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List of special elections to the United States House of Representatives: Wikis

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This is an incomplete list of special elections to the United States House of Representatives. Such elections are called by state governors to fill the vacancies that occur when a member of the House of Representatives dies or resigns before the biennial general election. Winners of these elections serve the remainder of the term and are usually candidates in the next general election for their districts.

The general elections are held in November of even numbered years. New Congresses convened on March 4 of the following year until 1934. Since 1934, new Congresses have convened on January 3 of the following year.

Before 1935, the date when the House first met (or convened) was often fixed to be some time after the legal start of the Congress. It was common for the date of the first meeting to be in November or December of the odd numbered year.

The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress often erroneously assumes that the Representative-elect, who presented credentials for a seat when the Congress first convened was elected at a general election and dates the start of his/her term from the legal start of the Congress. The Directory also sometimes assumes that a Representative from the previous Congress who did not present credentials for the new one did not contest the general election; although in fact the incumbent Representative had been re-elected but vacated the seat while still was a Representative-elect to the new Congress that had not yet convened.

Contents

Summary

In a few instances more than one seat was filled in a single special election, but each seat is counted separately in the list below.

Congress Start End Special
elections
Cumulative
total
1st March 4, 1789 March 3, 1791 2 2
2nd March 4, 1791 March 3, 1793 6 8
3rd March 4, 1793 March 3, 1795 8 16
4th March 4, 1795 March 3, 1797 12 28
5th March 4, 1797 March 3, 1799 15 43
6th March 4, 1799 March 3, 1801 11 54
7th March 4, 1801 March 3, 1803 18 72
8th March 4, 1803 March 3, 1805 11 83
9th March 4, 1805 March 3, 1807 16 99
10th March 4, 1807 March 3, 1809 11 110
11th March 4, 1809 March 3, 1811 12 122
12th March 4, 1811 March 3, 1813 7 129
13th March 4, 1813 March 3, 1815 21 150
14th March 4, 1815 March 3, 1817 23 173
15th March 4, 1817 March 3, 1819 17 190
16th March 4, 1819 March 3, 1821 15 205
17th March 4, 1821 March 3, 1823 21 226
18th March 4, 1823 March 3, 1825 11 237
19th March 4, 1825 March 3, 1827 16 253
20th March 4, 1827 March 3, 1829 16 269
21st March 4, 1829 March 3, 1831 14 283
22nd March 4, 1831 March 3, 1833 9 292
23rd March 4, 1833 March 3, 1835 23 315
24th March 4, 1835 March 3, 1837 20 335
25th March 4, 1837 March 3, 1839 19 354
26th March 4, 1839 March 3, 1841 18 372
27th March 4, 1841 March 3, 1843 23 395
28th March 4, 1843 March 3, 1845 14 409
29th March 4, 1845 March 3, 1847 13 422
30th March 4, 1847 March 3, 1849 10 432
31st March 4, 1849 March 3, 1851 14 446
32nd March 4, 1851 March 3, 1853 6 452
33rd March 4, 1853 March 3, 1855 9 461
34th March 4, 1855 March 3, 1857 9 470
35th March 4, 1857 March 3, 1859 11 481
36th March 4, 1859 March 3, 1861 7 488
37th March 4, 1861 March 3, 1863 20 508
38th March 4, 1863 March 3, 1865 6 514
39th March 4, 1865 March 3, 1867 7 (+2 [1]) 523
40th March 4, 1867 March 3, 1869 11 534
41st March 4, 1869 March 3, 1871 16 550
42nd March 4, 1871 March 3, 1873 10 560
43rd March 4, 1873 March 3, 1875 13 573
44th March 4, 1875 March 3, 1877 16 589
45th March 4, 1877 March 3, 1879 6 595
46th March 4, 1879 March 3, 1881 8 603
47th March 4, 1881 March 3, 1883 16 619
48th March 4, 1883 March 3, 1885 15 634
49th March 4, 1885 March 3, 1887 11 645
50th March 4, 1887 March 3, 1889 8 653
51st March 4, 1889 March 3, 1891 17 670
52nd March 4, 1891 March 3, 1893 15 685
53rd March 4, 1893 March 3, 1895 21 706
54th March 4, 1895 March 3, 1897 11 717
55th March 4, 1897 March 3, 1899 13 730
56th March 4, 1899 March 3, 1901 20 750
57th March 4, 1901 March 3, 1903 17 767
58th March 4, 1903 March 3, 1905 14 781
59th March 4, 1905 March 3, 1907 17 798
60th March 4, 1907 March 3, 1909 13 811
61st March 4, 1909 March 3, 1911 13 824
62nd March 4, 1911 March 3, 1913 15 839
63rd March 4, 1913 March 3, 1915 19 858
64th March 4, 1915 March 3, 1917 12 870
65th March 4, 1917 March 3, 1919 23 893
66th March 4, 1919 March 3, 1921 24 917
67th March 4, 1921 March 3, 1923 20 937
68th March 4, 1923 March 3, 1925 24 961
69th March 4, 1925 March 3, 1927 11 972
70th March 4, 1927 March 3, 1929 15 987
71st March 4, 1929 March 3, 1931 27 1,014
72nd March 4, 1931 March 3, 1933 24 1,038
73rd March 4, 1933 January 3, 1935 15 1,053
74th January 3, 1935 January 3, 1937 10 1,063
75th January 3, 1937 January 3, 1939 15 1,078
76th January 3, 1939 January 3, 1941 24 1,102
77th January 3, 1941 January 3, 1943 19 1,121
78th January 3, 1943 January 3, 1945 18 1,139
79th January 3, 1945 January 3, 1947 16 1,155
80th January 3, 1947 January 3, 1949 19 1,174
81st January 3, 1949 January 3, 1951 11 1,185
82nd January 3, 1951 January 3, 1953 15 1,200
83rd January 3, 1953 January 3, 1955 9 1,209
84th January 3, 1955 January 3, 1957 5 1,214
85th January 3, 1957 January 3, 1959 10 1,224
86th January 3, 1959 January 3, 1961 10 1,234
87th January 3, 1961 January 3, 1963 12 1,246
88th January 3, 1963 January 3, 1965 12 1,258
89th January 3, 1965 January 3, 1967 10 1,268
90th January 3, 1967 January 3, 1969 7 1,275
91st January 3, 1969 January 3, 1971 14 1,289
92nd January 3, 1971 January 3, 1973 10 1,299
93rd January 3, 1973 January 3, 1975 10 1,309
94th January 3, 1975 January 3, 1977 10 1,319
95th January 3, 1977 January 3, 1979 6 1,325
96th January 3, 1979 January 3, 1981 7 1,332
97th January 3, 1981 January 3, 1983 9 1,341
98th January 3, 1983 January 3, 1985 9 1,350
99th January 3, 1985 January 3, 1987 5 1,355
100th January 3, 1987 January 3, 1989 8 1,363
101st January 3, 1989 January 3, 1991 12 1,375
102nd January 3, 1991 January 3, 1993 6 1,381
103rd January 3, 1993 January 3, 1995 7 1,388
104th January 3, 1995 January 3, 1997 6 1,394
105th January 3, 1997 January 3, 1999 9 1,403
106th January 3, 1999 January 3, 2001 3 1,406
107th January 3, 2001 January 3, 2003 9 1,415
108th January 3, 2003 January 3, 2005 5 1,420
109th January 3, 2005 January 3, 2007 6 1,426
110th January 3, 2007 January 3, 2009 13 1,439
111th January 3, 2009 January 3, 2011 5+1 1,444+1

Key to symbols

* Date of election [source: United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results, by Michael J. Dubin (McFarland and Company, 1998)].

