The world's tallest structure is the 828 m (2,717 ft) tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The building gained the official title of "Tallest Building in the World" at its opening on 4 January 2010. It is taller than any other man-made structure ever built.
The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, one organization that certifies buildings as the "World’s Tallest", recognizes a building only if at least fifty percent of its height is made up of floor plates containing habitable floor area. Structures that do not meet this criterion, such as the CN Tower, are defined as "towers".
There are dozens of radio and television broadcasting towers which measure over 600 metres (about 2,000 ft) in height, and only the tallest are recorded in publicly available information sources.
When assessing the placings of structures, there is some debate about:
For buildings, there is debate over:
This category does not require the structure be "officially" opened.
The tallest man-made structure is Burj Khalifa, a skyscraper in Dubai that reached 828 m (2,717 ft) in height on 17 January 2009. By 7 April 2008 it had been built higher than the KVLY-TV mast in North Dakota, USA. That September it officially surpassed Poland's 646.38 m (2,120.7 ft) Warsaw radio mast, which stood from 1974 to 1991, to become the tallest structure ever built. Guyed lattice towers such as these masts had held the world height record since 1954.
The CN Tower in Toronto, Canada, standing at 553.3 m (1,815 ft), was formerly the world's tallest completed freestanding structure on land. Opened in 1976, it was surpassed in height by the rising Burj Khalifa on 12 September 2007. It has the world's second highest public observation deck at 446.5 m (1,465 ft).
The Petronius Platform stands 610 m (2,000 ft) off the sea floor leading some, including Guinness World Records 2007, to claim it as the tallest freestanding structure in the world. However, it is debated whether underwater height should be discounted in the same manner as height below ground is ignored on buildings. The Troll A platform is 472 m (1,549 ft), without any part of that height being supported by wires. The tension-leg type of oil platform has even greater below-water heights with several examples more than 1,000 m (3,300 ft) deep. However, these platforms are not considered constant structures as the vast majority of their height is made up of the length of the tendons attaching the floating platforms to the sea floor. Despite this, Guinness World Records 2009 listed the Ursa tension leg platform as the tallest structure in the world with a total height of 1,306 m (4,285 ft). The Magnolia Tension-leg Platform in the Gulf of Mexico is even taller with a total height of 1,432 m (4,698 ft).
Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, was the world's tallest inhabited building in only one of the four main categories that are commonly measured: at 509.2 m (1,671 ft) as measured to its architectural height (spire). The height of its roof, 449.2 m (1,474 ft), and highest occupied floor, 439.2 m (1,441 ft), had been overtaken by the Shanghai World Financial Center with corresponding heights of 487 m (1,598 ft) and 474 m (1,555 ft) respectively. Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) was highest in the final category: the greatest height to top of antenna of any building in the world at 527.3 m (1,730 ft).
Burj Khalifa broke the height record in all four categories for completed buildings by a wide margin. The Shanghai World Financial Center had the world's highest roof, highest occupied floor, and the world's highest public observation deck at 474.2 m (1,556 ft). It retains the latter record, as Burj Khalifa's official observation deck will be at 442 m (1,450 ft).
Due to the disagreements over how to measure height and classify structures, engineers have created various definitions for categories of buildings and other structures. One measure includes the absolute height of a building, another includes only spires and other permanent architectural features, but not antennas. The tradition of including the spire on top of a building and not including the antenna dates back to the rivalry between the Chrysler Building and 40 Wall Street. A modern-day example is that the antenna on top of Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) is not considered part of its architectural height, while the spires on top of the Petronas Twin Towers are counted.
