List of quasars: Wikis

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Encyclopedia

This is a list of quasars.

Proper naming of quasars are by Catalogue Entry, Qxxxx±yy using B1950 coordinates, or QSO Jxxxx±yyyy using J2000 coordinates. They may also use the prefix QSR.

List of quasars

Quasar Notes
Twin Quasar Associated with a possible planet microlensing event in the gravitational lens galaxy that is doubling the Twin Quasar's image
QSR J1819+3845 Proved interstellar scintillation due to the interstellar medium
CTA-102 In 1965, Soviet astronomer Nikolai S. Kardashev declared that this quasar was sending coded messages from an alien civilization.[1]

List of named quasars

This is a list of quasars, with a common name, instead of a designation from a survey, catalogue or list.

Quasar Origin of name Notes
Twin Quasar From the fact that two images of the same gravitationally lensed quasar is produced.
Einstein Cross From the fact that gravitational lensing of the quasar forms a near perfect Einstein cross, a concept in gravitational lensing.
Triple Quasar From the fact that there are three bright images of the same gravitationally lensed quasar is produced. There are actually four images, the fourth is faint.
Clover Leaf From its appearance having similarity to the leaf of a clover. It has been gravitationally lensed into four images, of roughly similar appearance.

List of naked-eye quasars

There are currently no quasars that are visible to the naked eye.

List of multiply-imaged quasars

This is a list of quasars, that as a result of gravitational lensing, appears as multiple images on Earth.

Quasar Images Lens Notes
Twin Quasar 2 YGKOW G1 First gravitationally lensed object discovered ;

Third largest separation between images (6 ″);[2]

2QZ J1435+0008 2 Largest separation between images (33 ″);[2]
Triple Quasar (PG 1115+080) 4 Originally discovered as 3 lensed images, the fourth image is faint. It was the second gravitationally lensed quasar discovered.
Einstein Cross 4 Huchra's Lens First Einstein Cross discovered
RXS J1131-1231 's quasar 4 RXS J1131-1231 's elliptical galaxy RXS J1131-1231 is the name of the complex, quasar, host galaxy and lensing galaxy, together. The quasar's host galaxy is also lensed into a Chwolson ring about the lensing galaxy. The four images of the quasar are embedded in the ring image.
Cloverleaf 4[3] Brightest known high-redshift source of CO emission[4]
SDSS J1004+411 5 SDSS J1004+4112 First quasar discovered to be multiply-image lensed by a galaxy cluster ;

Second largest separation between images (15 ″);[2]

QSO B1359+154 6 CLASS B1359+154 and three more galaxies First sextuply-imaged galaxy

List of visual quasar associations

This is a list of double quasars, triple quasars, and the like, where quasars are close together in line-of-sight, but not physically related.

Quasars Count Notes
QSO 1548+115
4C 11.50 (z=0.436)
QSO B1548+115B (z=1.901)
2 [5][6]
QSO 1146+111 8 [7]
• z represents redshift, a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion

List of physical quasar groups

This is a lise of binary quasars, trinary quasars, and the like, where quasars are physically close to each other.

Quasars Count Notes
LBQS 1429-008 (QQQ 1432-0106) 3 First trinary quasar discovered.
It was first discovered as a binary quasar, before the third quasar was found.[8]
Q2345+007
Q2345+007A
Q2345+007B
2 Originally thought to be a doubly-imaged quasar, but actually a binary quasar.[9]

List of quasars with apparent superluminal jet motion

This is a list of quasars with jets that appear to be superluminal due to relativistic effects and line-of-sight orientation. Such quasars are sometimes referred to as superluminal quasars.

Quasar Superluminality Notes
3C 279 4c First quasar discovered with superluminal jets.[10][11][12][13][14]
3C 179 7.6c Fifth discovered, first with double lobes[15]
3C 273 This is also the first quasar ever identified.[16]
3C 216
3C 345 [16][17]
3C 380
4C 69.21
(Q1642+690, QSO B1642+690)
8C 1928+738
(Q1928+738, QSO J1927+73, Quasar J192748.6+735802)
PKS 0637-752
QSO B1642+690

It should be noted that quasars that have a recessional velocity greater than the speed of light (c) are very common. Any quasar with z>1 is going away from us in excess of c.[18] Early attempts to explain superlumic quasars resulted in convoluted explanations with a limit of z=2.326, or in the extreme z<2.4.[19] z=1 means a redshift indicating travel away from us at the speed of light. The majority of quasars lie between z=2 and z=5 .

