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The longest large tunnels in the world have been constructed for water distribution, followed by tunnels for railways; both uses of which are highly sensitive to gradients.

Contents

World's longest tunnels (in use)

Name Location Length Type Year Comment
Delaware Aqueduct United States New York (state), USA 137,000 m (85.1 mi) Water supply 1945 water supply tunnel, drilled through solid rock
Päijänne Water Tunnel Finland Southern Finland, Finland 120,000 m (74.6 mi) Water supply 1982 16 m2 cross section
Orange–Fish River Tunnel South Africa South Africa 82,800 m (51.4 mi) Water supply 1972 longest continuous enclosed aqueduct in the southern hemisphere (22.5 m2 cross section)
Bolmen Water Tunnel Sweden Kronoberg/Scania, Sweden 82,000 m (51.0 mi) Water supply 1987 8 m2
Seikan Tunnel Japan Tsugaru Strait, Japan 53,850 m (33.5 mi) Railway 1988 longest railway tunnel, longest narrow gauge tunnel, 74 m2
Želivka Water Tunnel[1] Czech Republic Central Bohemian Region, Czech Republic 51,075 m (31.7 mi) Water supply 1972 5 m2
Channel Tunnel United Kingdom France English Channel, United KingdomFrance 50,450 m (31.3 mi) Railway 1994 longest underwater section, longest international tunnel, longest standard-gauge railway tunnel (2×45 m2 + 1×18 m2)
Altufyevo - Bulvar Dmitriya Donskogo (line 9) Russia Moscow Metro 41,500 m (25.8 mi) Metro 1983-2002
Metro Madrid L-12: (Metro Sur) Spain Madrid, Spain 40,900 m (25.4 mi) Metro 1999-2003
Tocho-mae - Shiodome - Hikarigaoka (Toei Oedo Line)[citation needed] Japan Tokyo, Japan 40,700 m (25.3 mi) Metro 1991-2000
Quabbin Aqueduct United States Massachusetts (state), United States 39,600 m (24.6 mi) Water supply 1897-1905
Medvedkovo - Bittsevsky Park (line 6) Russia Moscow Metro 37,600 m (23.4 mi) Metro 1958-1990
Lötschberg Base Tunnel Switzerland Bernese Alps, Switzerland 34,577 m (21.5 mi) Railway 2007 longest land tunnel, single track along 22 km
Metro Madrid L-7: Hospital del Henares - Pitis Spain Madrid, Spain 32,919 m (20.5 mi) Metro 1974-2007
Rathaus Spandau-Rudow (U7) Germany Berlin U-Bahn 31,800 m (19.8 mi) Metro 1924-1984
Côte-Vertu - Montmorency (Line 2 Orange) Canada Montreal Metro 30,798 m (19.1 mi) Metro 1966-2007
Parnas - Kupchino (line 2) Russia Saint Petersburg Metro 30,100 m (18.7 mi) Metro 1961-2006
Prospekt Veteranov - Devyatkino (line 1) Russia Saint Petersburg Metro 29,600 m (18.4 mi) Metro 1955-1978
Guadarrama Tunnel[2] Spain Sierra de Guadarrama, Spain 28,377 m (17.6 mi) Railway 2007
Taihang Tunnel[3] People's Republic of China Taihang Mountains, China 27,848 m (17.3 mi) Railway 2008 on Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan high-speed railway