Note: The following table is a list of the tallest structure in each of the categories below.There can only be one structure in each category, unless the title for the tallest is a draw.
|Category||Structure||Country||City||Height (metres)||Height (feet)||Year Built||Coordinates|
|Skyscraper - all categories||Burj Khalifa||United Arab Emirates||Dubai||828||2,717||2009|
|Guyed Mast||KVLY-TV mast||United States||Blanchard, North Dakota||628.8||2,063||1963|
|Concrete tower (Topped out)||Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Tower||China||Guangzhou||610||2,001||2009|
|Concrete tower||CN Tower||Canada||Toronto||553.3||1,815||1976|
|Tower for scientific research||BREN Tower||United States||Nevada Test Site||462||1,516||1962|
|Mast radiator||Lualualei VLF transmitter||United States||Lualualei||458||1,503||1962||;|
|Twin towers||Petronas Twin Towers||Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||452||1,482||1998||;|
|Chimney||GRES-2 Power Station||Kazakhstan||Ekibastusz||419.7||1,377||1987|
|Radar||Dimona Radar Facility||Israel||Dimona||400||1,312||2008||?|
|Guyed tubular steel mast||Belmont transmitting station||United Kingdom||Donington on Bain||387.7||1,272||1965|
|Lattice tower||Kiev TV Tower||Ukraine||Kiev||385||1,263||1973|
|Partially guyed tower||Gerbrandy Tower||Netherlands||IJsselstein||366.8||1,203||1961|
|Electricity pylon||Yangtze River Crossing, Jiangyin||China||Jiangyin||346.5||1,137||2004||;|
|Bridge pillar||Millau Viaduct||France||Millau||342||1,122||2004|
|Concrete dam||Grande Dixence Dam||Switzerland||Val d'Hérens||285||935||1965|
|Electricity pylon built of concrete||Nanjing Yangtze River Crossing||China||Nanjing||257||843||1992||;|
|Clock tower||NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building||Japan||Tokyo||240||790||2000|
|Electricity pylon for DC||Wuhan Yangtze River Crossing||China||Wuhan||229||751||2003||;|
|Minaret||Hassan II Mosque||Morocco||Casablanca||210||689||1993|
|Wind turbine||Fuhrländer Wind Turbine Laasow||Germany||Laasow, Brandenburg||205||673||2006|
|Cooling tower||Niederaussem Power Station||Germany||Niederaussem||200||656||2003|
|Monument||Gateway Arch||United States||St. Louis, Missouri||192||630||1965|
|Masonry tower||Anaconda Smelter Stack||United States||Anaconda, Montana||178.3||585||1919|
|Obelisk||San Jacinto Monument||United States||Deer Park, Texas||173.7||570||1939|
|Church building||Chicago Temple Building||United States||Chicago||173||568||1924|
|Masonry building||Mole Antonelliana||Italy||Torino||167||548||1889|
|Masonry building||Philadelphia City Hall||United States||Philadelphia||167||548||1901|
|Ferris wheel||Singapore Flyer||Singapore||Singapore||165||541.3||2008|
|Church tower||Ulm Minster||Germany||Ulm||162||530||1890|
|Industrial hall||Vehicle Assembly Building||United States||Kennedy Space Center||160||525||1966|
|Memorial cross||Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos||Spain||El Escorial||152.4||500||1957|
|Roller coaster||Kingda Ka||United States||Jackson, New Jersey||138.98||456||2005|
|Tomb||Great Pyramid of Giza||Egypt||Giza, Cairo||138.8||455.2||2560 BCE|
|Dome||St Peter's Basilica dome||Vatican City||Vatican City, Rome||136.57||448.06||1626|
|Air traffic control tower||Suvarnabhumi Airport control tower||Thailand||Bangkok||132.2||433.7||2006|
|Flagpole, free-standing||Ashgabat Flagpole||Turkmenistan||Ashgabat||133||436.4||2008||?|
|Statue (including pedestal)||Ushiku Daibutsu Bronze Buddha Statue||Japan||Ushiku||120||394||1995|
|Storage silo||Henninger Turm||Germany||Frankfurt||120||394||1961|
|Sculpture||Spire of Dublin||Ireland||Dublin||120||393||2003|
|Wooden structure||Gliwice Radio Tower||Poland||Gliwice||118||387||1935|
|Aerial tramway support tower||Pillar of third section of Gletscherbahn Kaprun||Austria||Kaprun||113.6||373||1966|
|Electricity pylon for single phase AC||Bremen-Industriehafen Traction Current Powerline Crossing||Germany||Bremen||111||364||?||;|
|Lighthouse||Yokohama Marine Tower||Japan||Yokohama||106||348||1961|
|Statue (not including pedestal)||The Mamayev Monument||Russia||Volgograd||82||269||1967|
|Brick lighthouse||Torre della Lanterna||Italy||Genoa||77||253||1128|
|Brick minaret||Qutub Minar||India||Delhi||72.5||237.8||1386|
|Electricity pylon, prefabricated concrete||Pylon 310 of powerline Innertkirchen-Littau-Mettlen||Switzerland||Littau||59.5||195.2||1990|
There are some destroyed architectural structures which were taller than the tallest existing structure of their type.