+ Date given for the start of the term, of the person elected at the special election (source: Congressional Biographical Directory). In some cases this is clearly wrong as the date of the legal start of the Congress is given, even though the member was elected at a later date.

^ Representative-elect, who vacated the seat before the start of the Congress.

# Representative-elect, who served after the start of the Congress but vacated the seat without being sworn in.

List of special elections

District Congress Date[2] Predecessor Winner
New Hampshire At-large 1st June 22, 1789[3]
March 4, 1789[4]
Benjamin West[5] (Pro-Admin.) Abiel Foster (Pro-Admin.)
Virginia 9th 1st July, 1790[3]
December 7, 1790[4]
Theodorick Bland (Anti-Admin.) William B. Giles (Anti-Admin.)
Connecticut At-large 2nd December 16, 1790[3]
March 4, 1791[4]
Pierpont Edwards[6] (Pro-Admin.) Jeremiah Wadsworth (Pro-Admin.)
New York 1st 2nd April 26-28, 1791[3]
October 24, 1791[4]
James Townsend[6] (Pro-Admin.) Thomas Tredwell (Anti-Admin)
Connecticut At-large 2nd September 19, 1791[3]
March 4, 1791[4]
Roger Sherman[5] (Pro-Admin.) Amasa Learned (Pro-Admin.)
Maryland 3rd 2nd October 26-29, 1791[3]
February 6, 1792[4]
William Pinkney (Pro-Admin.) John Francis Mercer (Anti-Admin)
Georgia At-large 2nd July 9, 1792[3]
November 22, 1792[4]
Anthony Wayne (Anti-Admin) John Milledge (Anti-Admin)
Maryland 2nd 2nd January 7-10, 1793[3]
January 30, 1793[4]
Joshua Seney (Anti-Admin) William Hindman (Pro-Admin)
Connecticut At-large 3rd April 8, 1793[3][4] Jonathan Sturges[6] (Pro-Admin.) Uriah Tracy (Pro-Admin.)
Connecticut At-large 3rd September 16, 1793[3] Benjamin Huntington[5] (Pro-Admin.) Jonathan Ingersoll (Pro-Admin.)
Connecticut At-large
2 seats
3rd November 11, 1793[3]
March 4, 1793[4]
Stephen M. Mitchell[5] (Pro-Admin.)
Jonathan Ingersoll[5] (Pro-Admin.)
Joshua Coit (Pro-Admin.)
Zephaniah Swift (Pro-Admin.)
Maryland 2nd 3rd May 5, 1794[3]
November 11, 1794[4]
John Francis Mercer (Anti-Admin) Gabriel Duvall (Anti-Admin)
South Carolina 5th 3rd October 13-14, 1794[3]
February, 1795[4]
Alexander Gillon (Anti-Admin) Robert G. Harper (Pro-Admin)
South Carolina 2nd 4th January 19-20, 1795[3]
March 4, 1795[4]
John Barnwell[6] (F) Wade Hampton (D-R)
Connecticut At-large 4th April 13, 1795[3]
March 4, 1795[4]
Jonathan Trumbull[6] (F) Nathaniel Smith (F)
North Carolina 4th 4th August 13-14, 1795[3]
March 4, 1795[4]
Alexander Mebane[5] (D-R) Absalom Tatom (D-R)
Maryland 2nd 4th April 18, 1796[3]
May 5, 1796[4]
Gabriel Duvall (D-R) Richard Sprigg (D-R)
Massachusetts 10th 4th September 12, 1796[3]
December 7, 1796[4]
Benjamin Goodhue (F) Samuel Sewall (F)
Connecticut At-large 4th September 19, 1796[3]
December 5, 1796[4]
James Hillhouse (F) James Davenport (F)
Maryland 3rd 4th October 3, 1796[3]
December 5, 1796[4]
Jeremiah Crabb (F) William Craik (F)
Pennsylvania 5th 4th October 11, 1796[3]
December 8, 1796[4]
Daniel Hiester (D-R) George Ege (F)
Rhode Island At-large 4th November 15, 1796[3][4] Benjamin Bourne (F) Elisha R. Potter (F)
Massachusetts 1st 4th November 21, 1796[3]
January 27, 1797[4]
Theodore Sedgwick (F) Thomson J. Skinner (D-R)
North Carolina 4th 4th November 23, 1796[3]
November 28, 1796[4]
Absalom Tatom (D-R) William Strudwick (F)
Connecticut At-large 4th December 5, 1796[3]
January 3, 1797[4]
Uriah Tracy (F) Samuel W. Dana (F)
Rhode Island At-large 5th November 15, 1796[3]
March 4, 1797
Benjamin Bourne[6] (F) Elisha R. Potter (F)
Connecticut At-large
2 seats
5th April 10, 1797[3]
March 4, 1797[4]
Uriah Tracy[6] (F)
Zephaniah Swift[5] (F)
John Allen (F)
James Davenport (F)
Vermont 1st 5th May 23, 1797[3]
March 4, 1797[4]
Daniel Buck[5] (F) Lewis R. Morris (F)
Massachusetts 11th 5th August 4, 1797[3]
November 27, 1797[4]
Theophilus Bradbury (F) Bailey Bartlett (F)
Rhode Island At-large 5th August 29, 1797[3]
November 13, 1797[4]
Elisha R. Potter (F) Thomas Tillinghast (F)
South Carolina 1st 5th September 4-5, 1797[3]
November 23, 1797[4]
William L. Smith (F) Thomas Pinckney (F)
Connecticut At-large 5th September 18, 1797[3]
November 13, 1797[4]
James Davenport (F) William Edmond (F)
Pennsylvania 5th 5th October 10, 1797[3]
December 1, 1797[4]
George Ege (F) Joseph Hiester (D-R)
New Hampshire At-large 5th October 30, 1797[3]
December 15, 1797[4]
Jeremiah Smith (F) Peleg Sprague (F)
North Carolina 10th 5th August 2, 1798[3]
December 10, 1798[4]
Nathan Bryan (D-R) Richard D. Spaight (D-R)
Pennsylvania 1st 5th October 9, 1798[3]
December 3, 1798[4]
John Swanwick (D-R) Robert Waln (F)
Pennsylvania 4th 5th October 9, 1798[3]
December 4, 1798[4]
Samuel Sitgreaves (F) Robert Brown (D-R)
Connecticut At-large 5th October 22, 1798[3]
December 3, 1798[4]
Joshua Coit (F) Jonathan Brace (F)
Virginia 9th 5th November 1, 1798[3]
December 3, 1798[4]
William B. Giles (D-R) Joseph Eggleston (D-R)
Maryland 7th 6th November 29, 1798[3]
March 4, 1799[4]
Joshua Seney[6] (D-R) Joseph H. Nicholson (D-R)
Connecticut At-large 6th September 16, 1799[3]
March 4, 1799[4]
John Allen[5] (F) Elizur Goodrich (F)
New Hampshire At-large 6th November 18, 1799[3]