Morden - East Finchley (Northern Line) United Kingdom London Underground 27,800 m (17.3 mi) Metro 1890-1940
Dainichi-Nagahara (Tanimachi Line) Japan Osaka Municipal Subway 27,100 m (16.8 mi) Metro 1967-1983 [citation needed]
LEP Tunnel Switzerland France CERN, Switzerland – France 26,659 m (16.6 mi)[4] Particle accelerator 1989 11.3–15.9 m2 circular ring, now used by Large Hadron Collider
Kanayama-Nagoya Dome-mae Yada-Kanayama (Meijo Line) Japan Nagoya Municipal Subway 26,400 m (16.4 mi) Metro 1965-2004 [citation needed]
Iwate-Ichinohe Tunnel Japan Ōu Mountains, Japan 25,810 m (16.0 mi) Railway 2002
Lærdal Tunnel Norway Lærdal - Aurland, Norway 24,510 m (15.2 mi) Road 2000 longest road tunnel
Metro Madrid L-1: Valdecarros - Pinar de Chamartín Spain Madrid, Spain 23,876 m (14.8 mi) Metro
Metro Madrid L-6: Circular Spain Madrid, Spain 23,472 m (14.6 mi) Metro 1979-2007
Angrignon - Honoré-Beaugrand (Line 1 Green) Canada Montreal Metro 23,262 m (14.5 mi) Metro 1966-2007
Warsaw Metro L-1: Kabaty - Młociny Poland Warsaw, Poland 23,100 m (14.4 mi) Metro 1966-1978
Daishimizu Tunnel Japan Mount Tanigawa, Japan 22,221 m (13.8 mi) Railway 1982
Wushaoling Tunnel People's Republic of China Wuwei, China 21,050 m (13.1 mi) Railway 2006 second tube opened in 2007
Metro Barcelona L-1 Spain Barcelona, Spain 20,700 m (12.9 mi) Metro 1926-1992
The London Connection United Kingdom London, United Kingdom 20,000 m (12.4 mi)[5] Electricity 2005[6] National Grid plc, 3-metre diameter, 400kV circuit, overhead monorail
Simplon Tunnel Switzerland Italy Lepontine Alps, Switzerland – Italy 19,803 m (12.3 mi) Railway 1906 second tube opened in 1922 (19,824 m long)
Vereina Switzerland Silvretta, Switzerland 19,058 m (11.8 mi) Railway 1999 single track with passing loops, metre gauge
Shin Kanmon Japan Kanmon Straits, Japan 18,713 m (11.6 mi) Railway 1975
Apennine Base Tunnel Italy Tuscan-Emilian Apennines, Italy 18,507 m (11.5 mi) Railway 1934
Qinling I-II People's Republic of China Qinling Mountains, China 18,457 m (11.5 mi) Railway 2002 Double track [7]
Zhongnanshan People's Republic of China China 18,040 m (11.2 mi) Road 2007
Gotthard Road Tunnel Switzerland Lepontine Alps, Switzerland 16,918 m (10.5 mi) Road 1980
Metro Barcelona L-4 Spain Barcelona, Spain 16,700 m (10.4 mi) Metro 1929-1999
Metro Barcelona L-3 Spain Barcelona, Spain 16,600 m (10.3 mi) Metro 1924-2001
Metro Barcelona L-5 Spain Barcelona, Spain 16,600 m (10.3 mi) Metro 1959-1983
Metro Madrid L-8: Nuevos Ministerios - Aeropuerto Spain Madrid, Spain 16,467 m (10.2 mi) Metro 1998-2007
