List of rulers of Wales: Wikis

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Before the Norman Conquest of Wales was completed in 1282, Wales consisted of a number of independent kingdoms, the most important being Gwynedd, Powys, Deheubarth (originally Ceredigion, Seisyllwg and Dyfed), Gwent and Morgannwg. Boundary changes and the equal division of patrimony meant that few princes ever came close to ruling the whole of Wales.

The names of those known to have ruled over one or more of the kingdoms are listed below (those in heavy type ruled over a large portion of Wales).

CymruMap.PNG

Contents

Deheubarth

In 909, Dyfed was merged with Seisyllwg (which included Ceredigion) to become Deheubarth. The following is a list of kings of the two former kingdoms, followed by the kings of the combined Deheubarth (beginning with Hywel Dda).

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Ceredigion

  • Ceredig ap Cunedda (424 - 453)[1][2][3]
  • Usai (453 - 490)
  • Serwyl (490 - 525)
  • Boddw (525 - 560)
  • Arthfoddw (560 - 595)
  • Arthlwys (595 - 630)
  • Clydog I (630 - 665)

Dyfed

  • Cloten (dates unknown) married Ceindrech of Brycheiniog, uniting the two kingdoms
  • Rhain (to 740) also king of Brycheiniog; on his death, his kingdoms were divided again by his sons
  • Maredydd ap Rhain (740-797)
  • Rhain ap Maredydd (797-808)
  • Owain ap Maredydd (808-811)

It is unclear whether kingship passed directly from Owain to Hyfaidd, although the span of time involved suggests that it did not.

Seisyllwg

Deheubarth

Deheubarth was in the possession of the Normans from 1093 to 1155

From 1234 to 1283, Deheubarth was subject to the princes of Gwynedd

  • Rhys the Hoarse's son, Rhys Mechyll (1234-1244) ruled a portion of Deheubarth
  • his brother, Maredudd ap Rhys (1244-1271) ruled a portion of Deheubarth
  • his son, Rhys ap Maredudd (1271-1283) ruled a portion of Deheubarth

Gwynedd

Kings of Gwynedd

Princes of Aberffraw & Lords of Snowdon

Morgannwg

Glywysing

  • Glywys, Son of Solar (about c.470-c.480), who gave his name to the kingdom.
    • Gwynllyw, son of Glywys, ruler of Gwynllwg (c.480-523), cantref of Glywysing
    • Pawl, son of Glywys, ruler of Penychen (c.480-540), cantref of Glywysing
    • Mechwyn, son of Glywys, ruler of Gorfynydd (c.480-c.500), cantref of Glywysing
  • Cadoc, son of Gwynllyw, ruler of Gwynllwg (523-560) and Penychen (540-560), died without heirs
  • Meurig King of Gwent is left Gwynllwg and Penychen by Cadoc (560 - ?)
  • Glywysing is ruled by the Kings of Gwent until Rhys ap Ithel
  • Rhys ap Ithel, son of the Kings of Gwent (c.755-785)
  • Arthfael Hen ap Rhys, (Hen the Old) (785-c.825)
  • Rhys ap Arthfael, (c.830-c.840)
  • Hywel ap Rhys, (c.840-886)
  • Owain ap Hywel (886-c.930)
    • Gruffydd ap Owain (c.930-934) King of Gower
    • Cadwgan ap Owain (c.930-950) King of West Glywysing
  • Morgan the Old (Morgan Hen or Morgan ab Owain or Moragn Hen Fawr) (930-974) united the former kingdoms of Gwent and Glywysing in 942 under the name of Morgannwg, but they were broken up again immediately after his death, remaining separate until about 1055
  • Morgan the Old's son, Owain ap Morgan (974-about 983)
  • brothers of Owain ap Morgan (dates unknown)
  • his son, Rhys ab Owain (about 990-about 1000) who ruled Glywysing jointly with his brothers,
  • Hywel ab Owain (about 990-about 1043) and
  • Iestyn ab Owain (about 990-about 1015)
  • his brother, Rhydderch ap Iestyn (about 1015-1033)
  • his son, Gruffydd ap Rhydderch (1033-1055)
  • the invader, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, prince of Gwynedd (1055-1063)
  • Gruffydd ap Rhydderch's son, Caradog ap Gruffydd (1063-1081) who was a subject of the King of Gwent and King of Morgannwg Cadwgan ap Meurig before he deposed him and took the kingdom for himself
  • Iestyn ap Gwrgan(t) (1081-1091)

Iestyn was the last ruler of an independent Morgannwg, which was thereafter in the possession of the Normans and became the lordship of Glamorgan

Gwent

  • Morgan the Old (Morgan Hen or Morgan ab Owain or Moragn Hen Fawr) (930-974) united the former kingdoms of Gwent and Glywysing in 942 under the name of Morgannwg, but they were broken up again immediately after his death, remaining separate until about 1055
    • Nowy ap Gwriad ruled Gwent (about 950-about 970) while Glywysing was ruled jointly by brothers of Owain ap Morgan (dates unknown), probably under Morgan the Old
  • his son, Arthfael ap Nowy (about 970-983)
  • his cousin, Rhodri ap Elisedd (983-about 1015) who ruled jointly with his brother,
  • Gruffydd ap Elisedd (983-about 1015)
  • his ?cousin, Edwyn ap Gwriad (1015-1045)
  • Hywel ab Owain's son, Meurig ap Hywel (1045-1055) who ruled jointly with
  • his son, Cadwgan ap Meurig (1045-1055)
  • the invader, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, prince of Gwynedd (1055-1063) who died and was replaced with his predecessor
  • Cadwgan ap Meurig (1063-1074), who was also King of Morgannwg, ruling Glywysing through
  • Gruffydd ap Rhydderch's son, Caradog ap Gruffydd (1075-1081) who seized Gwent and the Kingdom of Morgannwg,
  • Iestyn ap Gwrgan(t) (1081-1091)

Iestyn was the last ruler of an independent Morgannwg, which was thereafter in the possession of the Normans and became the lordship of Glamorgan

Powys

Kings of Powys

House of Gwertherion

House of Manaw

Mathrafal Princes of Powys

From 1160 Powys was split into two parts. The southern part was later called Powys Wenwynwyn after Gwenwynwyn ab Owain "Cyfeiliog" ap Madog, while the northern part was called Powys Fadog after Madog ap Gruffydd "Maelor" ap Madog

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ A history of Wales
  2. ^ The Cambrian
  3. ^ Encyclopaedia of Wales
  4. ^ A history of Wales
  5. ^ Encyclopaedia of Wales
  6. ^ A history of Wales
  7. ^ Encyclopaedia of Wales
  8. ^ A history of Wales
  9. ^ Encyclopaedia of Wales

References


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