March 4, 1799[4]
Peleg Sprague[5] (F) James Sheafe (F)
New York 1st 6th December 27-29, 1799[3]
February 6, 1800[4]
Jonathan N. Havens[5] (D-R) John Smith (D-R)
Virginia 13th 6th July 31, 1800[3]
November 26, 1800[4]
John Marshall (F) Littleton W. Tazewell (D-R)
Connecticut At-large 6th September 15, 1800[3]
November 17, 1800[4]
Jonathan Brace (F) John C. Smith (F)
Massachusetts 10th 6th October 20, 1800[3]
November 25, 1800[4]
Samuel Sewall (F) Nathan Read (F)
New Hampshire At-large 6th October 27, 1800[3]
December 8, 1800[4]
William Gordon (F) Samuel Tenney (F)
Massachusetts 3rd 6th December 15, 1800[3]
February 2, 1801[4]
Samuel Lyman (F) Ebenezer Mattoon (F)
Massachusetts 4th 6th December 15, 1800[3][4] Dwight Foster (F) Levi Lincoln (D-R)
Pennsylvania 8th 6th January 15, 1801[3][4] Thomas Hartley (F) John Stewart (D-R)
Georgia At-large 7th March 23, 1801[3]
March 4, 1801[4]
James Jones[6] (D-R) John Milledge (D-R)
Connecticut At-large 7th April 9, 1801[3]
May 14, 1801[4]
Elizur Goodrich[6] (F) Calvin Goddard (F)
Massachusetts 14th 7th June 22, 1801[3]
March 4, 1801[4]
George Thatcher[5] (F) Richard Cutts (D-R)
North Carolina 8th 7th August 6-7, 1801[3]
March 4, 1801[4]
David Stone[6] (D-R) Charles Johnson (D-R)
Massachusetts 4th 7th August 24, 1801[3]
August 24, 1801[4]
Levi Lincoln[5] (D-R) Seth Hastings (F)
Connecticut At-large 7th September 21, 1801[3]
March 4, 1801[4]
William Edmond[5] (F) Benjamin Tallmadge (F)
New York 5th 7th October 6-8, 1801[3]
October 6, 1801[4]
Thomas Tillotson[5] (D-R) Theodorus Bailey (D-R)
New York 6th 7th October 6-8, 1801[3]
October 6, 1801[4]
John Bird[5] (F) John P. Van Ness (D-R)
Pennsylvania 4th 7th October 13, 1801[3]
March 4, 1801[4]
J.P.G. Muhlenberg[5] (D-R) Isaac Van Horne (D-R)
Pennsylvania 12th 7th October 13, 1801[3]
March 4, 1801[4]
Albert Gallatin[5] (D-R) William Hoge (D-R)
Tennessee At-large 7th October 29-30, 1801[3]
March 4, 1801[4]
William C.C. Claiborne[5] (D-R) William Dickson (D-R)
Maryland 2nd 7th March 2, 1802[3]
March 24, 1802[4]
Richard Sprigg (D-R) Walter Bowie (D-R)
Georgia At-large 7th April 5, 1802[3]
December 6, 1802[4]
Benjamin Taliaferro (D-R) David Meriwether (D-R)
South Carolina 4th 7th April 12-13, 1802[3]
January 24, 1803[4]
Thomas Sumter (D-R) Richard Winn (D-R)
Massachusetts 12th 7th July 29, 1802[3]
December 6, 1802[4]
Silas Lee[5] (F) Samuel Thatcher (F)
New Hampshire At-large 7th August 30, 1802[3]
December 6, 1802[4]
Joseph Peirce (F) Samuel Hunt (F)
North Carolina 8th 7th October 15, 1802[3]
December 7, 1802[4]
Charles Johnson (D-R) Thomas Wynns (D-R)
Georgia At-large 7th December 15, 1802[3]
January 10, 1803[4]
John Milledge[6] (D-R) Peter Early (D-R)
New York 7th 8th April 26-28, 1803[3]
April 28, 1803[4]
John Cantine[6] (F) Josiah Hasbrouck (D-R)
Connecticut At-large 8th September 5, 1803[3]
March 4, 1803[4]
Elias Perkins[5] (F) Simeon Baldwin (F)
New York 6th 8th September 14-16, 1803[3]
October 17, 1803[4]
Isaac Bloom[5] (D-R) Daniel C. Verplanck (D-R)
Georgia At-large 8th October 3, 1803[3]
March 4, 1803[4]
John Milledge[6] (D-R) Joseph Bryan (D-R)
New York 1st 8th April 24-26, 1804[3]
November 5, 1804[4]
John Smith (D-R) Samuel Riker (D-R)
Massachusetts 12th 8th September 17, 1804[3]
November 5, 1804[4]
Thomson J. Skinner (D-R) Simon Larned (D-R)
Virginia 13th 8th October, 1804[3]
November 5, 1804[4]
John Johns Trigg (D-R) Christopher H. Clark (D-R)
Maryland 4th 8th October 1, 1804[3]
November 6, 1804[4]
Daniel Hiester (D-R) Roger Nelson (D-R)
Pennsylvania 10th 8th November 2, 1804[3][4] William Hoge (D-R) John Hoge (D-R)
Virginia 5th 8th November 13, 1804[3]
December 4, 1804[4]
Andrew Moore (D-R) Alexander Wilson (D-R)
New York 3rd 8th January 2-4, 1805[3]
February 14, 1805[4]
Samuel L. Mitchill (D-R) George Clinton (D-R)
New York 2nd & 3rd 9th September 11-13, 1804[3]
March 4, 1805[4]
Daniel D. Tompkins[6] (D-R) Gurdon S. Mumford (D-R)
New York 2nd & 3rd 9th January 2-4, 1805[3]
March 4, 1805
Samuel L. Mitchill[6] (D-R) George Clinton (D-R)
North Carolina 5th 9th August 8, 1805[3]
March 4, 1805[4]
James Gillespie[6] (D-R) Thomas Kenan (D-R)
Connecticut At-large
2 seats
9th September 16, 1805[3][4] Calvin Goddard[5] (F)
Roger Griswold[5] (F)
Timothy Pitkin (F)
Lewis B. Sturges (F)
South Carolina 8th 9th September 26-27, 1805[3]
March 4, 1805[4]
John B. Earle[5] (D-R) Elias Earle (D-R)
Delaware At-large 9th October 1, 1805[3]
March 4, 1805[4]
James A. Bayard[5] (F) James M. Broom (F)
Pennsylvania 4th 9th October 8, 1805[3]
November 7, 1805[4]
John A. Hanna[5] (D-R) Robert Whitehill (D-R)
Pennsylvania 11th 9th October 8, 1805[3]
November 7, 1805[4]
John B. Lucas[5] (D-R) Samuel Smith (D-R)
North Carolina 10th 9th January 23-24, 1806[3]
February 24, 1806[4]
Nathaniel Alexander[5] (D-R) Evan S. Alexander (D-R)
Georgia At-large 9th September 1, 1806[3][4] Joseph Bryan (D-R) Dennis Smelt (D-R)
Connecticut At-large 9th September 15, 1806[3]
December 1, 1806[4]
John C. Smith (F) Theodore Dwight (F)
Maryland 7th 9th September 27/October 4,
1806[3];December 3, 1806[4]
Joseph H. Nicholson (D-R) Edward Lloyd (D-R)