Firsts

Title Quasar Year Data Notes
First "star" discovered later found to be a quasar
First radio source discovered later found to be a quasar
First quasar discovered 3C 48 1960 first radio source for which optical identification was found, that was a star-like looking object
First quasar identified 3C 273 1962 first radio-"star" found to be at a high redshift with a non-stellar spectrum.
First radio-quiet quasar QSO B1246+377 (BSO 1) 1965 The first radio-quiet quasi-stellar objects (QSO) were called Blue Stellar Objects or BSO, because they appeared like stars and were blue in color. They also had spectra and redshifts like radio-loud quasi-stellar radio-sources (QSR), so became quasars.[20][21][12]
First host galaxy of a quasar discovered 3C 48 1982
First quasar found to seemingly not have a host galaxy HE0450-2958 (Naked Quasar) 2005 Subsequent observations revealed that a host galaxy was probably present.
First gravitationally lensed quasar identified Twin Quasar 1979 Lensed into 2 images The lens is a galaxy known as YGKOW G1
First quasar found with a jet with apparent superluminal motion 3C 279 1971 [10][11][12]
First quasar found with the classic double radio-lobe structure 3C 47 1964
First quasar found to be a X-ray source 3C 273 1967 [22]

Extremes

Title Quasar Data Notes
Optically brightest on Earth 3C 273 Apparent Magnitude
~ 12.9
Absolute Magnitude: -26.7
Seemingly optically brightest APM 08279+5255 Seeming Absolute Magnitude
−32.2
This quasar is gravitationally lensed, it's actual absolute magnitude is estimated to be -30.5
Optically brightest at source Absolute Magnitude
Most powerful quasar radio source 3C 273 Also the most powerful radio source in the sky
Most powerful
Most variable quasar radio source QSO J1819+3845 (Q1817+387) Also the most variable extrasolar radio source
Most variable quasar optical source
Least variable quasar optical source
Most distant CFHQS J2329-0301
(CFHQS J232908−030158)
z=6.43 Discovered in 2007 by the Canada-France-Hawaii High-z Quasar Survey (CHFQS) using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope.[23][24][25]
Most distant radio-loud quasar QSO J1427+3312 z=6.12 Found June 2008[26][27]
Most distant blazar quasar QSO J0906+6930 z=5.47
Least distant 3C273 z=0.158

First Quasars Found

First 10 Quasars Identified
Rank Quasar Date Notes
1 3C 273 1963 [28]
2 3C 48 1963 [28]
3 3C 47 1964 [29]
3 3C 147 1964 [29]
5 CTA 102 1965 [30]
5 3C 287 1965 [30]
5 3C 254 1965 [30]
5 3C 245 1965 [30]
5 3C 9 1965 [30]

These are the first quasars which were found and had their redshifts determined.

