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List of sovereign states by formation date: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Below is a list of sovereign states by formation dates, sorted by continent. This list includes only the 203 sovereign states currently in existence; it does not include former sovereign states. For proposed states or various indigenous nations which consider themselves still under occupation, see list of active autonomist and secessionist movements. Micronations are not included in this list.

Nation-building is a long evolutionary process. It is therefore practically impossible to come up with a single date for a nation's "birth". However, most nations have accepted some dates in their respective histories as their symbolic starting points. This is usually done more for nationalistic propaganda than for scientific reasons. For many ancient and medieval nations these starting points are usually the dates when a nation was mentioned in a written document for the first time or simply a date from their national mythology. In Europe, this often coincides with the ruler's conversion to Christianity. For post-colonial nations, starting with the United States, the beginning of statehood is usually considered to be the date when independence was declared, granted and/or recognised.

Independence dates for widely recognised states, earlier than 1919, should be treated with caution, since prior to the founding of the League of Nations, there was no international body to recognise nationhood, and independence had no meaning beyond mutual recognition of de facto sovereigns (the role of the League of Nations was effectively taken over by the United Nations after the Second World War). See also: disputed territories.

The situation is further complicated by the confusion between two terms commonly used as synonym: nation (generally considered an ethnic or cultural grouping) and state (an independent political entity). Taking this into account a declaration of being the "oldest country" in the world is not fruitful and will inevitably be disputed. The following list contains the formation dates of countries with a short description of those events. For a more detailed description of a country's formation and history please see the main article for each country.

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Africa

Country Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date of most recent significant territorial modification
Date[1] Event Date[1] Event Date[1] Event
 Algeria 1962-07-03 French recognition of Algerian referendum on independence held two days earlier
 Angola 1975-11-11 Independence from Portugal.
 Benin 1960-08-01 Independence from France 1894-01-15 Borders of French Protectorate of Dahomey set at conclusion of Second Franco-Dahomean War
 Botswana 1885-03-31 Establishment of the Bechuanaland Protectorate by the United Kingdom 1894 Extended north into Ngamiland
1966-09-30 Independence from United Kingdom
 Burkina Faso 1958-12-11 Self-government achieved and republic within Franco-African Community 1947-09-04 Restoration of colonial boundaries used from 1919-1932
1960-08-05 Independence from France
 Burundi 1966-11-28 Monarchy replaced by republic 1962-07-01 Independence from Belgium
 Cameroon 1960-01-01 Independence from France 1961-10-01 Merger of part of British Cameroons with Cameroon
 Cape Verde 1975-07-05 Independence from Portugal
 Central African Republic 1979 Monarchy replaced by republic 1958-12-01 Central African Republic becomes autonomous territory in French Republic
1960-08-13 Independence from France
 Chad 1960-08-11 Independence from France 1994-02-03 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad
 Comoros 1975-07-06 Independence from France declared
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1884-04-22 Congo Free State recognized as an independent state
1960-06-30 Independence from Belgium
 Congo, Republic of the 1960-08-15 Independence from France
 Côte d'Ivoire 1958-12-04 Autonomous republic within French Community
1960-08-07 Independence from France
 Djibouti 1977-06-27 Independence from France
 Equatorial Guinea 1968-10-12 Independence from Spain
 Eritrea 1993-05-24 Independence from Ethiopia declared. 2002-04-01 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean-Ethiopian War. Contested by Ethiopia.
 Ethiopia 1975-03-21 Monarchy abolished and replaced by republic ~800 B.C. Formation of the state of D'mt 2002-04-01 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean-Ethiopian War. Contested by Ethiopia.
1941-05-19 Independence from Italy
 Gabon 1960-08-17 Independence from France
 Gambia 1965-02-18 Independence from United Kingdom
 Ghana 1957-03-06 Independence from United Kingdom 1956-12-13 Union of British Togoland with Gold Coast
 Guinea 1958-10-02 Independence from France
 Guinea-Bissau 1973-09-24 Independence from Portugal declared
1974-09-10 Independence from Portugal recognized
 Kenya 1963-12-12 Independence from United Kingdom
 Lesotho 1966-10-04 Independence from United Kingdom 1868-03-12 Area that is now present-day Lesotho placed under British rule
 Liberia 1847-07-26 Independence from the United States
 Libya 1969-09-01 Monarchy replaced by republic 1951-12-24 Independence from UN Trusteeship (British and French administration after Italian governance ends in 1947) 1984-02-13 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad
 Madagascar 1958-10-14 The Malagasy Republic was created as autonomous state within French Community
1960-06-26 France recognizes Madagascar's independence
 Malawi 1964-07-06 Independence from United Kingdom
 Mali 1958-11-25 French Sudan gains autonomy 1960-08-20 Senegal secedes from Mali Federation
1960-09-22 Independence from France
 Mauritania 1960-11-28 Independence from France 1979-08-11 Mauritania withdraws from Tiris al-Gharbiyya (part of Western Sahara)
 Mauritius 1968-03-12 Independence from United Kingdom 1965 Separation of Chagos Archipelago
 Morocco 1956-03-02 Independence from France 1969-01-04 Return of Ifni to Morocco
1956-04-07 French protectorate formally relinquished
 Mozambique 1975-06-25 Independence from Portugal
 Namibia 1990-03-21 Independence from South African rule 1994-03-01 Walvis Bay integrated into Namibia
 Niger 1958-12-04 Autonomy within French Community
1960-08-03 Independence from France
 Nigeria 1960-10-01 Independence from United Kingdom 1970-01-15 Biafra re-integrated into Nigeria
1961-06-01 Northern Cameroons integrated in Nigeria
 Rwanda 1962-07-01 Independence from Belgium
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1975-07-12 Independence from Portugal
 Senegal 1960-08-20 Independence from France
 Seychelles 1976-06-29 Independence from United Kingdom
 Sierra Leone 1961-04-27 Independence from United Kingdom
 Somalia 1960-07-01 Merger of State of Somaliland (formerly British Somaliland) and Italian Somaliland
 South Africa 1910-05-31 Creation of the Union of South Africa from the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River 1931-12-11 Statute of Westminster, which establishes a status of legislative equality between the self-governing dominion of the Union of South Africa and the UK 1994-04-27 Reincorporation of the nominally independent bantustans into post-Apartheid South Africa
1961-05-31 Republic declared (South Africa no longer a Commonwealth realm)
 Sudan 1956-01-01 Independence from Egyptian and British rule
 Swaziland 1968-09-06 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Tanzania 1961-12-09 Independence of Tanganyika from United Kingdom 1964-04-26 Merger of Zanzibar with Tanganyika to form Tanzania
 Togo 1958-08-30 Autonomy within French Union
1960-04-27 Independence from France
 Tunisia 1957-07-25 Declaration of Republic 1956-03-20 Independence from France
 Uganda 1962-03-01 Self-government granted
1962-10-09 Independence from United Kingdom
 Zambia 1964-10-24 Independence from United Kingdom
 Zimbabwe 1965-11-11 Unilateral declaration of independence by Southern Rhodesia 1901 BSAC separates North-Eastern Rhodesia from Southern Rhodesia
1980-04-18 Recognized independence from United Kingdom as Zimbabwe.