Metro Madrid L-3: Moncloa - Villaverde Alto Spain Madrid, Spain 16,424 m (10.2 mi) Metro 1939-2007
Line 3 (Athens Metro)[8] Greece Athens, Greece 16,400 m (10.2 mi) Metro 1991-2008 Line 3 is actually 39.6 km long, but only 16,4 km of it are underground.
Rokkô Tunnel[9] Japan Mount Rokkō, Japan 16,250 m (10.1 mi) Railway 1972
Henderson Tunnel[10] United States Front Range, United States 15,800 m (9.8 mi)[11] Railway 1976 Narrow gauge railway, replaced by a conveyor belt in 1999
Furka Base Switzerland Urner Alps, Switzerland 15,442 m (9.6 mi) Railway 1982 single track with passing loops, metre gauge
Haruna Japan Gunma Prefecture, Japan 15,350 m (9.5 mi) Railway 1982
Severomuysky Tunnel Russia Severomuysky Range, Russia 15,343 m (9.5 mi) Railway 2003
Gorigamine Tunnel[9] Japan Takasaki - Nagano, Japan 15,175 m (9.4 mi) Railway 1997
Monte Santomarco Italy Paola - Cosenza, Italy 15,040 m (9.3 mi) Railway 1987
Gotthard Rail Tunnel Switzerland Lepontine Alps, Switzerland 15,003 m (9.3 mi) Railway 1882
Nakayama Japan Nakayama Pass, Honshū, Japan 14,857 m (9.2 mi) Railway 1982
Mount Macdonald Tunnel Canada Rogers Pass, Glacier National Park, Canada 14,723 m (9.1 mi) Railway 1989
Lötschberg Tunnel Switzerland Alps, Switzerland 14,612 m (9.1 mi) Railway 1913
Romerike Tunnel Norway Oslo - Lillestrøm, Norway 14,580 m (9.1 mi) Railway 1999
Tunnelbana 3 (Blue line), Kungsträdgården-Hjulsta Sweden Stockholm, Sweden 14,300 m (8.9 mi) Metro 1975-1977
Dayaoshan[12] People's Republic of China Nanling Mountains, China 14,294 m (8.9 mi) Railway 1987
Metro Lisbon - Blue (Seagull) Line Portugal Lisbon, Portugal 14,000 m (8.7 mi) Metro 1959-2007
Arlberg Road Tunnel Austria Arlberg, Austria 13,972 m (8.7 mi) Road 1978
Hokuriku Tunnel Japan Mount Kinome, Japan 13,870 m (8.6 mi) Railway 1962
Fréjus (Mont Cenis) France Italy Alps, France – Italy 13,636 m (8.5 mi) Railway 1871
Shin Shimizu Tunnel[9] Japan Mount Tanigawa, Japan 13,500 m (8.4 mi) Railway 1967
Savio Rail Tunnel Finland Helsinki - Kerava, Finland 13,500 m (8.4 mi) Railway 2008
Hex River Tunnel[13] South Africa Hex River Pass, South Africa 13,400 m (8.3 mi) Railway 1989
Schlern/Sciliar Tunnel[14] Italy Südtirol, Italy 13,159 m (8.2 mi) Railway 1993
Caponero-Capoverde Italy Genova - Ventimiglia, Italy 13,135 m (8.2 mi) Railway 2001 includes an underground station ("San Remo")
Metro Barcelona L-2 Spain Barcelona, Spain 13,100 m (8.1 mi) Metro 1985-1997
Aki Japan Sanyo Shinkansen, Japan 13,030 m (8.1 mi) Railway 1975
Hsuehshan Republic of China Taipei - Yilan, Taiwan 12,942 m (8.0 mi) Road 2006
Many more tunnels exist that are shorter than 13 kilometres (8 mi)