Virginia 13th 9th November, 1806[3]
December 1, 1806[4]
Christopher H. Clark (D-R) William A. Burwell (D-R)
Pennsylvania 1st 9th November 27, 1806[3]
December 8, 1806[4]
Michael Leib (D-R) John Porter (D-R)
Georgia At-large 9th December 1, 1806[3]
January 26, 1807[4]
Thomas Spalding (D-R) William W. Bibb (D-R)
South Carolina 6th 10th June 1-2, 1807[3]
June 2, 1807[4]
Levi Casey[6] (D-R) Joseph C. Calhoun (D-R)
Massachusetts 12th 10th July 13, 1807[3]
September 16, 1807[4]
Barnabas Bidwell[5] (D-R) Ezekiel Bacon (D-R)
Delaware At-large 10th October 6, 1807[3][4] James M. Broom[5] (F) Nicholas Van Dyke (F)
North Carolina 7th 10th February 1, 1808[3]
February 23, 1808[4]
John Culpepper (F) John Culpepper (F)
New Jersey At-large 10th March 8-9, 1808[3]
March 8, 1808[4]
Ezra Darby (D-R) Adam Boyd (D-R)
New York 12th 10th April 26-28, 1808[3]
June 3, 1808[4]
David Thomas (D-R) Nathan Wilson (D-R)
Massachusetts 2nd 10th May 4, 1808[3]
May 23, 1808[4]
Jacob Crowninshield (D-R) Joseph Story (D-R)
Rhode Island At-large 10th August 30, 1808[3]
November 11, 1808[4]
Nehemiah Knight (D-R) Richard Jackson, Jr. (F)
Vermont 4th[7] 10th September 6, 1808[3][4] James Witherell (D-R) Samuel Shaw (D-R)
Virginia 17th 10th September 8, 12, 26, 1808[3]
November 7, 1808[4]
John Claiborne (D-R) Thomas Gholson, Jr. (D-R)
Pennsylvania 1st 10th October 11, 1808[3]
November 16, 1808[4]
Joseph Clay (D-R) Benjamin Say (D-R)
Pennsylvania 1st 11th October 10, 1809[3][4] Benjamin Say (D-R) Adam Seybert (D-R)
Virginia 21st 11th December, 1809[3]
January 17, 1810[4]
Wilson C. Nicholas (D-R) David S. Garland (D-R)
New York 2nd 11th April 24-26, 1810[3]
December 4, 1810[4]
William Denning[5] (D-R) Samuel L. Mitchill (D-R)
Kentucky 5th 11th August 6, 1810[3]
August 8, 1810[4]
Benjamin Howard (D-R) William T. Barry (D-R)
Connecticut At-large 11th September 17, 1810[3]
October 11, 1810[4]
Samuel W. Dana (F) Ebenezer Huntington (F)
Maryland 4th 11th October 1, 1810[3]
October 15, 1810[4]
Roger Nelson (D-R) Samuel Ringgold (D-R)
New Jersey At-large 11th October 30-31, 1810[3]
October 31, 1810[4]
James Cox (D-R) John A. Scudder (D-R)
Massachusetts 10th 11th October 8, 1810[3][4] Jabez Upham (F) Joseph Allen (F)
Massachusetts 11th 11th October 8, 1810[3][4] William Stedman (F) Abijah Bigelow (F)
Virginia 1st 11th November, 1810[3]
December 21, 1810[4]
John G. Jackson (D-R) William McKinley (D-R)
Maryland 7th 11th November 15, 1810[3]
November 29, 1810[4]
John Brown (D-R) Robert Wright (D-R)
South Carolina 1st 11th December 31, 1810[3][4] Robert Marion (D-R) Langdon Cheves (D-R)
Maryland 7th 12th November 15, 1810[3][8]
March 4, 1811
John Brown[6] (D-R) Robert Wright (D-R)
Maryland 6th 12th October 2, 1811[3]
October 26, 1810[4]
John Montgomery[5] (D-R) Stevenson Archer (D-R)
Massachusetts 4th 12th November 4, 1811[3][4] Joseph B. Varnum[5] (D-R) William M. Richardson (D-R)
Massachusetts 17th 12th April 6, 1812[3][4] Barzillai Gannett[5] (D-R) Francis Carr (D-R)
Georgia At-large 12th October 5, 1812[3][4] Howell Cobb (D-R) William Barnett (D-R)
New York 6th 12th December 15-17, 1812[3]
January 29, 1813[4]
Robert L. Livingston (F) Thomas P. Grosvenor (F)
North Carolina 3rd 12th January 11, 1813[3]
January 30, 1813[4]
Thomas Blount (D-R) William Kennedy (D-R)
Pennsylvania 13th 13th February 16, 1813[3]
May 24, 1813[4]
John Smilie[6] (D-R) Isaac Griffin (D-R)
Ohio 6th 13th April 20, 1813[3]
April 20, 1813[4]
John S. Edwards[6] (F) Reasin Beall (D-R)
New York 15th 13th April 27-29, 1813[3]
May 26, 1813[4]
William Dowse[6] (F) John M. Bowers[9] (F)
Kentucky 8th 13th April 29, 1813[3]
April 20, 1813[4]
John Simpson[6] (D-R) Stephen Ormsby (D-R)
Pennsylvania 15th 13th May 4, 1813[3][4] Abner Lacock[6] (D-R) Thomas Wilson (D-R)
Ohio 3rd 13th May 10, 1813[3]
May 4, 1813[4]
Duncan McArthur[5] (D-R) William Creighton (D-R)
Pennsylvania 5th 13th May 11, 1813[3][4] Robert Whitehill[5] (D-R) John Rea (D-R)
Pennsylvania 3rd 13th October 12, 1813[3][4] John Gloninger (F) Edward Crouch (D-R)
Pennsylvania 7th 13th October 12, 1813[3][4] John M. Hyneman (D-R) Daniel Udree (D-R)
Georgia At-large 13th December 13, 1813[3][4] William W. Bibb (D-R) Alfred Cuthbert (D-R)
New York 2nd 13th December 28-30, 1813[3]
January 22, 1814[4]
Egbert Benson (F) William Irving (D-R)
Kentucky 2nd 13th February 28, 1814[3]
March 29, 1814[4]
Henry Clay (D-R) Joseph H. Hawkins (D-R)
Massachusetts 4th 13th May 23, 1814[3]
September 22, 1814[4]
William M. Richardson (D-R) Samuel Dana (D-R)
Virginia 11th 13th June, 1814[3]
September 19, 1814[4]
John Dawson (D-R) Philip P. Barbour (D-R)
Massachusetts 12th 13th August 4, 1814[3]
September 26, 1814[4]
Daniel Dewey (F) John W. Hulbert (F)
New Hampshire At-large 13th August 29, 1814[3] Samuel Smith (F) vacant [10]
Tennessee 5th 13th September 15-16, 1814[3]
September 16, 1814[4]
Felix Grundy (D-R) Newton Cannon (D-R)
New Jersey At-large 13th October 10-11, 1814[3]
November 2, 1814[4]
Jacob Hufty [11] (F) Thomas Bines (D-R)
Ohio 6th 13th October 11, 1814[3][4] Reasin Beall (D-R) David Clendenin (D-R)