Americas

Country Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date of most recent significant territorial modification
Date[1] Event Date[1] Event Date[1] Event
 Antigua and Barbuda 1981-11-01 Independence from the United Kingdom.
 Argentina 1810-05-25 May Revolution installs first local government
1816-07-09 Argentine Declaration of Independence
1821 Independence recognized by Spain
 Bahamas 1964-01-07 Internal self-governance granted
1973-07-10 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Barbados 1966-11-30 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Belize 1981-09-21 Independence from United Kingdom 1859 Treaty establishes border between British Honduras and Guatemala
1964-01-01 Self governing colony
 Bolivia 1825-08-06 Bolivian War of Independence 1903-11-11 Signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis with Brazil whereby Bolivia gained lands in Mato Grosso in exchange for the territory of Acre
 Brazil 1889-11-15 Proclamation of the Republic 1822-09-07 Independence from Portugal declared 1903-11-11 Signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis with Bolivia whereby Brazil is given the territory of Acre in exchange for lands in Mato Grosso
1825-08-29 Independence recognized by Portugal
 Canada 1867-07-01 Canadian Confederation 1931-12-11 Statute of Westminster 1999-04-01 Nunavut is formed from the Northwest Territories
 Chile 1810-09-18 First Government Junta declares Chile an autonomous republic within Spain 1818-02-12 Independence declared from Spain 1929-07-03 Chile awarded Arica district in Treaty of Lima
1844-04-25 Independence recognized by Spain
 Colombia 1810-07-10 Independence declared from Spain 1903-11-03 Separation of Panama from Colombia
1819-08-07 Independence recognized by Spain
 Costa Rica 1821-09-15 Costa Rica declared independence from Spain 1824-07-25 Partido de Nicoya
1838-11-15 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
 Cuba 1868-10-10 Independence from Spain declared
 Dominica 1967-02-27 Became an associated state of the United Kingdom
1978-11-03 Independence from United Kingdom
 Dominican Republic 1865-03-03 Independence regained from Spain following the Dominican Restoration War
 Ecuador 1809-08-10 1822-05-24 Independence from Spain of Gran Colombia, of which Ecuador is a part 1942-02-26 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Peru
1830-05-13 Dissolution of Gran Colombia
 El Salvador 1821-09-15 El Salvador becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain
1841-02-02 El Salvador declares itself an independent republic, ending the Federal Republic of Central America
 Grenada 1967-02-27 Associated state of United Kingdom
1974-02-07 Full independence from United Kingdom
 Guatemala 1821-09-15 Guatemala becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain
1839-04-17 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America declared
 Guyana 1966-05-26 Independence from United Kingdom
 Haiti 1804-01-01 The French colony Saint-Domingue gains independence as Haiti. 1844-02-27 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti
 Honduras 1821-09-15 Honduras becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain 1972-09-01 Swan Islands returned to Honduras from United States occupation
1838-10-26 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
 Jamaica 1962-08-06 Independence from United Kingdom
 Mexico 1810-09-16 Independence from Spain declared 1853-12-30 Gadsden Purchase
1821-08-24 Independence recognized by Spain in Treaty of Córdoba
 Nicaragua 1821-09-15 Nicaragua becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain
1838-11-05 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
 Panama 1903-11-03 Separation of Panama from Colombia 1979-10-1 United States returns Panama the Panama Canal Zone
 Paraguay 1811-05-14 Independence from Spain declared 1938 Paraguay awarded a large portion of the Gran Chaco as a result of the Chaco War
 Peru 1821-07-28 Independence from Spain declared 1942-02-26 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Ecuador
1879 Independence from Spain recognized
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1967-02-27 Associated state of United Kingdom 1980-12-19 Anguilla separated from Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
1983-09-19 Independence from United Kingdom
 Saint Lucia 1967-02-27 Associated statehood
1979-02-22 Independence from United Kingdom
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1969-10-27 Associated statehood
1979-10-27 Independence from United Kingdom
 Suriname 1954-12-15 Self government granted
1975-11-25 Independence from Netherlands
 Trinidad and Tobago 1962-08-31 Independence from United Kingdom
 United States 1787-09-17 Ratification of the United States Constitution replaced the previous Articles of Confederation creating a new system of government 1776-07-04 Independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain declared 1959-08-21 Admission of Hawaii to the Union
1783-09-03 Independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain recognized
 Uruguay 1825-08-25 Independence declared, joined in union with United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (current Argentina).(Independence from Brazil declared) Brazil
1828-08-27 Treaty of Montevideo signed, recognizing Uruguay's independence(
 Venezuela 1811-07-05 independence from Spain declared
1830-01-13 President José Antonio Páez declares Venezuela independent from Gran Colombia

