolean Freedom | Friuli Movement | Sardinian Action Party | Independence Republic of Sardinia | Southern Action League | We the South | I the South Sardinia Nation | Red Moors | Movement for the Independence of Sicily | Lega Sud Ausonia | Ligurian Independentist Movement | Forum of the Venetians | Venetian Agreement | Venetian National Party | Party of the Venetians
Other:
libertarian: Libertarian Movement (Italy)
Christian democratic: Christian Democratic Refoundation | I Love Italy | Italy of the Centre | Pact of Liberal Democrats
communist: Italian Marxist-Leninist Party | Marxist-Leninist Italian Communist Party | Maoist Communist Party
fascist: New Force | National Social Front | Social Idea Movement

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