|Category||Structure||Country||City||Height (metres)||Height (feet)||Coordinates||Remarks|
|Guyed mast||Warsaw Radio Mast||Poland||Gąbin||646.38||2,121||completed in 1974, collapsed on 8 August 1991|
|Guyed tubular steel mast||Shushi-Wan Omega Transmitter||Japan||Tsushima||389||1,276||completed in 1973, dismantled in 1998|
|Structure for destructive scientific experiment||Smoky Shot Tower||United States||Nevada Test Site||213||700||Guyed mast, which carried 44 kt yield nuclear bomb "Smoky" ( part of operation Plumbbob) on top until its explosion on August 31, 1957|
|Wooden structure||Mühlacker Wood Radio Tower||Germany||Mühlacker||190||623||completed in 1934, destroyed on April 6, 1945, by the Germans to prevent usage by the Allies, replaced by mast radiator|
|Masonry building||Mole Antonelliana||Italy||Torino||167.5||549.5||spire destroyed by a tornado in 1953 (Rebuilt since then).|
|Pre-Industrial Era building||Lincoln Cathedral||England||Lincoln||160||524||completed in 1311, spire blown off in 1549|
|Lighthouse||Lighthouse of Alexandria||Egypt||Alexandria||115-135||377-443||completed in 279 BC, destroyed by an earthquake in 1323|
|Category||Structure||Country||City||Architectural top (metres)||Architectural top (feet)|
|Mixed-Use*||Burj Khalifa||United Arab Emirates||Dubai||828||2,717|
|Hotel||Rose Tower||United Arab Emirates||Dubai||333||1,093|
|Educational||Moscow State University||Russia||Moscow||240||787|
|Hospital||Guy's Hospital||United Kingdom||London||143||468|
* Mixed-Use is defined as having three or more real estate uses (such as retail, office, hotel, etc.) that are physically and functionally integrated in a single property and are mutually supporting.
Up until 1998 the tallest building status was essentially uncontested. Counting buildings as structures with floors throughout, and with antenna masts excluded, Willis Tower (previously Sears Tower) in Chicago was considered the tallest. When the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were built, controversy arose because the spire extended nine metres higher than the roof of Willis Tower. Excluding the spire, the Petronas Towers are not taller than Willis Tower. At their convention in Chicago, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) reduced Willis Tower from world's tallest and pronounced it not second tallest, but third, and pronounced Petronas as world's tallest. This action caused a considerable amount of controversy, so CTBUH defined four categories in which the world's tallest building can be measured:
The height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance. At the time, the Willis Tower held first place in the second and third categories, the Petronas Towers held the first category and the original World Trade Towers held the fourth. Within months, however, a new antenna mast was placed on the Willis Tower, giving it hold of the fourth category. On April 20, 2004, Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, was completed. Its completion gave it the world record for the first three categories. On July 21, 2007 it was announced that Burj Khalifa had surpassed Taipei 101 in height, reaching 512 m (1,680 ft).