Pennsylvania 2nd 13th October 11, 1814[3][4] Jonathan Roberts (D-R) Samuel Henderson (F)
Pennsylvania 3rd 13th October 11, 1814[3][4] James Whitehill (D-R) Amos Slaymaker (F)
Massachusetts 11th 14th 1816-12-02 Elijah Brigham (F) Benjamin Adams (F)
Massachusetts 20th 15th November 4, 1818 Albion K. Parris (D-R) Enoch Lincoln (D-R)
Massachusetts 13th 16th 1820-08-21 Edward Dowse (D-R) William Eustis (D-R)
Massachusetts 10th 18th 1824-12-13 None[12] John Bailey (D-R)
Massachusetts 1st 31st August 22, 1850 Robert C. Winthrop (W) Samuel A. Eliot (W)
Massachusetts 1st 33rd April 17, 1854 Zeno Scudder (W) Thomas D. Eliot (W)
Massachusetts 7th 41st November 2, 1869 George S. Boutwell (R) George M. Brooks (R)
North Carolina 4th 41st August 4, 1870 John T. Deweese (R) Robert B. Gilliam (D) [13]
North Carolina 4th 41st November 26, 1870 John T. Deweese (R) John Manning, Jr. (D)
South Carolina 1st 41st December 12, 1870 Benjamin F. Whittemore (R) Joseph Rainey (R)
Georgia 4th 41st December 22, 1870 Samuel F. Gove (R) Jefferson F. Long (R)
Oregon At-large 43rd December 1, 1873 Joseph G. Wilson (R) James W. Nesmith (D)
Oregon At-large 44th December 6, 1875 None[14] Lafayette Lane (D)
California 3rd 52nd November 8, 1892 Joseph McKenna (R) Samuel G. Hilborn (R)
Massachusetts 13th 55th May 31, 1898 John Simpkins (R) William S. Greene (R)
Utah At-large 56th April 25, 1900 None[15] William H. King (D)
California 2nd 56th November 6, 1900 Marion De Vries (D) Samuel D. Woods (R)
Oregon 1st 58th June 1, 1903 None[16] Binger Hermann (R)
California 3rd 58th November 8, 1904 Victor H. Metcalf (R) Joseph R. Knowland (R)
California 1st 59th November 6, 1906 James Gillett (R) William F. Englebright (R)
California 10th 64th November 7, 1916 William Stephens (R) Henry S. Benedict (R)
California 9th 67th February 15, 1921 None[17] Walter F. Lineberger (R)
California 6th 67th November 7, 1922 John A. Elston (R) James H. MacLafferty (R)
California 1st 68th January 23, 1923 None[18] Mae Nolan (R)
California 10th 68th May 1, 1923 Henry Z. Osborne (R) John D. Fredericks (R)
California 2nd 69th August 31, 1926 John E. Raker (D) Harry Lane Englebright (R)
California 5th 69th August 31, 1926 Lawrence J. Flaherty (R) Richard J. Welch (R)
Oregon 3rd 70th October 18, 1927 Maurice E. Crumpacker (R) Franklin F. Korell (R)
Oregon 2nd 70th November 6, 1928 Nicholas J. Sinnott (R) Robert R. Butler (R)
Arizona At-large 73rd October 3, 1933 Lewis W. Douglas (D) Isabella S. Greenway (D)
California 5th 75th May 4, 1937 Henry E. Stubbs (D) Alfred J. Elliott (D)
Ohio 4th 75th November 8, 1938 Frank L. Kloeb (D) Walter H. Albaugh (R)
Mississippi 2nd 77th November, 1941 Wall Doxey (D) Jamie Whitten (D)
California 17th 77th August 25, 1942 Lee E. Geyer (D) Cecil R. King (D)
California 2nd 78th August 31, 1943 Harry Lane Englebright (R) Clair Engle (D)
Pennsylvania 2nd 78th January 18, 1944 James P. McGranery (D) Joseph M. Pratt (R)
Oregon 1st 79th January 18, 1946 James W. Mott (R) A. Walter Norblad (R)
Ohio 4th 80th November 4, 1947 Robert Franklin Jones (R) William M. McCulloch (R)
California 5th 81st November 8, 1949 Jerry L. Pettis (R) John F. Shelley (D)
Ohio 3rd 82nd November 6, 1951 Edward G. Breen (D) Paul F. Schenck (R)
California 24th 83rd November 10, 1953 Norris Poulson (R) Glenard P. Lipscomb (R)
Michigan 15th 84th December 13, 1955 John D. Dingell, Sr. (D) John D. Dingell, Jr. (D)
Pennsylvania 2nd 85th May 20, 1958 Earl Chudoff (D) Robert Nix (D)
Arizona 2nd 87th May 2, 1961 Stewart Lee Udall (D) Mo Udall (D)
Texas 4th 87th January 30, 1962 Sam Rayburn (D) Ray Roberts (D)
California 1st 88th January 22, 1963 None[19] Donald H. Clausen (R)
California 23rd 88th June 11, 1963 Clyde Doyle (D) Del M. Clawson (R)
California 37th 88th February 18, 1964 John F. Shelley (D) Phillip Burton (D)
Oregon 1st 88th November 3, 1964 A. Walter Norblad (R) Wendell Wyatt[20] (R)
California 26th 89th December 15, 1965 James Roosevelt (D) Thomas M. Rees (D)
California 14th 89th June 7, 1966 John F. Baldwin, Jr. (R) Jerome R. Waldie (D)
California 11th 90th December 12, 1967 J. Arthur Younger (R) Pete McCloskey (R)
California 27th 91st April 29, 1969 Ed Reinecke (R) Barry Goldwater, Jr. (R)
Massachusetts 6th 91st September 30, 1969 William H. Bates (R) Michael J. Harrington (D)
California 24th 91st June 30, 1970 Glenard P. Lipscomb (R) John H. Rousselot (R)
California 15th 91st June 30, 1970 James B. Utt (R) John G. Schmitz (R)
Illinois 6th 91st December 3, 1970 Daniel J. Ronan (D) George W. Collins (D)
Alaska At-large 93rd March 6, 1973 None[21] Don Young (R)
Louisiana 2nd 93rd March 20, 1973 Hale Boggs (D) Lindy Boggs (D)
Illinois 7th 93rd June 5, 1973 George W. Collins (D) Cardiss Collins (D)
Maryland 1st 93rd August 21, 1973 William O. Mills (R) Robert Bauman (R)
Pennsylvania 12th 93rd February 5, 1974 John P. Saylor (R) John Murtha (D)
Michigan 5th 93rd February 18, 1974 Gerald Ford (R) Richard VanderVeen (D)
California 13th 93rd June 4, 1974 Charles M. Teague (R) Robert J. Lagomarsino (R)
Ohio 1st 93rd March 5, 1974 William J. Keating (R) Thomas A. Luken (D)