Asia

Country Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date of most recent significant territorial modification
Date[1] Event Date[1] Event Date[1] Event
 Abkhazia 1921-03-31 Establishment of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia 1992-07-23 Independence from Soviet Union declared 2008-08-26 Independence recognized by Russia[2]
 Afghanistan 1919-08-20 Treaty of Rawalpindi gives Afghanistan control from the United Kingdom over its own affairs
 Armenia 1918-05-28 Establishment of the Republic of Armenia 1990-08-23 Independence from Soviet Union declared 1936-12-05 Establishment of Armenian SSR
1991-09-21 Independence recognized by Soviet Union
 Azerbaijan 1918-05-28 Establishment of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic 1991-10-18 Declaration of independence from Soviet Union 1920-04-28 Establishment of Azerbaijan SSR
 Bahrain 1971-08-15 Independence from the United Kingdom 1521-07-01 Portuguese conquest of current territory
 Bangladesh 1971-03-26 Independence from Pakistan declared.
 Bhutan 1885 Ugyen Wangchuck ends period of civil war and unites Bhutan 1865-11-11 Treaty of Sinchula
 Brunei 1984-01-01 Brunei regains its independence after an agreement with the British on 4 January 1979
 Cambodia 1989-09-26 Becomes free from Vietnamese occupation; it gets back its name instead of People's Republic of Kampuchea
 China, People's Republic of 1949-10-01 Establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the Chinese Civil War nears its end 221 B.C. Nation firstly unified by Qin Dynasty 1999-12-20 Transfer of the sovereignty of Macau from Portugal to the PRC
 Georgia 1918-05-26 Establishment of Democratic Republic of Georgia 1991-04-09 Independence from Soviet Union declared 1992-07-23 Abkhazia asserted it's declared independence from the Soviet Union
1991-11-28 South Ossetia declared independence from Georgia
 India 1950-01-26 Indian constitution comes into force[3] 1947-08-15[4] Independence from the United Kingdom 1975-05-16 Accession of Daman, Diu + Sikkim to India
 Indonesia 1945-08-18 Ratification of the Constitution of Indonesia by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence 1945-08-17 Indonesian Declaration of Independence from Netherlands 2002-05-20 Independence of East Timor, formerly administered as a province of Indonesia
1949-12-27 Independence from the Netherlands recognized
 Iran 1979-02-11 Iranian Revolution ends monarchism and establishes an Islamic Republic 553 B.C. Nation was unified as part of Persian Empire by Cyrus the Great of Achaemenid Empire 1988-08-20 Iran-Iraq War ends with Iran liberating all lost territories
 Iraq 2003-03-20 Iraq defeated and occupied by USA. New gov. formed. 1932-10-03 Kingdom of Iraq 1991-02-28 Kuwait is liberated by USA
 Israel 1948-05-14 Reading of the Declaration of Independence of Israel before the expiration of the British Mandate of Palestine at midnight 1994-10-26 Signing of the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, whereby most of the disputed 400 square-kilometer area in the Arabah is handed back to Jordan
Japan
Japan
1947-05-03 Coming into force of the current Constitution of Japan, whereby the emperor is deprived of his powers and a liberal democracy is established 1952-04-28 Coming into force of the Treaty of San Francisco, whereby World War II is officially ended and Japan's independence is reinstated 1972-05-14 Return of the Ryukyu Islands to Japan and abolition of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands
 Jordan 1946-05-25 End of British League of Nations mandate 1994-10-26 Signing of the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, whereby most of the disputed 400 square-kilometer area in the Arabah is handed back to Jordan
 Kazakhstan 1991-12-16 Independence declared from Soviet Union
 Kuwait 1991-02-28 End of Iraqi occupation (Gulf War) 1969-12-18 Formal division of Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zone
 Kyrgyzstan 1991-08-31 Independence from Soviet Union
 Laos 1949-07-19 Independence from France
 Lebanon 1926-05-23 Lebanese Republic formed 1941-11-26 Independence from France declared 1920-09-01 France establishes State of Greater Lebanon with current boundaries
1943-11-22 Independence from France recognized
 Malaysia 1957-08-31 Malayan Independence from the United Kingdom is declared in Independence Square. 1965-08-09 Singapore expelled from the federation after the 1964 Race Riots.
1963-09-16 Malaysia is formed after the merging Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore into one independent state.
 Maldives 1965-07-26 Independence from United Kingdom
 Mongolia 1911-12-29 Proclamation of Mongolian independence from Qing Dynasty China
 Myanmar 1948-01-04 Myanmar (Burma) declares independence from the British Empire. 1956 Signing of border treaty with the People's Republic of China.
 Nepal 2008-05-28 Formation of Republic 1768-12-21 Nepali unification 1815-12-02 Sugauli Treaty ends the Gurkha War
 North Korea 1948-09-09 Declaration of creation of North Korea 1953-07-27 Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the southern border along the Military Demarcation Line
 Oman 1650-01-26 Expulsion of the Portuguese
 Pakistan 1947-08-14 Independence from the UK and the Partition of India, creation of the Dominion of Pakistan 1971-12-16 De facto : Province of East Pakistan dissolved following the surrender of the Pakistani Army at the end of the Bangladesh Liberation War
1974-02-22 De jure : Recognition by Pakistan of Bangladesh as an independent country, whereby Pakistan definitely surrenders claims over the former province of East Pakistan
 Philippines 1935-11-30 The Commonwealth of the Philippines is established through the provisions of the Tydings-McDuffie Act and the Jones Law.[5] 1898-06-12 The First Philippine Republic declares itself independent from the Spanish Empire.[6][7][8] 1930[10] 1948/1956[citation needed] The Turtle Islands is returned by the United Kingdom to the Republic of the Philippines as the successor of the Sultanate of Sulu.
1946-07-04 The United States recognizes independence on 4 July under the provisions of the Treaty of Manila (1946). The 1935 Philippine constitution remains in effect.
 Qatar 1971-09-03 Independence from United Kingdom
 Saudi Arabia 1932-09-23 Regions of Al-Hasa, Qatif, Nejd and Hejaz unified to become Saudi Arabia 1927-05-20 Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz recognized as independent in Treaty of Jeddah 2000-06-12 Border with Yemen finalized by Treaty of Jeddah
 Singapore 1959-06-03 Self government under United Kingdom
1965-08-09 Separation from Malaysia
 South Ossetia 1991-11-28 1991-11-28 Russian recognition of independence. 2008-08-26 Independence recognized by Russia[2]
 South Korea 1948-08-15 First Republic of South Korea established 1953-07-27 Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the northern border along the Military Demarcation Line
 Sri Lanka 1948-02-04 Dominion
1972-05-22 Full independence from the United Kingdom
 Syria 1961-09-28 End of United Arab Republic
 China, Republic of 1911-10-10 After the Xinhai Revolution the Republic of China formally replaced the Qing Dynasty. 1949-12-07[11] Republic of China government moved to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War[12] 1955-02-25 Withdrawal of the Republic of China from the Dachen Archipelago.
 Tajikistan 1991-09-09 Independence from the Soviet Union
 Thailand 1776 Expulsion of Burmese and reunification of Thailand 1909-03-10 Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
 Timor-Leste 1975-11-28 East Timor declares its independence but is suppressed by the Indonesian invasion.
2002-05-20 Independence is recognized by the international community following the UN-sponsored act of self-determination of 1999.
 Turkmenistan 1991-10-27 Independence from Soviet Union
 United Arab Emirates 1971-12-02 End of treaty relationship with United Kingdom 1972-02-11 Ras al-Khaimah joins the UAE
 Uzbekistan 1991-08-31 Independence from Soviet Union declared
 Vietnam 1976-07-02 Reunification of North Vietnam and South Vietnam
 Yemen 1990-05-22 Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen 1990-05-22 Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen

Europe

Country Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date of most recent significant territorial modification
Date[1] Event Date[1] Event Date[1] Event
 Albania 1912-11-28 Declaration of independence from Ottoman Empire
1944-11-28 Albanian state re-established after Italian/German occupation
 Andorra 1813 Reversal of annexation of Andorra by the Napoleonic Empire, through the Peninsular war
 Austria 1955-05-15 Austrian Independence Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state 1921-12-14 City of Sopron moved to Hungary after plebiscite
 Belarus 1990-07-27 Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic 1945 Curzon Line
1991-08-25 Independence recognized by Soviet Union
 Belgium 1831-07-21 King Leopold I of Belgium swears allegiance to the constitution making the country a constitutional monarchy 1830-10-04 Independence is proclaimed by the provisonial government 1919-06-28 Treaty of Versailles and annexation of the East Cantons
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-03-05 Independence declared 1943-11-25 Establishment of Bosnia in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
 Bulgaria 1989-11-10 People's Republic of Bulgaria is replaced by the Republic of Bulgaria 681 The Byzantine Empire recognizes Bulgaria. 1940-09-07 Under the Vienna Awards, Southern Dobruja is returned to Bulgaria.
 Croatia 1991-06-25 (before 925 (became kingdom, recognised by pope)) Declared independence from Yugoslavia
 Cyprus 1960-08-16 Independence from United Kingdom
 Czech Republic 1993-01-01 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Czech Republic and Slovakia
 Denmark 958, or prior. The Jelling stones, a pair of rune stones considered to be the "birth certificate" of Denmark reads: "King Haraldr ordered this monument made ... who won for himself all of Denmark and Norway and made the Danes Christian." 1920-06-15 Sønderjylland was recovered from Germany
 Estonia 1918-02-24 Estonian Declaration of Independence, whereby a republic was declared. 1918-02-24 Independence declared from the Russian Empire. 1920-07-01 De jure: Signing of the Estonian-Latvian Border Treaty whereby Valga proper was ceded to Estonia.
1991-08-20 Independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation 1945-01-01 De facto: Eastern coast of Narva river and Petseri County were transferred to Russian SFSR.
 Finland 1917-12-06 Independence from Russian Empire declared 1956 Porkkala returned from Soviet control.
1918-01-03 Independence from Russia recognized by the highest Soviet executive body - VTsIK.
 France 1870-09-04 Establishment of a lasting republican form of government, considered uninterrupted in French law 496 Kingdom of the Franks becomes the first Christian State after the fall of the Roman Empire 1947-02-10 Metropolitan France:
Annexation of Tende, La Brigue and other villages formerly in Italy
1958-10-05 Establishment of the current semi-presidential system known as the Fifth Republic 843 Creation of the Kingdom of France (West Francia), Treaty of Verdun 1962-07-05 Overseas France:
Loss of the French departments in Algeria following the latter's independence
 Germany 1871-01-18 German Realm (Empire) founded 1955-05-05 Federal Republic of Germany (commonly referred to at the time as West Germany) declared fully sovereign 1990-10-03 Reunification of West Germany and East Germany
 Greece 1975 Greek Third Republic 1832-03-04 Greek independence from Ottoman Empire 1947-02-10 Peace treaty with Italy awards the Dodecanese to Greece
 Hungary 1001-08-20 Foundation of the Hungarian state by King Saint Stephen. (Recognized by the pope) 1849-04-14 Independence declared from Habsburg Empire 1947-02-10 The Treaty of Peace with Hungary returns Hungary to 1920 borders, with small changes
1991-06-19 End of 46 years long Soviet occupation.
 Iceland 930 The Icelandic Commonwealth established. 1944-06-17 Secedes from a Union with Denmark formally as an independent republic. 1972-09-01 No territorial changes on land have taken place, however the expansion of the Exclusive Economic Zone was such an important change in territory for Iceland that it merits a special inclusion here.
1946 Departure of last US occupation troops
 Ireland 1919-01-21 Elected Irish Parliament Dáil Éireann unilaterally declares independence from the United Kingdom 1922-12-06 Irish Free State secedes from United Kingdom by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo Irish Treaty but remains a dominion of the British Empire 1922-12-08 Northern Ireland secedes from the Irish Free State and rejoins the United Kingdom in accordance with the Irish Free State (Constitution) Act 1922
1949-04-18 Republic of Ireland Act 1948 declares the state to be a republic and thus no longer subject in any way to the British Crown
Italy
Italy
1861-03-17 Italian unification 1945-04-25 Disestablishment of the German-backed Italian Social Republic, whereby the unity and independence of the Italian state is restored 1975-11-10 Signing of the Treaty of Osimo which definitely divides the Free Territory of Trieste between Italy and Yugoslavia
 Kosovo 2008-02-17 Independence declared from Serbia
 Lithuania 1918-02-16 Independence declared from Germany and Russia 1939-10-27 and 1940-08-03 Eastern Vilnius Region ceded to Lithuania
1990-03-11 Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation
 Latvia 1918-11-18 Independence declared from Germany and Russia 1944 Abrene district ceded to Russian SFSR (modern Russia)
1990-05-04 Independence (from Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation
 Liechtenstein 1813-10-19 Dissolution of the Confederation of the Rhine 1719-01-23 Purchase of Vaduz
 Luxembourg 1945 End of German occupation during World War II 1839-04-19 Partition of Luxembourg under the Treaty of London
 Macedonia 1991-09-08 After a referendum, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia
 Malta 1964-09-21 Independence from United Kingdom
 Moldova 1991-08-27 Independence from Soviet Union 1940-08-02 Moldavian SSR formed
 Monaco 1861 Franco-Monegasque Treaty confirms Monaco's sovereignty (formerly a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia)
 Montenegro 2006-06-03 Declaration of independence from Serbia and Montenegro
 Netherlands 1648-01-30 Treaty of Münster signed, independence from Spain 1945-05-05 German occupying forces surrender. 1839-04-19 The United Kingdom of the Netherlands divided under the Treaty of London (1839).
 Norway 872 King Harald I of Norway unifies the Petty kingdoms of Norway. 1814 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Denmark and establishment of the Constitution of Norway 1930-02-27 Jan Mayen was made part of the Kingdom of Norway.
1905-06-07 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden
1945-05-08 German occupying forces surrender.
 Poland 1989-06-04 The first partially free Parliament's vote after 45-years long Soviet domination 1918-11-11 Józef Piłsudski was appointed Commandier in Chief of Polish Army, the day is celebrated as Independence Day. 1951-02-15 Polish-Soviet border adjustment treaty
 Portugal 1974-04-25 Carnation Revolution ends the authoritarian Estado Novo 1139-07-26 County of Portugal becomes independent from the Kingdom of León after the Battle of Ourique as part of the Reconquista. Recognized by León in 1143 and by the Pope in 1179. 1801-06-06 Spain occupies the present day border town of Olivença since the War of the Oranges.
 Romania 1877-05-21 Independence declared from the Ottoman Empire
1878-07-13 Independence recognized internationally by the Treaty of Berlin
 San Marino 1243 Formation of republican government 0301-09-03 Traditional founding 1463 Added Fiorentino, Montegiardino, Serravalle, and Faetano
 Serbia 2006-06-05 Republic of Serbia declared legal successor to Serbia and Montenegro, ending the process of the dissolution of Yugoslavia 1945-03-08 Government of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia formed after end of German occupation during World War II 2008-02-17 Republic of Kosovo declares independence from Serbia.[13]
 Slovakia 1993-01-01 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Slovakia and Czech Republic
 Slovenia 1991-06-25 Declaration of independence from Yugoslavia
 Spain 1479-01-21 Dynastic union of Castile and Aragon into the Catholic Monarchy under Ferdinand and Isabella.[14] 1801-06-06 Spain takes in Olivenza as a result of the War of the Oranges.
 Sweden 1523-06-06 Gustav Vasa elected King of Sweden and marking a definite secession from the Kalmar Union. 1809-03-29 Loss of Finland to Imperial Russia.
 Switzerland 1848-11-12 Foundation of the federal state after Sonderbund war 1815-08-07 Restoration of the Ancien Régime (federalism), reverting the changes imposed by Napoleon Bonaparte.
 Ukraine 1991-08-24 Independence from Soviet Union declared 1954-02-19 Transfer of Crimea from Russia to Ukraine
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
1689 Bill of Rights in England and Claim of Right in Scotland create a constitutional monarchy and affirm the supremacy of Parliament 828 Kingdom of England 1922-12-06 Northern Ireland secedes from the Irish Free State and rejoins the United Kingdom in accordance with the Irish Free State (Constitution) Act 1922[15]
843 Kingdom of Scotland
1707-05-01 Acts of Union, 1707 put into effect the negotiated Treaty of Union that created a 'United Kingdom of Great Britain' on May 1, 1707.[16] This state then merged with Ireland in 1801 to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 1216 Principality of Wales
1707 the Acts of union Merged the two kingdoms and principality to create the Kingdom of Great Britain
 Vatican City 1274 Birth of current form of government the Papal conclave in 1274 1929-06-07 Ratification of the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican City a sovereign State 1929-02-11 Signing of the Lateran Treaty

Oceania

Country Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date of most recent significant territorial modification
Date[1] Event Date[1] Event Date[1] Event
 Australia 1901-01-01 Commonwealth of Australia established as a Dominion of the British Empire. 1942-10-09 Statute of Westminster is adopted by Australia 1975-09-16 Papua New Guinea becomes formally independent of Australia
1986-03-03 Australia Act 1986 eliminated the remaining ties between the legislature and judiciary of Australia and their counterparts in the United Kingdom.
 Fiji 1970-10-10 Independence from United Kingdom
 Kiribati 1979-07-12 Independence from United Kingdom 1975-10-01 Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu)
 Marshall Islands 1979-05-01 Constitution and local government established 1986-10-21 Compact of Free Association with the United States
 Micronesia 1979-05-10 Constitution ratified 1986-11-03 Compact of Free Association with the United States 1979-05-10 Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae unite to form the Federated States of Micronesia
 Nauru 1968-01-31 Independence from UN Trusteeship
 New Zealand 1840-02-06 Treaty of Waitangi between the British Crown and the indigenous Māori tribes cedes kawanatanga of New Zealand to Queen Victoria. De facto:
from 1856-05-07
Formation of first responsible ministry in 1856. 1840-02-06 Treaty of Waitangi effectively unites the New Zealand archipelago as a single territory.The Kermadec Islands were incorporated in 1887.
De jure:
1947-12-10
New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act 1947 receives royal assent.
 Palau 1981-01-01 Republic of Palau created upon adoption of constitution 1994-10-01 Emerged from United Nations trusteeship (administered by the United States).
 Papua New Guinea 1973-12-01 Self governing colony
1975-09-16 Independence from Australia
 Samoa 1962-01-01 Independence from New Zealand
 Solomon Islands 1976-01-02 Self government granted by United Kingdom
1978-07-07 Independence from United Kingdom
 Tonga 1970-07-04 Independence from United Kingdom 1845-12-04 Unification of what is now the islands of Tonga by George Tupou I of Tonga
 Tuvalu 1975-10-01 Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu) 1978-10-01 Independence from United Kingdom 1979-02-07 Treaty with United States recognizing Tuvaluan control over Funafuti, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, and Niulakita atolls
 Vanuatu 1980-07-30 Independence from joint British-French condominium[17]