Most Distant Quasars

Quasars with z > 6
Rank Quasar Distance Notes
1 CFHQS J2329-0301
(CFHQS J232908-030158)
z=6.43 Most distant quasar[23][31][24][25]
2 SDSS J114816.64+525150.3
(SDSS J1148+5251)
z=6.419 Former most distant quasar[32][33][34][31][35][36]
3 SDSS J1030+0524
(SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0)
z=6.28 Former most distant quasar. First quasar with redshift over 6.[37][38][35][39][40][41][42]
4 SDSS J104845.05+463718.3
(QSO J1048+4637)
z=6.23 [36]
5 SDSS J162331.81+311200.5
(QSO J1623+3112)
z=6.22 [36]
6 CFHQS J0033-0125
(CFHQS J003311-012524)
z=6.13 [24]
6 SDSS J125051.93+313021.9
(QSO J1250+3130)
z=6.13 [36]
7 CFHQS J1509-1749
(CFHQS J150941-174926)
z=6.12 [24]
7 QSO B1425+3326 / QSO J1427+3312 z=6.12 Most distant radio-quasar[43][26]
8 SDSS J160253.98+422824.9
(QSO J1602+4228)
z=6.07 [36]
9 SDSS J163033.90+401209.6
(QSO J1630+4012)
z=6.05 [36]
10 CFHQS J1641+3755
(CFHQS J164121+375520)
z=6.04 [24]
11 SDSS J113717.73+354956.9
(QSO J1137+3549)
z=6.01 [36]
12 SDSS J081827.40+172251.8
(QSO J0818+1722)
z=6.00 For reference[36]
13 SDSSp J130608.26+035626.3
(QSO J1306+0356)
z=5.99 For reference[40][41][42]
• z>6 quasars are used to explore the reionization era
• z represents redshift, a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion

[44]

Most Distant Quasar by Type
Type Quasar Date Distance Notes
Absolute most distant quasar CFHQS J2329-0301
(CFHQS J232908-030158)
2007 z=6.43
Most distant radio loud quasar QSO B1425+3326 / QSO J1427+3312 2008 z=6.12
Most distant radio quiet quasar z=
Most distant OVV quasar z=
• z represents redshift, a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion
Most Distant Quasar Titleholders
Quasar Date Distance Notes
CFHQS J2329-0301
(CFHQS J232908-030158)
2007 - z=6.43 This was not the most distant object when discovered. It did not exceed IOK-1 (z=6.96), which was discovered in 2006.[23][31][24][25][45][46][47]
SDSS J114816.64+525150.3
(SDSS J1148+5251)
2003 − 2007 z=6.419 This was not the most distant object when discovered. It did not exceed HCM 6A galaxy lensed by Abell 370 at z=6.56, discovered in 2002. Also discovered around the time of discovery was a new most distant galaxy, SDF J132418.3+271455 at z=6.58.[32][33][34][31][45][48][49][50][51][52]
SDSS J1030+0524
(SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0)
2001 − 2003 z=6.28 This was the most distant object when discovered. This was the first object beyond redshift 6 when discovered.[37][38][35][39][41][42]
SDSS 1044-0125
(SDSSp J104433.04-012502.2)
2000 − 2001 z=5.82 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. It exceeded galaxy SSA22-HCM1 (z=5.74) as the most distant object (discovered 1999).[53][54][41][42][55][45][56]
RD300
(RD J030117+002025)
2000 z=5.50 MB=-22.7
This was not the most distant object discovered at time of discovery. It did not surpass galaxy SSA22-HCM1 (z=5.74) (discovered 1999).[57][58][54][59][45]
SDSSp J120441.73−002149.6
(SDSS J1204-0021)
2000 z=5.03 This was not the most distant object discovered at time of discovery. It did not surpass galaxy SSA22-HCM1 (z=5.74) (discovered 1999).[59][45]
SDSSp J033829.31+002156.3
(QSO J0338+0021)
1998 − 2000 z=5.00 This was the first quasar discovered breaking redshift 5. This was not the most distant object discovered at time of discovery. It did not exceed the galaxy BR1202-0725 LAE at z=5.64 discovered earlier in 1998.[60][61][53][62][63][64][45]