Michigan 8th 93rd April 16, 1974 R. James Harvey (R) J. Bob Traxler (D)
California 6th 93rd June 4, 1974 William S. Mailliard (R) John L. Burton (D)
California 37th 94th April 29, 1975 Jerry Pettis (R) Shirley N. Pettis (R)
Illinois 5th 94th July 8, 1975 John C. Kluczynski (D) John G. Fary (D)
Tennessee 5th 94th November 25, 1975 Richard H. Fulton (D) Clifford R. Allen (D)
New York 39th 94th March 2, 1976 James F. Hastings (R) Stanley N. Lundine (D)
Texas 22nd 94th April 3, 1976 Rob Casey (D) Ron Paul (R)
Texas 1st 94th June 19, 1976 Wright Patman (D) Sam B. Hall, Jr. (D)
Massachusetts 7th 94th November 2, 1976 Torbert MacDonald (D) Ed Markey[20] (D)
Missouri 6th 94th November 2, 1976 Jerry Litton (D) Earl Thomas Coleman[20] (R)
Pennsylvania 1st 94th November 2, 1976 William A. Barrett (D) Michael Myers[20] (D)
Minnesota 7th 95th February 22, 1977 Bob Bergland (DFL) Arlan Stangeland (R)
Georgia 5th 95th April 6, 1977 Andrew Young (D) Wyche Fowler (D)
Washington 7th 95th May 17, 1977 Brock Adams (D) John E. Cunningham (R)
Louisiana 1st 95th August 27, 1977 Richard A. Tonry (D) Robert L. Livingston (R)
New York 18th 95th February 14, 1978 Edward I. Koch (D) S. William Green (R)
New York 21st 95th February 14, 1978 Herman Badillo (D) Robert Garcia (D)
California 11th 96th April 3, 1979 None[22] William Royer (R)
West Virginia 3rd 96th April 9, 1980 John M. Slack (D) John G. Hutchinson (D)
Illinois 10th 96th January 22, 1980 Abner J. Mikva (D) John Edward Porter (R)
Pennsylvania 11th 96th April 9, 1980 Daniel J. Flood (D) Raphael Musto (D)
Louisiana 3rd 96th May 17, 1980 David C. Treen (R) Billy Tauzin (D)
Michigan 13th 96th November 4, 1980 Charles Diggs (D) George W. Crockett (D)
Michigan 4th 97th April 21, 1981 David Stockman (R) Mark D. Siljander (R)
Maryland 5th 97th May 19, 1981 Gladys Spellman (D) Steny Hoyer (D)
Ohio 4th 97th June 25, 1981 Tennyson Guyer (R) Mike Oxley (R)
Mississippi 4th 97th July 7, 1981 Jon Hinson (R) Wayne Dowdy (D)
Pennsylvania 3rd 97th July 21, 1981 Raymond F. Lederer (D) Joseph F. Smith (D)
Connecticut 1st 97th January 12, 1982 William R. Cotter (D) Barbara B. Kennelly (D)
Ohio 17th 97th June 29, 1982 John M. Ashbrook (R) Jean Ashbrook (R)
California 30th 97th July 13, 1982 George E. Danielson (D) Matthew G. Martinez (D)
Indiana 1st 97th November 2, 1982 Adam Benjamin, Jr. (D) Katie Hall (D)
Texas 6th 98th February 12, 1983 Phil Gramm (D) Phil Gramm[23] (R)
New York 7th 98th March 1, 1983 Benjamin S. Rosenthal (D) Gary L. Ackerman (D)
Colorado 6th 98th March 29, 1983 None[24] Dan Schaefer (R)
California 5th 98th June 21, 1983 Phillip Burton (D) Sala Burton (D)
Illinois 1st 98th August 23, 1983 Harold Washington (D) Charles A. Hayes (D)
Georgia 7th 98th November 8, 1983 Larry McDonald (D) Buddy Darden (D)
Wisconsin 4th 98th April 3, 1984 Clement J. Zablocki (D) Gerald D. Kleczka (D)
Kentucky 7th 98th November 6, 1984 Carl D. Perkins (D) Carl C. Perkins[20] (D)
New Jersey 13th 98th November 6, 1984 Edwin B. Forsythe (R) H. James Saxton[20] (R)
Louisiana 8th 99th March 30, 1985 Gillis W. Long (D) Catherine Small Long (D)
Texas 1st 99th September 4, 1985 Sam B. Hall (D) Jim Chapman (D)
New York 6th 99th July 10, 1986 Joseph P. Addabbo (D) Alton R. Waldon, Jr. (D)
Hawaii 1st 99th September 20, 1986 Cecil Heftel (D) Neil Abercrombie (D)
North Carolina 10th 99th November 4, 1986 James T. Broyhill (R) Cass Ballenger[20] (R)
California 5th 100th June 2, 1987 Sala Burton (D) Nancy Pelosi (D)
Connecticut 4th 100th August 18, 1987 Stewart McKinney (R) Christopher Shays (R)
Louisiana 4th 100th April 16, 1988 Buddy Roemer (D) Jim McCrery (R)
Tennessee 5th 100th January 19, 1988 Bill Boner (D) Bob Clement (D)
Virginia 5th 100th June 14, 1988 Dan Daniel (D) Lewis F. Payne, Jr. (D)
Illinois 21st 100th August 9, 1988 Melvin Price (D) Jerry F. Costello (D)
New Jersey 3rd 100th November 8, 1988 James J. Howard (D) Frank Pallone[20] (D)
Tennessee 2nd 100th November 8, 1988 John J. Duncan, Sr. (R) John J. Duncan, Jr.[20] (R)
Indiana 4th 101st March 28, 1989 Dan Coats (R) Jill L. Long (D)
Alabama 3rd 101st April 4, 1989 Bill Nichols (D) Glen Browder (D)
Wyoming At-large 101st April 26, 1989 Dick Cheney (R) Craig L. Thomas (R)
Florida 18th 101st August 29, 1989 Claude Pepper (D) Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R)
California 15th 101st September 12, 1989 Tony Coelho (D) Gary Condit (D)
Texas 12th 101st September 12, 1989 Jim Wright (D) Pete Geren (D)
Mississippi 5th 101st October 17, 1989 Larkin I. Smith (R) Gene Taylor (D)
Texas 18th 101st December 9, 1989 Mickey Leland (D) Craig Washington (D)
New York 14th 101st March 20, 1990 Guy Molinari (R) Susan Molinari (R)
New York 18th 101st March 20, 1990 Robert Garcia (D) Jose Serrano (D)
Hawaii 2nd 101st September 22, 1990 Daniel Akaka (D) Patsy Mink (D)
New Jersey 1st 101st November 6, 1990 James J. Florio (D) Robert E. Andrews (D)
Texas 3rd 102nd May 18, 1991 Steve Bartlett (R) Sam Johnson (R)
Massachusetts 1st 102nd June 4, 1991 Silvio Conte (R) John Olver (D)
Illinois 15th 102nd July 2, 1991 Edward Madigan (R) Thomas W. Ewing (R)