Transcontinental countries

Country Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date of most recent significant territorial modification
Date Event Date Event Date Event
Egypt
Egypt
1952-07-23 Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1922-02-28 Recognition of formal independence by the United Kingdom but continued British military occupation 1982-04-25 Withdrawal of last Israeli troops and settlers from Sinai as agreed upon in the peace treaty with Israel
1953-06-18 Republic proclaimed 1956-06-18 Withdrawal of last British troops from the Suez Canal Zone
1961-09-28 De facto disestablishment of the United Arab Republic following a military coup in Damascus
 Russia 1990-06-12 Russian SFSR declares sovereignty over its own territory 1480 Grand Duchy of Muscovy secures its independence from the Golden Horde 1954-02-19 Transfer of Crimea from Russia to Ukraine
 Turkey 1923-10-29 Turkey was declared as a republic. 1923-06-24 Treaty of Lausanne recognizes the new Turkish state as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire 1939-06-29 Syrian province of Iskanderun transferred by French Mandatory Government to Turkey. Annexed by Turkey as Hatay State

Sortable list

In this list, "date of last subordination" refers to the last date of control by an external government. In some cases this is the same as the date of independence marking decolonization or dissolution of a political union. In other cases, a sovereign state submitted to foreign military occupation or political subjugation for a period of time and later regained its independence.

Dates refer to de facto rule or occupation, whether or not legitimized by international recognition.

In a union such as Czechoslovakia, the USSR, or the Kalmar Union, one of the constituents can be considered the dominant power - generally where the seat of government was located.