Note that there are Metro/Subway/Underground/Rapid transit railways that have tunnels that would be placed high on this list. The longest such tunnel is Seoul Subway Line 5 of Seoul Metro, 52.4 km (32.6 mi) long. Often metro tunnels are not considered to be continuous, because the stations do not count as tunnels. See also List of long tunnels by type.

World's longest tunnels (under construction)

Name Location Length Type Year Comment
New York City Water Tunnel #3 United States New York State, USA 96,560 m (60.0 mi) Water 2020 More water supply for New York City. Already in use; at completion it will be the world's third longest tunnel
Gotthard Base Tunnel Switzerland Lepontine Alps, Switzerland 57,072 m (35.5 mi) Railway 2017 new Gotthard Railway; at completion it will be the longest railway tunnel
Brenner Base Tunnel Austria Italy Stubai Alps, AustriaItaly 55,000 m (34.2 mi) Railway 2025 Planning stage, pilot tunnel under construction
Hakkōda Tunnel Japan Hakkōda Mountains, Japan 26,455 m (16.4 mi) Railway 2010 breakthrough 2005
Pajares Base Tunnel Spain Spain 24,667 m (15.3 mi) Railway 2011
Iiyama Tunnel[15] Japan Iiyama, Japan 22,225 m (13.8 mi) Railway 2013 being built for the Hokuriku Shinkansen, breakthrough 2007
Geumjeong Tunnel[16] South Korea Busan, South Korea 20,323 m (12.6 mi) Railway 2010 Daegu-Busan section of Gyeongbu High-speed Line
Vaglia Italy Bologna - Firenze, Italy 18,711 m (11.6 mi) Railway 2009 Bologna–Florence high-speed railway, breakthrough 2001
Solan Tunnel[17] South Korea Taebaek-Samcheok, Gangwon-do, South Korea 16,240 m (10.1 mi) Railway 2009 Breakthrough 2006-12-07
Förbifart Stockholm[18] Sweden Stockholm, Sweden 16,000 m (9.9 mi) Road 2020 construction not started yet
Ceneri Base Tunnel Switzerland Lepontine Alps, Switzerland 15,400 m (9.6 mi) Railway 2019 new Gotthard Railway
Firenzuola Italy Bologna - Firenze, Italy 15,285 m (9.5 mi) Railway 2009 Bologna–Florence high-speed railway, breakthrough 2004
Marmaray Turkey Istanbul, Turkey 13,600 m (8.5 mi) Railway 2013 built next to a fault zone, between two continents; breakthrough 2008-09-23
Wienerwaldtunnel Austria west of Vienna, Austria 13,350 m (8.3 mi) Railway 2015 breakthrough 2007-09-03
Possibly incomplete table. Many more tunnels are under construction that will be shorter than 13 kilometres (8 mi)

See also

References

  1. ^ Mug, Vladislav; Konvicka, Vladislav (2009). "Underground World: Stola Water Delivery Conduit from the Water Tank Želivka to Prague" (in Czech: Štolový vodovodní přivaděč z vodní nádrže Želivka do Prahy). http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=cs&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hornictvi.info%2Fpodzemi%2Fzelivka%2F02.htm. Retrieved 27 February 2010. 
  2. ^ Structurae [en]: Guadarrama Tunnel (2005)
  3. ^ http://www.tunnelintelligence.com/awards-in-detail-50.html
  4. ^ "The LHC, Facts and figures". CERN. 2008. http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/LHC/Facts-en.html. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  5. ^ "ABB starts to make ‘The London Connection’". ABB Group. 2004-08-14. http://www.abb.com/cawp/seitp202/9C1D698E86B2F7ED8025700C00539EFB.aspx. Retrieved 2009-02-08. "a 20km long three-metre diameter tunnel" 
  6. ^ "£200M London Connection Project is Commissioned" (PDF). National Grid plc. 2005-09. http://www.nationalgrid.com/NR/rdonlyres/DE652156-CC9B-4559-9FA1-40210B4B411C/583/London_Connection_MediaReleasefinal.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-08. "This 20km long tunnel contains one of the longest 400kV XLPE cable circuits to be installed in Europe." 
  7. ^ http://www.springerlink.com/content/ypr7t74670312147/
  8. ^ http://www.amel.gr/index.php?id=22&L=1
  9. ^ a b c New Tunneling Technology in Japan / Statistical Data
  10. ^ ClimaxMoly: USA - Colorado - Henderson
  11. ^ Longest Railroad Tunnels
  12. ^ Table 1
  13. ^ Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  14. ^ Galleria di Base del Brennero - Brenner Basistunnel BBT SE - Facts
  15. ^ Structurae [en]: Iyama Tunnel (2013)
  16. ^ "고속철 금정터널 도심구간 드디어 관통" (In Korean). Busan Ilbo. 2008-09-10. http://www.busanilbo.com/news2000/html/2008/0910/030020080910.1010103626.html. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  17. ^ "대우건설 솔안터널 관통식" (In Korean). Asia Economy. 2006-12-07. http://www.asiaeconomy.co.kr/uhtml/read.php?idxno=2006120711251167615. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  18. ^ http://www.dn.se/DNet/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=1298&a=877814

External links

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