Since completed in early 2010, Burj Khalifa leads in all categories (the first building to do so). With a spire height of 828 m (2,717 ft), Burj Khalifa surpassed Taipei 101 as the tallest building to architectural detail and the Willis Tower as the tallest building to tip. It also leads in the category of highest occupied floor.
Before Burj Khalifa was completed, Willis Tower led in the fourth category with 527 m (1,729 ft), previously held by the World Trade Center until the extension of the Chicago tower's western broadcast antenna in 2000, over a year prior to the World Trade Center's destruction in 2001. Its antenna mast included, One World Trade Center measured 526 m (1,726 ft). The World Trade Center became the world's tallest buildings to be destroyed or demolished; indeed, its site entered the record books twice on September 11, 2001, in that category, replacing the Singer Building, which once stood a block from the WTC site.
Structures such as the CN Tower, the Ostankino Tower and the Oriental Pearl Tower are excluded from these categories because they are not "habitable buildings", which are defined as frame structures made with floors and walls throughout.
|Date (Event)||Architectural top||Highest occupied floor||Roof||Tip|
|2010: Burj Khalifa completed||Burj Khalifa||Burj Khalifa||Burj Khalifa|
|2009: CTBUH omits Height to Roof category||Taipei 101||Shanghai World Financial Center||Willis Tower|
|2008: Shanghai World Financial Center completed||Taipei 101||Shanghai World Financial Center||Shanghai World Financial Center||Willis Tower|
|2003: Taipei 101 completed||Taipei 101||Taipei 101||Taipei 101||Willis Tower|
|2000: Willis Tower antenna extension||Petronas Towers||Willis Tower||Willis Tower||Willis Tower|
|1998: Petronas Towers completed||Petronas Towers||Willis Tower||Willis Tower||World Trade Center|
|1996: CTBUH defines categories||Willis Tower||Willis Tower||Willis Tower||World Trade Center|
Freestanding structures include observation towers, monuments and other structures not generally considered to be "Habitable buildings", but excludes supported structures such as guyed masts and ocean drilling platforms. (See also history of tallest skyscrapers.)
The world's tallest freestanding structure on land is defined as the tallest self-supporting man-made structure that stands above ground. This definition is different from that of world's tallest building or world's tallest structure based on the percent of the structure that is occupied and whether or not it is self-supporting or supported by exterior cables. Likewise, this definition does not count structures that are built underground or on the seabed, such as the Petronius Platform in the Gulf of Mexico. Visit world's tallest structure by category for a list of various other definitions.
As of 12 May 2008, the tallest freestanding structure on land is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The building, which now stands at 828 m (2,717 ft), surpassed the height of the previous record holder, the 553.3 m (1,815 ft) CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, on September 12, 2007. It was completed in 2010, and was topped out at 828 m (2,717 ft) in January 2009.
The following is a list of structures that have held the title as the tallest freestanding structure on land. (See also Timeline of three tallest structures in the world until Empire State Building).