Country First acquisition of sovereignty Date of last subordination Previous governing power Notes
 Afghanistan 01919-08-19 August 19, 1919 01989 1989 USSR Occupied in 2001 by US-led forces, but these were in support of the UN-recognized government of Burhanuddin Rabbani. Previously occupied by India, Persia, Bokhara, Russia and UK, until 1919 Treaty of Rawalpindi
 Albania 01444-03-02 March 2, 1444 01944-11 November 1944[18] Germany Unified 1444 under Skanderbeg. Occupied by Ottoman Empire ca 1480-1912, by Italy 1939-43, and by Germany 1943-44.
 Algeria 01962-07-03 July 3, 1962[19] 01962-07-03 July 3, 1962 France
 Andorra 01278-09-07 September 7, 1278[20][21] 01944-11 November 1944[22] France Acte de paréage 1278; occupied several times by France: 1812-13, 1870, 1914, 1936, 1939
 Angola 01975-11-11 November 11, 1975[23] 01975-11-11 November 11, 1975 Portugal Alvor Agreement
 Antigua and Barbuda 01981-11-01 November 1, 1981[24] 01981-11-01 November 1, 1981 United Kingdom
 Argentina 01816-07-09 July 9, 1816[25] 01816-07-09 July 9, 1816 Spain Congress of Tucumán
 Armenia -9809 190 BC 01991-09-23 September 23, 1991[26] USSR First independent as Kingdom of Armenia 190 BC – 428 AD
 Australia 01942-10-09 October 9, 1942 01942-10-09 October 9, 1942 United Kingdom Dominion status 1907, Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942.[27]
 Austria 01918-11-12 November 12, 1918[28] 01955-05-15 May 15, 1955[29] World War II Allies Austrian State Treaty. Previously occupied by Germany.
 Azerbaijan 01991 1991[30] 01991 1991 USSR
 Bahamas 01973-07-10 July 10, 1973[31] 01973-07-10 July 10, 1973 United Kingdom
 Bahrain 01971-12-16 December 16, 1971 01971-12-16 December 16, 1971 United Kingdom Previously ruled by Portugal, by Iran, and by Oman.
 Bangladesh 01971 1971[32] 01971 1971 Pakistan
 Barbados 01966-11-30 November 30, 1966 01966-11-30 November 30, 1966 United Kingdom
 Belarus 01990 1990 01991 1991 USSR
 Belgium 01830-10-04 October 4, 1830 01945 1945 Germany Part of Netherlands before 1830
 Belize 01981-09-21 September 21, 1981[33] 01981-09-21 September 21, 1981 United Kingdom
 Benin 01960-08-01 August 1, 1960[34] 01960-08-01 August 1, 1960 France
 Bhutan 01634 1634 -none- -none- Autonomous since at least the 10th century.[35] Unified 1634, after the Battle of Five Lamas.
 Bolivia 01825-08-06 August 6, 1825 01825-08-06 August 6, 1825 Spain
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 01992 1992 01992 1992 Yugoslavia
 Botswana 01966-09-30 September 30, 1966[36] 01966-09-30 September 30, 1966 United Kingdom
 Brazil 01822-09-07 September 7, 1822[37] 01822-09-07 September 7, 1822 Portugal
 Brunei 01984 1984 01984 1984 United Kingdom Previously occupied by Japan
 Bulgaria 00681 681[38] 01944 1944 USSR Previously occupied by Byzantine Empire (1018-1185) and Ottoman Empire (1393-1878)
 Burkina Faso 01960-08-05 August 5, 1960[39] 01960-08-05 August 5, 1960 France
 Burundi 01962-07-01 July 1, 1962 01962-07-01 July 1, 1962 Belgium
 Cambodia 00802 802 01989-09-26 September 26, 1989[40] Vietnam Khmer Empire founded 802 according to Sdok Kok Thom Inscription
 Cameroon 01960 1960 01961 1961 United Kingdom Northern part gained independence from France in 1960
 Canada 01931-12-11 December 11, 1931 01931-12-11 December 11, 1931 United Kingdom Dominion status 1867, Statute of Westminster 1931.[41]
 Cape Verde 01975-07-05 July 5, 1975 01975-07-05 July 5, 1975[42] Portugal
 Central African Republic 02010 01960 1960 France
 Chad 02010 01960 1960 France
 Chile 01810-09-18 September 18, 1810 01818-02-12 February 12, 1818 Spain
 China, People's Republic of -9778 221 BC 01945 1945 Japan Unified 221 BC under Qin Dynasty. During Japanese occupation, parts of inland China continued under control of Chinese Nationalist and Communist governments.
 Colombia 01810-07-20 July 20, 1810 01819-08-07 August 7, 1819 Spain Battle of Boyacá 1819
 Comoros 02010 01975 1975 France
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 01884 1884 01960 1960 Belgium
 Congo, Republic of the 02010 01960 1960 France
 Costa Rica 01821-09-15 September 15, 1821 01838 1838 Federal Republic of Central America Previously part of Mexico 1822-23 and a colony of Spain before 1821.
 Côte d'Ivoire 02010 01960 1960 France
 Croatia 00925 925 01991 1991 Yugoslavia
 Cuba 01902-05-20 May 20, 1902 01902-05-20 May 20, 1902 United States A colony of Spain until 1898, then occupied but not annexed by USA 1899-1902.
 Cyprus 01960 1960 01960 1960 United Kingdom
 Czech Republic 01918-11-14 November 14, 1918[43] 01968 1968 USSR Successor to Czechoslovakia, previously occupied by Germany and by Austria-Hungary.
 Denmark 00980 980 01945 1945 Germany Unified ca 980 by Harald Bluetooth.
 Djibouti 02010 01977 1977 France
 Dominica 02010 01978 1978 United Kingdom
 Dominican Republic 01821 1821 01924 1924 United States Previously occupied by Spain, France, and Haiti
 Ecuador 01822-05-24 May 24, 1822 01830-05-13 May 13, 1830 Gran Colombia Previously a colony of Spain
 Egypt -6899 3100 BC 01922-02-28 February 28, 1922 United Kingdom Unified in 3100 BC by Pharaoh Menes or probably Narmer, founder of the First Dynasty
 El Salvador 01821-09-15 September 15, 1821 01898 1898 Greater Republic of Central America Previously a part of the Federal Republic of Central America 1823-38, Mexico 1822-23, and a colony of Spain before 1821.
 Equatorial Guinea 02010 01968 1968 Spain
 Eritrea 01993-05-24 May 24, 1993 01993-05-24 May 24, 1993 Ethiopia
 Estonia 01918-02-24 February 24, 1918[44] 01991 1991 USSR Previously occupied by Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Russia, and Germany.
 Ethiopia 00050 50 01944-12 December 1944 United Kingdom Aksumite Empire founded ca 50. Occupied 1936-1941 by Italy, then administered by UK until 1944 Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement.
 Fiji 02010 01970 1970 United Kingdom
 Finland 01917-12-06 December 6, 1917 01918 1918 Russian Empire
 France 00843 843 01945 1945 Germany 843 Treaty of Verdun established West Francia.
 Gabon 02010 01960 1960 France
 Gambia 02010 01965 1965 United Kingdom
 Georgia 01008 1008 01991 1991 USSR
 Germany 01871-01-18 January 18, 1871 01955-05-05 May 5, 1955 World War II Allies Unified in 1871. Occupied 1945-1955 until ratification of Bonn–Paris conventions.
 Ghana 02010 01957 1957 United Kingdom
 Greece 01821 1821 01944 1944 Germany Previously occupied jointly by Italy, Germany and Bulgaria; before 1821 by Ottoman Empire.
 Grenada 02010 01974 1974 United Kingdom
 Guatemala 01821-09-15 September 15, 1821 01838 1838 Federal Republic of Central America Previously part of Mexico 1822-23 and a colony of Spain before 1821.
 Guinea 02010 01958 1958 France
 Guinea-Bissau 02010 01973 1973 Portugal
 Guyana 02010 01966 1966 United Kingdom
 Haiti 01804-01-01 January 1, 1804 01934 1934 United States Previously a colony of France.
 Honduras 01821-09-15 September 15, 1821 01925 1925 United States Occupied several times by USA. Previously a part of the Greater Republic of Central America 1896-98, the Federal Republic of Central America 1823-38, Mexico 1822-23 and a colony of Spain before 1821.
 Hungary 01000-12-25 December 25, 1000 01956 1956 USSR Ruled by Austria-Hungary before 1918.
 Iceland 00930 930 01946 1946 United States Ruled by Danish monarchs from 1380 to 1944, though a Norwegian possession from 1262 to 1814. Regained sovereignty in 1918 as Kingdom of Iceland, current republic founded 1944. Previously occupied by the United Kingdom 1940-41, and the United States from 1941 until withdrawal in 1946.
 India 01947-08-15 August 15, 1947[4] 01947-08-15 August 15, 1947 United Kingdom Previously a colony of the British Empire
 Indonesia 02010 01945 1945 Netherlands Previously occupied by Japan.
 Iran -6799 3200 BC 01335 1335 Ilkhanate of Mongol Empire First formation of a civilized state by Proto-Elamite in Early Bronze Age (3200 BC), followed by formation of an empire by Medes in 850 BC.
 Iraq 01932 1932 02010 United States Occupied by USA since 2003
 Ireland 01919-01-21 January 21, 1919 01931-12-11 December 11, 1931 United Kingdom Independence declared 1919, Dominion status 1922, Statute of Westminster 1931.
 Israel 01948 1948 01948 1948 United Kingdom
 Italy 01861-03-17 March 17, 1861 01945 1945 World War II Allies Unified in 1861.
 Jamaica 02010 01962 1962 United Kingdom
 Japan -9339 660 BC 01952-04-28 April 28, 1952 World War II Allies Founded 660 BC according to legend. 1952 Treaty of San Francisco ended postwar occupation.
 Jordan 02010 01946 1946 United Kingdom
 Kazakhstan 02010 01991 1991 USSR
 Kenya 02010 01963 1963 United Kingdom
 Kiribati 02010 01979-07-12 July 12, 1979 United Kingdom
 Kosovo 02010 02008-02-17 February 17, 2008 Serbia
 Kuwait 02010 01992 1992 Iraq
 Kyrgyzstan 02010 01991 1991 USSR
 Laos 02010 01949 1949 France
 Latvia 01918-11-18 November 18, 1918[45] 01990 1990 USSR Previously ruled by Lithuania, Sweden, and Russia
 Lebanon 02010 01943 1943 France
 Lesotho 02010 01966-10-04 October 4, 1966 United Kingdom