PC 1247-3406 1991 − 1998 z=4.897 This was the most distant object discovered at time of discovery.[65][66][53][67][68]
PC 1158+4635 1989 − 1991 z=4.73 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[53][69][70][71][68][72]
Q0051-279 1987 − 1989 z=4.43 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[73][74][75][76][69][72]
Q0000-26
(QSO B0000-26)
1987 z=4.11 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[73][69][77]
PC 0910+5625
(QSO B0910+5625)
1987 z=4.04 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. This was the second quasar discovered with a redshift over 4.[53][78][79][69]
Q0046–293
(QSO J0048-2903)
1987 z=4.01 First quasar discovered with a redshift over 4. This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[73][80][81][69][78]
Q1208+1011
(QSO B1208+1011)
1986 − 1987 z=3.80 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. This is also a gravitationally-lensed double-image quasar, and at the time of discovery to 1991, had the least angular separation between images, 0.45 ″.[78][82][83]
PKS 2000-330
(QSO J2003-3251 , Q2000-330)
1982 − 1986 z=3.78 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[84][85][78][18]
OQ172
(QSO B1442+101)
1974 − 1982 z=3.53 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[86][87][88]
OH471
(QSO B0642+449)
1973 − 1974 z=3.408 First quasar discovered with a redshift greater than 3. Nickname was "the blaze marking the edge of the universe". This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[89][90][86][91][88]
4C 05.34 1970 − 1973 z=2.877 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. Its redshift was so much greater than the previous record that it was believed to be erroneous, or spurious.[92][19][88][18][93]
5C 02.56
(7C 105517.75+495540.95)
1968 − 1970 z=2.399 This was the most distant object when discovered.[94][93][95]
4C 25.05
(4C 25.5)
1968 z=2.358 This was the most distant object when discovered.[93][96][95]
PKS 0237-23
(QSO B0237-2321)
1967 − 1968 z=2.225 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery.[97][98][18][99][96]
4C 12.39
(Q1116+12 , PKS 1116+12)
1966 − 1967 z=2.1291 This was the most distant object when discovered.[100][101][99][95]
4C 01.02
(Q0106+01 , PKS 0106+1)
1965 − 1966 z=2.0990 This was the most distant object when it was discovered.[100][102][99][95]
3C 9 1965 z=2.018 This was the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. This was the first quasar with a redshift in excess of 2.[1][20][103][104][105][99]
3C 147 1964 − 1965 z=0.545 This was the first quasar to become the most distant object in the universe, beating radio galaxy 3C 295.[106][107][108][29]
3C 48 1963 − 1964 z=0.367 Redshift was discovered after publication of 3C273's results prompted researchers to re-examine spectroscopic data. This was the second quasar redshift measured. This not the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. The radio galaxy 3C 295 was found in 1960 to be at z=0.461[12][109][18][110][111][28][29]
3C 273 1963 z=0.158 First redshift identified for a quasar. This not the most distant object discovered at the time of discovery. The radio galaxy 3C 295 was found in 1960 to be at z=0.461[12][112][110][111][28]
• z represents redshift, a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion

The first time that quasars became the most distant object in the universe was in 1964. Quasars would remain the most distant objects in the universe until 1997, when a pair of non-quasar galaxies would take the title. ( galaxies CL 1358+62 G1 & CL 1358+62 G2 - lensed by galaxy cluster CL 1358+62 )[95]

Most Powerful Quasars

10 Brightest Quasars
Rank Quasar Data Notes
2 PHL 1811 [113]

Footnotes

1. ^ a b Time Magazine, Toward the Edge of the Universe, Friday, May. 21, 1965
2. ^ a b c Sky & Telescope Lensed Quasars Hit the Charts February 13, 2004
3. ^ Magain, P.; Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R. (1988). "Discovery of a quadruply lensed quasar - The 'clover leaf' H1413 + 117". Nature 334: 325–327.
4. ^ Venturini, S.; Solomon, P. M. (2003). "The Molecular Disk in the Cloverleaf Quasar". The Astrophysical Journal 590 (2): 740–745. doi:10.1086/375050.
5. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : QSO 1548+115
6. ^ IN: Quasars, Proceedings of the IAU Symposium, Bangalore, India, Dec. 2-6, 1985 (A87-31226 12-90). Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1986, p. 517-526; Discussion, p. 527. ; Gravitational lenses - Observations, 1986IAUS..119..517B
7. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : QSO 1146+111
8. ^ Sky & Telescope The First Triple Quasar January 10, 2007
9. ^ Sky & Telescope Binary Quasar Is No Illusion
10. ^ a b IN: Superluminal radio sources; Proceedings of the Workshop, Pasadena, CA, Oct. 28-30, 1986 ; Superluminal motion in the quasar 3C279 ; 00/1987
11. ^ a b Proceedings of the 6th European VLBI Network Symposium, The Beginnings of VLBI at the 100-m Radio TelescopePDF (100 KB), June 25th-28th 2002, Bonn, Germany
12. ^ a b c d e arXiv, A Class File for AIP The parameter sectionPDF, September 4, 2006
13. ^ New Scientist, Quasar jets and cosmic engines: Some galaxies spew out vast amounts of material into space at velocities close to that of light. Astronomers still don't know why, 16 March 1991
14. ^ The superluminal radio source in the gamma-ray blazar 3C 279
15. ^ Nature 294, 47 - 49 (05 November 1981); Superluminal quasar 3C179 with double radio lobes ; doi:10.1038/294047a0
16. ^ a b Daily Intelligencer, The Friday, May 29, 1981 ; [1]
17. ^ New York Times, IF NOTHING IS FASTER THAN LIGHT, WHAT'S GOING ON?, December 27, 1983
18. ^ a b c d e The Structure of the Physical Universe, Volume III - The Universe of Motion, CHAPTER 23 - Quasar Redshifts, by DEWEY B. LARSON, Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 79-88078, ISBN 0-913138-11-8 , Copyright © 1959, 1971, 1984
19. ^ a b Quasars and Pulsars, DEWEY B. LARSON, (c) 1971 ; CHAPTER VIII - Quasars: The General Picture ; LOC 75-158894
20. ^ a b Time Magazine, The Quasi-Quasars, Friday, Jun. 18, 1965
21. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : BSO 1, QSO B1246+377 -- Quasar
22. ^ Time Magazine, X Rays from a Quasar, Friday, Jul. 14, 1967
23. ^ a b c Discovery.com Black Hole Is Most Distant Ever Found June 7, 2007
24. ^ a b c d e f Willott et al. (2007). "Four Quasars above Redshift 6 Discovered by the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey". The Astronomical Journal 134 (6): 2435–2450. doi:10.1086/522962.
25. ^ a b c CFHQS UOttawa, Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey, accessed June 2008
26. ^ a b Radio astronomers detect 'baby quasar' near the edge of the visible Universe, 13:50 EST, June 06, 2008
27. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : QSO J1427+3312, QSO J1427+3312 -- Quasar
28. ^ a b c d Interview ; Maaarten SchmidtPDF (556 KB) ; April 11 and May 2 & 15, 1996
29. ^ a b c d Astrophysical Journal, vol. 139, p.781 ; Redshift of the Quasi-Stellar Radio Sources 3c 47 and 3c 147. 1964ApJ...139..781S
30. ^ a b c d e The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1999, Volume 111, Issue 760, pp. 661-678 ; A BRIEF HISTORY OF AGN, 3. THE DISCOVERY OF QUASARS
31. ^ a b c d CFH UHawaii, Astronomers find most distant black hole
32. ^ a b arXiv, High-excitation CO in a quasar host galaxy at z= 6.42PDF, July 2003
33. ^ a b arXiv, 350 Micron Dust Emission from High Redshift QuasarsPDF, March 2006
34. ^ a b arXiv, Origin of supermassive black holesPDF (511 KB), Sept 2007