|record from||record to||Name and Location||Constructed||Height (metres)||Height (feet)||Coordinates||Notes|
|c. 2700 BCE||c. 2600 BCE||Pyramid of Djoser, Egypt||c. 2700 BCE||62||203|
|c. 2600 BCE||c. 2570 BCE||Red Pyramid of Sneferu, Egypt||c. 2600 BCE||105||345|
|c. 2570 BCE||c. 1311 AD||Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt||c. 2570 BCE||146||481||By 1439, the Great Pyramid had eroded to a height of approximately 139 m (456 ft).|
|1311||1549||Lincoln Cathedral in England||1092–1311||160||525||The central spire was destroyed in a storm in 1549. While the reputed height of 525 ft (160 m) is doubted by A.F. Kendrick, other sources agree on this height.|
|1549||1625||St. Olaf's Church in Tallinn, Estonia||1438–1519||159||522||The spire burnt down after a lightning strike in 1625 and was rebuilt several times. The height is 123 m (404 ft) .|
|1625||1647||St. Mary's Church in Stralsund, Germany||1384–1478||151||495||The spire burnt down after a lightning strike in 1647. The height is 104 m (341 ft) .|
|1647||1874||Strasbourg Cathedral in France||1439||142||469|
|1874||1876||St. Nikolai in Hamburg, Germany||1846–1874||147||483|
|1876||1880||Cathédrale Notre Dame in Rouen, France||1202–1876||151||495|
|1880||1884||Cologne Cathedral in Germany||1248–1880||157||515||;|
|1884||1889||Washington Monument in Washington D.C., United States||1884||169||555|
|1889||1930||Eiffel Tower in Paris, France||1889||300||986||First structure to exceed 300 metres in height. The addition of a telecommunications tower in the 1950s brought the overall height to 324 m (1,063 ft).|
|1930||1931||Chrysler Building in New York, United States||1928–1930||319||1,046|
|1931||1967||Empire State Building in New York, United States||1930–1931||381||1,250||First building with 100+ stories. The addition of a pinnacle and antennas later increased its overall height to 448.7 m (1,472 ft). This was subsequently lowered to 443.1 m (1,454 ft).|
|1967||1975||Ostankino Tower in Moscow, Russia||1963–1967||537||1,762||Remains the tallest in Europe. Fire in 2000 led to extensive renovation.|
|1975||2007||CN Tower in Toronto, Canada||1973–1976||553||1,815||Remains the tallest in the Western Hemisphere|
|2007||present||Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates||2004–2009||828||2,717||Holder of world's tallest freestanding structure. Topped out at 828 m (2,717 ft).|
Notable mentions include the Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria, built in the third century BCE and estimated between 115–135 m (383–440 ft). It was the world's tallest non-pyramidal building for many centuries. Another notable mention includes the Jetavanaramaya stupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, which was built in the third century, and was similarly tall at 122 m (400 ft). These were both the world's tallest or second tallest non-pyramidal buildings for over a thousand years.
The tallest secular building between the collapse of the Pharos and the erection of the Washington Monument may have been the Torre del Mangia in Siena, which is 102 m (335 ft) tall, and was constructed in the first half of the fourteenth century, and the 97 m (318 ft) tall Torre degli Asinelli in Bologna, also Italy, built between 1109 and 1119.
Timeline of development of world's highest observation deck since inauguration of Eiffel Tower.
|Held record||Name and Location||Constructed||Height above ground (m)||Height above ground (ft)||Notes|
|1889||1931||Eiffel Tower, Paris, France||1889||275||902||Two further observation decks at 57 m (187 ft) and 115 m (377 ft).|
|1931||1973||Empire State Building, New York City, USA||1931||369||1211||A second observation deck is located on the 86th floor at 320 m (1,050 ft).|
|1973||1976||World Trade Center, New York City, USA||1973||420||1378||Destroyed during the September 11, 2001 attacks|
|1976||2008||CN Tower, Toronto, Canada||1976||446.5||1464.9||Two further observation decks at 342 m (1,122 ft) and 346 m (1,135 ft).|
|2008||present||Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China||2008||474||1555||Other observation decks are at 423 m (1,388 ft) and 439 m (1,440 ft).
Note: Burj Khalifa, opened on 4 January 2010, has the world's highest outdoor observation deck at 442 m (1,450 ft).
Higher observation decks have existed on mountain peaks or cliffs, rather than on tall structures. For example, the Royal Gorge Bridge in Cañon City, Colorado, USA, was constructed in 1929 spanning the Royal Gorge at a height of 321 m (1,053 ft) above the Arkansas River.
As most of the tallest structures are guyed masts and the absolute height record of architectural structures on land is since 1954 kept by them, here is a timeline of world's tallest guyed masts, since the beginning of radio technology.