 Liberia 01847-07-26 July 26, 1847 01847-07-26 July 26, 1847 American Colonization Society Settled but not claimed by USA[46]
 Libya 02010 01951-12-24 December 24, 1951 France/United Kingdom Previously occupied by Italy and by Ottoman Empire
 Liechtenstein 01806 1806 01866 1866 German Confederation Previously subject to the Confederation of the Rhine. Formed 1719 from Vaduz and Schellenberg, but under the Holy Roman Empire.
 Lithuania 01253 1253[47] 01990-03-11 March 11, 1990 USSR Kingdom of Lithuania; Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania
 Luxembourg 01815 1815 01945 1945 Germany Independent from France 1815 but in personal union with Netherlands until 1890
 Macedonia 01991 1991 01991 1991 Yugoslavia
 Madagascar 02010 01960-06-26 June 26, 1960 France
 Malawi 02010 01964-07-06 July 6, 1964 United Kingdom
 Malaysia 02010 01957 1957 United Kingdom
 Maldives 02010 01965 1965 United Kingdom
 Mali 02010 01960-09-22 September 22, 1960 Mali Federation Previously a colony of France
 Malta 01964-09-21 September 21, 1964 01964-09-21 September 21, 1964 United Kingdom
 Marshall Islands 02010 01986-10-21 October 21, 1986 United States Compact of Free Association
 Mauritania 02010 01960-11-28 November 28, 1960 France
 Mauritius 02010 01968-03-12 March 12, 1968 United Kingdom
 Mexico 01810-09-16 September 16, 1810 01863 1863 France Parts of northern Mexico continued under control of Benito Juarez. Previously a colony of Spain
 Micronesia, Federated States of 02010 01986-11-03 November 3, 1986 United States Compact of Free Association
 Moldova 01991 1991 01991 1991 USSR
 Monaco 01297 1297 01945 1945 Germany Previously occupied by Italy and France. Subject to Sardinia 1815-1861.
 Mongolia 02010 01921-03-13 March 13, 1921 China
 Montenegro 01878 1878 02006 2006 Serbia and Montenegro Independent from Ottoman Empire in 1878, union with Serbia/Yugoslavia 1918-2006. Occupied by Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Germany.
 Morocco 02010 01956 1956 France
 Mozambique 02010 01975 1975 Portugal
 Myanmar 00849 849 01948-01-04 January 4, 1948 United Kingdom Pagan Kingdom founded 849. Occupied by Japan 1942-1945
 Namibia 02010 01990 1990 South Africa
 Nauru 02010 01968 1968 Australia/New Zealand/United Kingdom
 Nepal 01768 1768 -none- -none- Autonomous throughout its recorded history, and certainly since its 1768 unification.[48]
 Netherlands 01581-07-26 July 26, 1581 01945 1945 Germany Independent from Spain in 1581; occupied by France under Napoleon.
 New Zealand 01947-11-25 November 25, 1947 01947-11-25 November 25, 1947 United Kingdom Dominion status 1907, Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947.[49]
 Nicaragua 01821-09-15 September 15, 1821 01933 1933 United States Previously a part of the Greater Republic of Central America 1896-98, the Federal Republic of Central America 1823-38, Mexico 1822-23, and a colony of Spain before 1821.
 Niger 01960-08-03 August 3, 1960 01960-08-03 August 3, 1960 France
 Nigeria 01960-10-01 October 1, 1960 01960-10-01 October 1, 1960 United Kingdom
 North Korea 02010 01945-08-15 August 15, 1945 Japan
 Norway 00872 872 01945-05 May 1945 Germany Unified ca 872 at Battle of Hafrsfjord. For a long time in unions with Denmark and with Sweden (until 1905). Occupied by Germany 1940-45.
 Oman 00751 751 01743 1743 Persia Previously occupied by Great Seljuq Empire, Ottoman Empire, Portugal (1508–1650), etc.
 Pakistan 01947-08-14 August 14, 1947 01947-08-14 August 14, 1947 United Kingdom Previously a colony of the British Empire.
 Palau 01994-10-01 October 1, 1994 01994-10-01 October 1, 1994 United States Previously ruled by Spain, Germany, Japan.
 Panama 01903-11-03 November 3, 1903 01990 1990 United States A colony of Spain until 1821, then a dependency of Colombia until 1903. Occupied by USA 1989-90.
 Papua New Guinea 02010 01975 1975 Australia
 Paraguay 01811-05-14 May 14, 1811 01876 1876 Brazil Occupied 1870-1876 by Brazil, in Triple Alliance with Argentina and Uruguay.[50] Colony of Spain before 1811.
 Peru 01821-07-28 July 28, 1821 01821-07-28 July 28, 1821 Spain
 Philippines 01898-12-10 December 10, 1898 01946-07-04 July 4, 1946 United States Spanish colony 1565–1898; declared independence from Spain in 1898; sovereignty passed from Spain to the U.S. in 1898; waged an unsuccessful war of independence against the U.S. 1899–1902; accepted U.S. sovereignty April 19, 1901; occupied by Japan 1942-1944.
 Poland 00960 960 01945 1945 USSR Unified ca 960 by Mieszko I. Partitioned several times between Germany and USSR.
 Portugal 01139-07-25 July 25, 1139 01808 1808 France Convention of Sintra ended French occupation of Lisbon. Independent from Kingdom of León in 1139.
 Qatar 01971-09-03 September 3, 1971 01971-09-03 September 3, 1971 United Kingdom
 Romania 01878-07-13 July 13, 1878 01958-08 August 1958 USSR Occupied by USSR 1944-1958.
 Russia 00860 860 01480 1480 Golden Horde Rurik Dynasty founded ca 860. Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480 marked end of Mongol/Tatar rule.
 Rwanda 01962-07-01 July 1, 1962 01962-07-01 July 1, 1962 Belgium
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 01983-09-19 September 19, 1983 01983-09-19 September 19, 1983 United Kingdom
 Saint Lucia 01979-02-22 February 22, 1979 01979-02-22 February 22, 1979 United Kingdom
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 01979-10-27 October 27, 1979 01979-10-27 October 27, 1979 United Kingdom
 Samoa 02010 01962 1962 United Kingdom
 San Marino 00301 301 01945 1945 World War II Allies Previously occupied by Roman Empire, and briefly by Rimini (1503), and Papal States (1739).
 Sao Tome and Principe 02010 01975 1975 Portugal
 Saudi Arabia 01744 1744 01919-01 January 1919 Ottoman Empire First Saudi State independent 1744-1818; last Ottoman troops evicted from Medina by Kingdom of Hejaz 1919; Hejaz incorporated 1926 into Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd, precursor to Saudi Arabia
 Senegal 02010 01960 1960 France
 Serbia 01817 1817 01945 1945 Germany Serbia, independent from Ottoman Empire in 1817, formed the core of Yugoslavia 1918-2003
 Seychelles 02010 01976 1976 United Kingdom
 Sierra Leone 02010 01961 1961 United Kingdom
 Singapore 02010 01965 1965 United Kingdom
 Slovakia 01993-01-01 January 1, 1993 01993-01-01 January 1, 1993 Czechoslovakia
 Slovenia 02010 01991 1991 Yugoslavia
 Solomon Islands 02010 01978 1978 United Kingdom
 Somalia 02010 01960 1960 United Kingdom and Italy
 South Africa 01931-12-11 December 11, 1931 01931-12-11 December 11, 1931 United Kingdom Dominion status 1910, Statute of Westminster 1931.
 South Korea -7666-10-03 October 3, 2333 BC 01945-08-15 August 15, 1945 Japan Gojoseon kingdom founded 2333 BC according to legend.
 Spain 01479 1479 01814 1814 France Union of Kingdom of Castile and Kingdom of Aragon in 1479. Previously occupied by Roman Empire, etc.
 Sri Lanka 02010 01972 1972 United Kingdom
 Sudan 02010 01956 1956 United Kingdom and Egypt
 Suriname 02010 01975 1975 Netherlands
 Swaziland 02010 01968 1968 United Kingdom
 Sweden unknown[51] 01523-06-06 June 6, 1523 Denmark No exact date for consolidation of Sweden. In Kalmar Union 1397–1523.
 Switzerland 01291 1291 01815 1815 Austria Old Swiss Confederacy formed 1291. Occupied by France 1798, then Austria 1813. 1815 Congress of Vienna restored independence.
 Syria 02010 01961-09-28 September 28, 1961 United Arab Republic
 Taiwan 02010 01945 1945 Japan
 Tajikistan 02010 01991 1991 USSR
 Tanzania 02010 01961 1961 United Kingdom
 Thailand 01238 1238 01768 1768 Burma Independent from Khmer Empire in 1238.
 Timor-Leste 02010 02002 2002 Indonesia
 Togo 02010 01960 1960 France
 Tonga 02010 01970 1970 United Kingdom
 Trinidad and Tobago 02010 01962 1962 United Kingdom
 Tunisia 02010 01956 1956 France
 Turkey 02010 01243 1243 Mongol Empire Battle of Köse Dağ[52]
 Turkmenistan 02010 01991 1991 USSR
 Tuvalu 02010 01978 1978 United Kingdom
 Uganda 02010 01962 1962 United Kingdom
 Ukraine 02010 01991 1991 USSR
 United Arab Emirates 02010 01971 1971 United Kingdom
 United Kingdom 00927-07-12 July 12, 927 01066 1066 Duchy of Normandy Kingdom of England unified 10th century. Acts of Union with Wales 1536, Kingdom of Scotland 1707 and Kingdom of Ireland 1801 (Northern Ireland only from 1922). Partial occupations by Normans, Vikings, Romans.
 United States of America 01776-07-04 July 4, 1776 01781 1781 United Kingdom
 Uruguay 02010 01828-08-25 August 25, 1828 Brazil
 Uzbekistan 02010 01991 1991 USSR
 Vanuatu 02010 01980-07-30 July 30, 1980 United Kingdom and France
 Vatican City 02010 01929-02-11 February 11, 1929 Italy
 Venezuela 01811-07-05 July 5, 1811 01830-01-13 January 13, 1830 Gran Colombia Previously a colony of Spain
 Viet Nam 01953 1953 01976 1976 France
 Yemen 01918-11-01 November 1, 1918 01967-11-30 November 30, 1967 United Kingdom North Yemen independent from Ottoman Empire 1918; South Yemen from UK in 1967; unified 1990
 Zambia 02010 01964 1964 United Kingdom
 Zimbabwe 02010 01980 1980 United Kingdom