Pennsylvania 2nd 102nd November 5, 1991 William H. Gray (D) Lucien E. Blackwell (D)
Virginia 7th 102nd November 5, 1991 D. French Slaughter, Jr. (R) George F. Allen (R)
Arizona 2nd 102nd September 24, 1991 Morris Udall (D) Ed Pastor (D)
New York 17th 102nd November 3, 1992 Ted Weiss (D) Jerrold Nadler (D)
North Carolina 1st 102nd November 3, 1992 Walter B. Jones, Sr. (D) Eva Clayton (D)
Mississippi 2nd 103rd April 13, 1993 Mike Espy (D) Bennie Thompson (D)
Wisconsin 1st 103rd May 4, 1993 Les Aspin (D) Peter Barca (D)
Ohio 2nd 103rd May 4, 1993 Bill Gradison (R) Rob Portman (R)
California 17th 103rd June 8, 1993 Leon Panetta (D) Sam Farr (D)
Michigan 3rd 103rd December 7, 1993 Paul B. Henry (R) Vern Ehlers (R)
Oklahoma 6th 103rd May 10, 1994 Glenn English (D) Frank Lucas (R)
Kentucky 2nd 103rd May 24, 1994 William Natcher (D) Ron Lewis (R)
Oklahoma 1st 103rd November 8, 1994 James Inhofe (R) Steve Largent (R)
California 15th 104th December 12, 1995 Norman Mineta (D) Tom Campbell (R)
Illinois 2nd 104th December 12, 1995 Mel Reynolds (D) Jesse Jackson, Jr. (D)
California 37th 104th March 26, 1996 Walter Tucker (D) Juanita Millender-McDonald (D)
Maryland 7th 104th April 16, 1996 Kweisi Mfume (D) Elijah Cummings (D)
Oregon 3rd 104th May 21, 1996 Ron Wyden (D) Earl Blumenauer (D)
Kansas 2nd 104th November 5, 1996 Sam Brownback (R) Jim Ryun (R)
Missouri 8th 104th November 5, 1996 Bill Emerson (R) Jo Ann Emerson (R)
Texas 28th 105th April 12, 1997 Frank Tejeda (D) Ciro Rodriguez (D)
New Mexico 3rd 105th May 13, 1997 Bill Richardson (D) Bill Redmond (R)
New York 13th 105th November 4, 1997 Susan Molinari (R) Vito Fossella (R)
New York 6th 105th February 3, 1998 Floyd Flake (D) Gregory W. Meeks (D)
California 22nd 105th March 10, 1998 Walter Capps (D) Lois Capps (D)
California 9th 105th April 7, 1998 Ron Dellums (D) Barbara Lee (D)
California 44th 105th April 7, 1998 Sonny Bono (R) Mary Bono (R)
Pennsylvania 1st 105th May 19, 1998 Thomas M. Foglietta (D) Bob Brady (D)
New Mexico 1st 105th June 23, 1998 Steven H. Schiff (R) Heather Wilson (R)
Georgia 6th 106th February 23, 1999 Newt Gingrich (R) Johnny Isakson (R)
Louisiana 1st 106th May 29, 1999 Bob Livingston (R) David Vitter (R)
California 42nd 106th November 16, 1999 George Brown, Jr. (D) Joe Baca (D)
Pennsylvania 9th 107th May 15, 2001 Bud Shuster (R) Bill Shuster (R)
California 32nd 107th June 5, 2001 Julian Dixon (D) Diane Watson (D)
Virginia 4th 107th June 19, 2001 Norman Sisisky (D) J. Randy Forbes (R)
Massachusetts 9th 107th October 16, 2001 Joe Moakley (D) Stephen F. Lynch (D)
Florida 1st 107th October 16, 2001 Joe Scarborough (R) Jeff Miller (R)
Arkansas 3rd 107th November 20, 2001 Asa Hutchinson (R) John Boozman (R)
South Carolina 2nd 107th December 18, 2001 Floyd Spence (R) Joe Wilson (R)
Oklahoma 1st 107th January 8, 2002 Steve Largent (R) John Sullivan (R)
Hawaii 2nd 107th November 30, 2002[25] Patsy Mink (D) Ed Case (D)
Hawaii 2nd 108th January 4, 2003[25] Ed Case (D) Ed Case (D)
Texas 19th 108th June 3, 2003 Larry Combest (R) Randy Neugebauer (R)
Kentucky 6th 108th February 17, 2004 Ernie Fletcher (R) Ben Chandler (D)
South Dakota At-large 108th June 1, 2004 Bill Janklow (R) Stephanie Herseth (D)
North Carolina 1st 108th July 20, 2004 Frank Ballance (D) G. K. Butterfield (D)
California 5th 109th March 8, 2005 Bob Matsui (D) Doris Matsui (D)
Ohio 2nd 109th August 2, 2005 Rob Portman (R) Jean Schmidt (R)
California 48th 109th December 6, 2005 Chris Cox (R) John Campbell (R)
California 50th 109th June 6, 2006 Randy "Duke" Cunningham (R) Brian P. Bilbray (R)
New Jersey 13th 109th November 7, 2006 Bob Menendez (D) Albio Sires (D)
Texas 22nd 109th November 7, 2006 Tom DeLay (R) Shelley Sekula-Gibbs (R)
Georgia 10th 110th July 19, 2007 Charlie Norwood (R) Paul Broun, Jr. (R)
California 37th 110th August 21, 2007 Juanita Millender-McDonald (D) Laura Richardson (D)
Massachusetts 5th 110th October 16, 2007 Marty Meehan (D) Niki Tsongas (D)
Ohio 5th 110th December 11, 2007 Paul Gillmor (R) Bob Latta (R)
Virginia 1st 110th December 11, 2007 Jo Ann Davis (R) Rob Wittman (R)
Illinois 14th 110th March 8, 2008 Dennis Hastert (R) Bill Foster (D)
Indiana 7th 110th March 11, 2008 Julia Carson (D) André Carson (D)
California 12th 110th April 8, 2008 Tom Lantos (D) Jackie Speier (D)
Louisiana 1st 110th May 3, 2008 Bobby Jindal (R) Steve Scalise (R)
Louisiana 6th 110th May 3, 2008 Richard Baker (R) Don Cazayoux (D)
Mississippi 1st 110th May 13, 2008 Roger Wicker (R) Travis Childers (D)
Maryland 4th 110th June 17, 2008 Albert Wynn (D) Donna Edwards (D)
Ohio 11th 110th November 18, 2008 Stephanie Tubbs Jones (D) Marcia Fudge (D)
New York 20th 111th March 31, 2009 Kirsten Gillibrand (D) Scott Murphy (D)
Illinois 5th 111th April 7, 2009 Rahm Emanuel (D) Michael Quigley (D)
California 32nd 111th July 14, 2009 Hilda Solis (D) Judy Chu (D)
California 10th 111th November 3, 2009 Ellen Tauscher (D) John Garamendi (D)
New York 23rd 111th November 3, 2009 John M. McHugh (R) Bill Owens (D)
Florida 19th 111th April 13, 2010 Robert Wexler (D) TBD
Hawaii 1st 111th TBD Neil Abercrombie (D) TBD