As many large guyed masts were destroyed at the end of World War II, the dates for the years between 1945 and 1950 may be incorrect. If Wusung Radio Tower survived World War II, it was the tallest guyed structure shortly after World War II.
|Held record||Name and Location||Constructed||Height (m)||Height (ft)||Coordinates||Notes|
|1913||1920||Central mast of Eilvese transmitter, Eilvese, Germany||1913||250||820||Mast was divided in 145 m by an insulator, demolished in 1931|
|1920||1923||Central masts of Nauen Transmitter Station, Nauen, Germany||1920||260||853||2 masts, demolished in 1946|
|1923||1933||Masts of Ruiselede transmitter, Ruiselede, Belgium||1923||287||942||?||8 masts, destroyed in 1940|
|1933||1939||Lakihegy Tower, Lakihegy, Hungary||1933||314||1,031||Blaw-Knox Tower, insulated against ground, destroyed in 1945, afterwards rebuilt|
|1939||1946||Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elster, Herzberg (Elster), Germany||1939||335||1,099||Insulated against ground, dismantled 1946/1947|
|1946||1948||Lakihegy Tower, Lakihegy, Hungary||1946||314||1,031||Blaw-Knox Tower, Insulated against ground, rebuilt after destruction in 1945|
|1948||1949||WIVB-TV Tower, Colden, New York, USA||1948||321.9||1,056|
|1949||1950||Longwave transmitter Raszyn, Raszyn, Poland||1949||335||1,099||Insulated against ground|
|1950||1954||Forestport Tower, Forestport, New York, USA||1950||371.25||1,218||Insulated against ground, demolished|
|1954||1959||Griffin Television Tower Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA||1954||480.5||1,576|
|1956||1959||KOBR-TV Tower, Caprock, New Mexico, USA||1956||490.7||1,610||Collapsed in 1960, afterwards rebuilt|
|1959||1960||WGME TV Tower, Raymond, Maine, USA||1959||495||1,624|
|1960||1962||KFVS TV Mast, Cape Girardeau County, Missouri, USA||1960||511.1||1,677|
|1962||1963||WTVM/WRBL-TV & WVRK-FM Tower, Cusseta, Georgia, USA||1962||533||1,749|
|1963||1963||WIMZ-FM-Tower, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA||1963||534.01||1,752|
|1963||1974||KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA||1963||628.8||2,063|
|1974||1991||Warsaw Radio Mast, Gąbin, Poland||1974||646.4||2,121||Mast radiator insulated against ground, collapsed in 1991|
|1991||KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA||1963||628.8||2,063|
The list categories are:
|Rank||Name and location||Year
|1||KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, United States||1963||629||2,064||–|
|2||KXJB-TV mast, Galesburg, North Dakota, United States||1998||628||2,060||–|
|3||KXTV/KOVR Tower, Walnut Grove, California, United States||2000||625||2,051||–|
|Structures (media supported)|
|1||Petronius Platform, Gulf of Mexico||2000||610||2,000||–|
|2||Baldpate Platform, Gulf of Mexico||1998||580||1,900||–|
|3||Bullwinkle Platform, Gulf of Mexico||1989||529||1,736||–|
|1||Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates||2010||828||2,717||160|
|2||Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Tower, Guangzhou, China (topped out)||2009||610||2,000||–|
|3||CN Tower, Toronto, Ontario, Canada||1976||553||1,814||–|
|4||Ostankino Tower, Moscow, Russia||1967||540||1,770||–|
|5||Willis Tower, Chicago, United States||1974||527||1,729||108|
|6||Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan||2003||509||1,670||101|
|7||Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China||2008||492||1,614||101|
|8||Oriental Pearl Tower, Shanghai, China||1996||468||1,535||–|
|9||John Hancock Center, Chicago, United States||1969||457||1,499||100|
|10||Petronas Tower I, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia||1998||452||1,483||88|
|Petronas Tower II, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia||1998||452||1,483||88|
|12||Nanjing Greenland Financial Center, Nanjing, China||2009||450||1,480||89|
|13||Empire State Building, New York City, United States||1931||443||1,453||102|
|14||Milad Tower, Tehran, Iran||2007||435||1,427||–|