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Please use the Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers) for dates
  2. ^ a b "Russia Recognizes Independence of Georgian Regions (Update2)". Bloomberg. 2008-08-26. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601082&sid=afAvlgTbOoAg&refer=canada. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  3. ^ Ranbir Vohra (2001), The Making of India: A Historical Survey (2 ed.), M.E. Sharpe, p. 192, ISBN 9780765607126, http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=kRIPIwEHXBYC .
  4. ^ a b lihu Lauterpacht Editor H. Lauterpacht (1958), International Law Reports, 22, Cambridge University Press, p. 147, ISBN 9780949009364, http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=OrMErqyDdvEC .
  5. ^ 1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, CorpusJuris.com
  6. ^ CIA Factbook
  7. ^ COUNTRY PROFILE: PHILIPPINES, U.S. Library of Congress – Federal Research Division, March 2006, http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Philippines.pdf  asserts, "The Philippines attained independence from Spain on June 12, 1898, and from the United States on July 4, 1946.", implying that the cession of the Philippines to the U.S. by Spain on December 10, 1898 via the Treaty of Paris was invalid. Other sources (e.g. The CIA Factbook) assert that the philippine islands were ceded to the US by Spain in 1898 following the Spanish-American War.
  8. ^ Republic of the Philippines, Philippine Government website.
  9. ^ Convention regarding the boundary between the Philippine Archipelago and the State of North Borneo, United Nations Treaty Collection, January 2, 1930 and July 6, 1932, http://untreaty.un.org/unts/60001_120000/17/33/00033631.pdf 
  10. ^ Bautista, Lowell B. (3 September 2009), "The Historical Context and Legal Basis of the Philippine Treaty Limits", Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law: 21, doi:10.1007/s12180-009-0003-5, ISSN (Print) 1864-9629 (Online) 1864-9610 (Print) 1864-9629 (Online), http://www.hawaii.edu/aplpj/articles/APLPJ_10.1_bautista.pdf, "The Boundaries Treaty of 1930 clarifies those islands in the region belonging to U.S. and those to the State of North Borneo and delimits the boundary between the Philippine Archipelago (under U.S. sovereignty) and the State of North Borneo (under British protection). [...] When the Boundaries Treaty of 1930 was finalized, an exchange of notes supplemented the Treaty. Pursuant to the notes, sovereignty over these islands was transferred to the U.S., and it was agreed that Great Britain should continue to administer these islands until the U.S. gave notice to the contrary."  [9]
  11. ^ The government of the Republic of China, which currently administers Taiwan, was the generally recognized sovereign power over Mainland China beginning in 1 January 1912 (also the first year of the Taiwanese calendar "民國"). Sovereign control of Taiwan by this government began on 25 October 1945 (Retrocession Day).
  12. ^ The PRC acquired de facto control in Mainland China on 1 October 1949. The Republic of China continued to be generally recognized as the legitimate government of China until 25 October 1971, when the PRC was admitted to the United Nations. Currently, due to the PRC's One-China policy, only 25 states recognize the Republic of China, although many more retain unofficial relations.
  13. ^ International recognition of Kosovo's independence is International reaction to the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence, number growing.
  14. ^ Spain, britannica.com
  15. ^ In order to reflect the loss of Southern Ireland, the full name of the United Kingdom was changed from United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland through the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927.
  16. ^ Welcome parliament.uk, accessed 1 January, 2009
  17. ^ Profile: Republic of Vanuatu, U.S. Department of State
  18. ^ An Outline of the People's Republic of Albania. 8 Nëntori. 1978. p. 47. http://books.google.com/books?id=_sBOAAAAMAAJ. 
  19. ^ Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African history. CRC Press. p. 60. ISBN 1579584535. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ftz_gtO-pngC. 
  20. ^ Blaustein, Albert P.; Jay A. Sigler, Benjamin R. Beede (1977). Independence documents of the world. Brill Archive. p. 11. ISBN 0379007940. http://books.google.com/books?id=feyI5kisdBcC. 
  21. ^ Whittlesey, Derwent (June 1934). "Andorra's Autonomy". The Journal of Modern History 6 (2): 147–155. 
  22. ^ Archambault, G.H. (Nov 16, 1944). "Andorra Occupied by French Police; De Gaulle Acts Under Historic Authority to Keep Order in Pyrenees Republic". New York Times: p. 5. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0F11FB3A59147B93C4A8178AD95F408485F9. Retrieved April 25, 2009. 
  23. ^ "1975: Divided Angola gets independence". BBC On This Day. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/11/newsid_2539000/2539679.stm. Retrieved 2009-07-04. 
  24. ^ "Background Note: Antigua and Barbuda". US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2336.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-04. 
  25. ^ "Congress of Tucumán". Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/608414/Congress-of-Tucuman. Retrieved 2009-07-04. 
  26. ^ "Armenia: Independence". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/35178/Armenia/44276/Independence. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  27. ^ "Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942". National Archives of Australia: Documenting a Democracy. http://www.foundingdocs.gov.au/item.asp?sdID=96. Retrieved April 19, 2009. 
  28. ^ "Austria". Encyclopedia.com. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Austria.aspx. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 
  29. ^ "Vienna". Encyclopaedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/628062/Vienna/24446/Evolution-of-the-modern-city. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 
  30. ^ "Azerbaijan". Encyclopedia.com. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Azerbaijan.aspx. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 
  31. ^ Kurian, George Thomas (1987). The Encyclopedia of the Third World (3rd ed.). Facts on File. p. 115. ISBN 0816011184. http://books.google.com/books?id=iOWyAAAAIAAJ. 
  32. ^ "Bangladesh". Encyclopedia.com. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Bangladesh.aspx. 
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  35. ^ Rose, Leo E. (1977). The Politics of Bhutan. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-8014-0909-8. "[T]here can be no doubt that since at least the tenth century no external power has controlled Bhutan, although there have been periods when various of its neighbors have been able to exert a strong cultural and/or political influence there." 
  36. ^ "Botswana". Encyclopedia.com. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Botswana.aspx. Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
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  46. ^ "Colonization". The African-American Mosaic. Library of Congress. July 5, 2005. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam002.html. Retrieved 2009-04-25. "Liberia ... was neither a sovereign power nor a bona fide colony of any sovereign nation. ... the United States refused to claim sovereignty over Liberia." 
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  49. ^ "New Zealand Parliament - New Zealand sovereignty: 1857, 1907, 1947, or 1987?". New Zealand Parliament Research Papers. http://www.parliament.nz/en-NZ/PubRes/Research/Papers/9/1/8/00PLLawRP07041-New-Zealand-sovereignty-1857-1907-1947-or-1987.htm. Retrieved April 19, 2009. 
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  51. ^ Hadenius, S; Nilsson, T and Åselius, G. (1996:13): "Hur och när det svenska riket uppstod vet vi inte. Först under 1100-talet börjar skriftliga dokument produceras i Sverige i någon större omfattning [...]" "How and when the Swedish kingdom appeared is not known. It is not until the 12th century that written documents begin to be produced in Sweden in any larger extent [...]"
  52. ^ Köprülü, Mehmet Fuat; Gary Leiser (1992). The origins of the Ottoman empire. SUNY Press. p. 33. ISBN 0-7914-0819-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=D-WaKed2iNgC. "It can be said that this war had a decisive effect on the fate of the Seljuk Empire. Afterwards Anatolia fell, in effect, under Mongol rule; although the peace which was made — on condition that a heavy annual tax be paid to the Mongols — left a theoretical semi-independence to the Seljuk sultan." 

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