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The two additional special elections were held in states which had not then been re-admitted to representation in Congress, after the Civil War. Those elections were rejected by the House of Representatives.
  2. ^ For elections prior to 1901, the date of election was not typically recorded, so the date the Representative was seated is provided.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo Date of election [source: United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results, by Michael J. Dubin (McFarland and Company, 1998)].
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej Date given for the start of the term, of the person elected at the special election (source: Congressional Biographical Directory). In some cases this is clearly wrong as the date of the legal start of the Congress is given, even though the member was elected at a later date.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Congressman-elect, who served after the start of the Congress but vacated the seat without being sworn in.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Congressman-elect, who vacated the seat before the start of the Congress.
  7. ^ VT-4 10th C.: An alternative source suggests Vermont elected its Representatives at-large for this Congress, see Vermont At-large<.
  8. ^ MD-7 12th C.: The vacancies, for the remainder of the 11th Congress and the whole of the 12th Congress, were both filled by one ballot. This was the first of three examples of this method being used in Congressional special elections.
  9. ^ NY-15 13th C.: Bowers election was challenged by Isaac Williams, Jr. (D-R). Williams was seated in place of Bowers on December 20, 1813.
  10. ^ NH-AL 13th C.: Samuel Smith resigned on May 21, 1814 (although the resignation is not mentioned in the Congressional Biographical Directory). At the special election no candidate received the more than 50% of the votes required to be elected. The seat appears to have been left vacant for the remainder of the Congress.
  11. ^ NJ-AL 13th C.: Jacob Hufty was elected from the 3rd District, but by the time of the special election the legislature had reinstated at-large elections. This was the secomd of three cases when the special election was held on a different basis than the general election.
  12. ^ MA-10 18th C.: Bailey had presented credentials as a Member-elect, but the election was contested on the ground that he was not a resident of the district he purported to represent, and the House declared he was not entitled to the seat. He returned to a home in the district and was subsequently elected. See Bioguide.
  13. ^ Gilliam died before taking office, necessitating the Nov. 26 special election.
  14. ^ Democrat George A. La Dow was elected, but died before Congress convened.
  15. ^ Democrat Brigham Henry Roberts was elected, but was not allowed to take office because he practiced polygamy.
  16. ^ Republican Thomas H. Tongue was elected, but died before the new Congress convened.
  17. ^ Republican Charles F. Van de Water was elected, but died before Congress convened.
  18. ^ Republican John I. Nolan was re-elected, but died before the new Congress convened.
  19. ^ Democrat Clement Woodnutt Miller was re-elected, but died before the new Congress convened.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i Unable to be sworn in for this Congress because the House had adjourned.
  21. ^ Democrat Nick Begich was lost in a plane crash on October 16, 1972, was re-elected posthumously, and was declared dead before the new Congress convened.
  22. ^ Democrat Leo J. Ryan was re-elected, but was murdered in Jonestown before the new Congress convened.
  23. ^ Resigned as a Democrat, reelected as a Republican.
  24. ^ District created following the 1980 Census. Republican Jack Swigert died before taking office.
  25. ^ a b Mink had been re-elected posthumously in the November 2002 election. Case was elected in a special election on November 30, 2002 to fill out her term in the 107th Congress and again on January 4, 2003 to fill out her term in the 108th Congress.

Sources and external links

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