|15||Kuala Lumpur Tower, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia||1995||421||1,381||–|
|16||Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, China||1998||421||1,381||88|
|17||Chimney of GRES-2 Power Station, Ekibastuz, Kazakhstan||1987||420||1,380||–|
|18||Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong||2003||415||1,362||88|
|19||Tianjin Radio and Television Tower, Tianjin, China||1991||415||1,362||–|
|20||Central TV Tower, Beijing, China||1992||405||1,329||–|
|1||Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates||2010||828||2,717||160|
|2||Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan||2003||509||1,670||101|
|3||Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China||2008||492||1,614||101|
|4||Petronas Tower I, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia||1998||452||1,483||88|
|Petronas Tower II, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia||1998||452||1,483||88|
|6||Nanjing Greenland Financial Center, Nanjing, China||2009||450||1,480||89|
|7||Willis Tower, Chicago, United States||1974||442||1,450||108|
|8||Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, China||1998||421||1,381||88|
|9||Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong||2003||415||1,362||88|
|10||CITIC Plaza, Guangzhou, China||1997||391||1,283||80|
|11||Shun Hing Square, Shenzhen, China||1996||384||1,260||69|
|12||Empire State Building, New York City, United States||1931||381||1,250||102|
|13||Central Plaza, Hong Kong||1992||374||1,227||78|
|14||Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong||1990||367||1,204||70|
|15||Bank of America Tower, New York City, United States||2008||366||1,201||54|
|16||Almas Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates||2008||360||1,180||74|
|17||Emirates Office Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates||2000||355||1,165||54|
|18||Tuntex Sky Tower, Kaohsiung, Taiwan||1997||348||1,142||85|
|19||Aon Center, Chicago, United States||1973||346||1,135||83|
|20||The Center, Hong Kong||1998||346||1,135||73|
|21||John Hancock Center, Chicago, United States||1969||344||1,129||100|
|22||Rose Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates||2007||333||1,093||72|
|Shimao International Plaza, Shanghai, China||2006||333||1,093||60|
|24||Minsheng Bank Building, Wuhan, China||2007||331||1,086||68|
|25||Ryugyong Hotel, Pyongyang, North Korea (topped out)||1992||330||1,080||105|
|China World Trade Center Tower 3, Beijing, China||2008||330||1,080||74|
|27||Q1, Gold Coast, Australia||2005||323||1,060||78|
|28||Burj Al Arab, Dubai, United Arab Emirates||1999||321||1,053||60|
|29||Chrysler Building, New York City, United States||1930||319||1,047||77|
|Nina Tower I, Hong Kong||2007||319||1,047||80|
|New York Times Building, New York City, United States||2007||319||1,047||52|
|32||Bank of America Plaza, Atlanta, United States||1992||312||1,024||55|
|33||Kingdom Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia||2000||311||1,020||41|
|34||U.S. Bank Tower, Los Angeles, United States||1989||310||1,020||73|
|35||Menara Telekom, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia||2001||310||1,020||55|
|36||Jumeirah Emirates Towers Hotel, Dubai, United Arab Emirates||2000||309||1,014||56|
|37||One Island East, Hong Kong||2008||308||1,010||70|
|38||AT&T Corporate Center, Chicago, United States||1989||307||1,007||60|
|39||The Address Downtown Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates||2008||306||1,004||63|
|40||JPMorgan Chase Tower, Houston, United States||1982||305||1,001||75|
Numerous supertall skyscrapers are in various stages of proposal, planning, or construction. Each of the following are under construction and, depending on the order of completion, could become the world's tallest building or structure in at least one category:
Many proposed structures have not yet been built, and many probably never will be built. See proposed tall buildings and structures for structures that have been or are being proposed.