35. ^ a b c THE ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL, 126:1-14, 2003 July ; PROBING THE IONIZATION STATE OF THE UNIVERSE AT z > 6
36. ^ a b c d e f g h arXiv, Millimeter and Radio Observations of z~6 QuasarsPDF, 16 Apr 2007
37. ^ a b arXiv, VLT observations of the z= 6.28 quasar SDSS 1030+0524PDF, Feb 2002
38. ^ a b The Astrophysical Journal, 578:702–707, 2002 October 20, A Constraint on the Gravitational Lensing Magnification and Age of the Redshift z = 6.28 Quasar SDSS 1030+0524
39. ^ a b The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 611, Issue 1, pp. L13-L16 ; The X-Ray Spectrum of the z=6.30 QSO SDSS J1030+0524 ; 2004ApJ...611L..13F
40. ^ a b The Astronomical Journal, Volume 122, Issue 6, pp. 2833-2849. A Survey of z>5.8 Quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Discovery of Three New Quasars and the Spatial Density of Luminous Quasars at z~6 December 2001
41. ^ a b c d PennState Eberly College of Science, Discovery Announced of Two Most Distant Objects, June 2001
42. ^ a b c d SDSS, Early results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: From under our nose to the edge of the universe, June 2001
43. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : QSO B1425+3326, QSO J1427+3312 -- Quasar
44. ^ SDSS, DR3 Quasar Catalog PaperPDF, 30 Mar 2005
45. ^ a b c d e f UW-Madison Astronomy, Confirmed High Redshift (z > 5.5) Galaxies - (Last Updated 10th February 2005)
46. ^ Nature 443, 186-188 (14 September 2006), A galaxy at a redshift z = 6.96, doi:10.1038/nature05104;
47. ^ BBC News, Astronomers claim galaxy record, Wednesday, 11 July 2007, 17:10 GMT 18:10 UK
48. ^ New Scientist, New record for Universe's most distant object, 17:19 14 March 2002
49. ^ BBC News, Far away stars light early cosmos, Thursday, 14 March, 2002, 11:38 GMT
50. ^ BBC News, Most distant galaxy detected, Tuesday, 25 March, 2003, 14:28 GMT
51. ^ The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 568:L75–L79, 2002 April 1 ; A Redshift z = 6.56 Galaxy behind the Cluster Abell 370 ; DOI: 10.1086/340424
52. ^ arXiv, The Discovery of Two Lyman$\alpha$ Emitters Beyond Redshift 6 in the Subaru Deep Field, 28 Feb 2003
53. ^ a b c d e PennState - Eberly College of Science - Science Journal - Summer 2000 -- Vol. 17, No. 1 International Team of Astronomers Finds Most Distant Object
54. ^ a b The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 522:L9–L12, 1999 September 1, An Extremely Luminous Galaxy at z = 5.74
55. ^ PennState Eberly College of Science, X-rays from the Most Distant Quasar Captured with the XMM-Newton Satellite, Dec 2000
56. ^ SPACE.com, Most Distant Object in Universe Comes Closer, 01 December 2000
57. ^ NOAO Newsletter - NOAO Highlights - March 2000 - Number 61, The Most Distant Quasar Known
58. ^ The Astrophysical Journal, 568:71–81, 2002 March 20, Chandra Detection of a Type II Quasar at z = 3.2881
59. ^ a b The Astrophysical Journal Letters (24 January 2000) Discovery of a Color-Selected Quasar at x = 5.501
60. ^ SDSS 98-3 Scientists of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Discover Most Distant Quasar Dec 1998
61. ^ POSTSCRIPT The Astronomical Journal, in press (July 1999), HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS FOUND IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY COMMISSIONING DATA
62. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : SDSSp J033829.31+002156.3, QSO J0338+0021 -- Quasar
63. ^ New York Times, Finding Distant Quasars, December 15, 1998
64. ^ New York Times, Peering Back in Time, Astronomers Glimpse Galaxies Aborning, October 20, 1998
65. ^ The Astronomical Journal, vol. 108, no. 4, p. 1147-1155, Multicolor detection of high-redshift quasars, 2: Five objects with Z greater than or approximately equal to 4, April 1994
66. ^ New Scientist, issue 1842, 10 October 1992, page 17, Science: Infant galaxy's light show
67. ^ FermiLab Scientists of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Discover Most Distant Quasar December 8, 1998
68. ^ a b Royal Astronomical Society, Monthly Notices, vol. 294, p. L7-L12 ; Discovery of radio-loud quasars with Z = 4.72 and Z = 4.01 ; Code: 1998MNRAS.294L...7H
69. ^ a b c d e Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256), vol. 101, Jan. 1991, p. 5-17; Quasars and galaxy formation. I - The Z > 4 objects
70. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : PC 1158+4635, QSO B1158+4635 -- Quasar
71. ^ LENNOX L. COWIE (1991) Young Galaxies Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 647 (1), 31–41 doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1991.tb32157.x
72. ^ a b New York Times, Peering to Edge of Time, Scientists Are Astonished, November 20, 1989
73. ^ a b c Nature 330, 453 - 455 (03 December 1987); Quasars of redshift z = 4.43 and z = 4.07 in the South Galactic Pole field, doi:10.1038/330453a0
74. ^ Astrophysics, Volume 29, Number 2 / September, 1988, pp.657-671, Absorption spectra of quasars, ISSN 0571-7256, DOI 10.1007/BF01005972
75. ^ New York Times, Objects Detected in Universe May Be the Most Distant Ever Sighted, January 14, 1988
76. ^ New York Times, Astronomers Peer Deeper Into Cosmos, May 10, 1988
77. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : Q0000-26, QSO B0000-26 -- Quasar
78. ^ a b c d Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 321, Oct. 1, 1987, p. L7-L10. Research supported by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Astrophys. J., 321, L7-L10 (1987) - 01.01.86 01.01.86 October 1987 ; [2] PC 0910+5625 : an optically selected quasar with a redshift of 4.04 ; 1987ApJ...321L...7S
79. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : PC 0910+5625, QSO B0910+5625 -- Quasar
80. ^ Nature, 325, 131-132 (1987) - 01.01.86 01.01.86 ; First observation of a quasar with a redshift of 4; 1987Natur.325..131W
81. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : Q0046-293, QSO J0048-2903 -- Quasar
82. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : Q1208+1011, QSO B1208+1011 -- Quasar
83. ^ NewScientist, Quasar doubles help to fix the Hubble constant, 16 November 1991
84. ^ Orwell Astronomical Society (Ipswich) - OASI ; Archived Astronomy News Items, 1972 - 1997
85. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : PKS 2000-330, QSO J2003-3251 -- Quasar
86. ^ a b OSU Big Ear, History of the OSU Radio Observatory
87. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : OQ172, QSO B1442+101 -- Quasar
88. ^ a b c QUASARS - THREE YEARS LATER, 1974 [3]
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90. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : OH471, QSO B0642+449 -- Quasar
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93. ^ a b c Nature 226, 532 (09 May 1970); The Unusually Large Redshift of 4C 05.34 ; doi:10.1038/226532a0
94. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : 5C 02.56, 7C 105517.75+495540.95 -- Quasar
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96. ^ a b Astrophysical Journal, vol. 154, p.L41 ; The Distribution of Redshifts in Quasi-Stellar Objects, N-Systems and Some Radio and Compact Galaxies ; 1968ApJ...154L..41B
97. ^ Time Magazine, A Farther-Out Quasar, Friday, Apr. 07, 1967
98. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : QSO B0237-2321, QSO B0237-2321 -- Quasar
99. ^ a b c d Astrophysical Journal, vol. 147, p.851 ; On the Wavelengths of the Absorption Lines in Quasi-Stellar Objects ; 1967ApJ...147..851B
100. ^ a b Time Magazine, The Man on the Mountain, Friday, Mar. 11, 1966
101. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : Q1116+12, 4C 12.39 -- Quasar
102. ^ SIMBAD, Object query : Q0106+01, 4C 01.02 -- Quasar
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107. ^ Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256), vol. 103, no. 5, May 1992, p. 1451-1456 ; Radio properties of optically selected high-redshift quasars. I - VLA observations of 22 quasars at 6 CM ; 1992AJ....103.1451S
108. ^ Time Magazine, Finding the Fastest Galaxy: 76,000 Miles per Second, Friday, Apr. 10, 1964
109. ^ Nature 197, 1041 - 1042, (16 March 1963); Red-Shift of the Unusual Radio Source: 3C 48, doi:10.1038/1971041a0
110. ^ a b The Observatory, Vol. 81, p. 113-118 (1961) ; 1961 May 12 meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society ; 1961Obs....81..113.
111. ^ a b Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 12, p.458 ; No redshift in 3C 295 ; 1979BAAS...11..458V
112. ^ THE ORIGIN OF MATTER PART 4
113. ^ arXiv, A Near-Solar Metallicity, Nitrogen-Deficient Lyman Limit Absorber Associated with two S0 GalaxiesPDF (1.43 MB), 21 Jan 2005