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List of types of democracy: Wikis


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The following is a list of types of democracy:

  • Agonistic Pluralism, accepts conflict as inevitable and should be channeled in a productive way.
  • Anticipatory democracy, which relies on some degree of disciplined and usually market-informed anticipation of the future, to guide major decisions.
  • Athenian democracy (sometimes called classical democracy), as originally developed in the Classical Greek city-state of Athens.
  • Bioregional democracy, matching geopolitical divisions to natural ecological regions.
  • Constitutional democracy, democracy governed by a constitution.
  • Defensive democracy, a situation in which a democratic society has to limit some rights and freedoms in order to protect the institutions of the democracy.
  • Deliberative democracy, which focuses on hearing out every policy alternative, from every direction, and providing time to research them all.
  • Demarchy, a form of democracy which has people randomly selected from the citizenry to either act as representatives, or to make decisions in specific areas of governance (defense, environment, etc.)
  • E-democracy, which comprises the use of electronic communications technologies, such as the Internet, in enhancing democratic processes within a democratic republic or representative democracy.
  • Emergent democracy, a social system in which blogging undermines mainstream media.
  • Democratic centralism, an organizational method where members of a political party discuss and debate matters of policy and direction and after the decision is made by majority vote, all members are expected to follow that decision in public.
  • Democratic dictatorship Also known as democratur.
  • Direct democracy, implementations of democracy in more pure forms; classically termed pure democracy.
  • Dominant-party system, a democratic party system where only one political party can realistically become the government, by itself or in a coalition government.
  • Economic democracy, a theory of democracy involving people having access to subsistence, or equity in living standards.
  • Grassroots democracy, a form of democracy emphasizing trust in small decentralized units at the municipal government level, possibly using urban secession to establish the formal legal authority to make decisions made at this local level binding.
  • Illiberal democracy, a type of representative democracy where there are no or only weak limits on the power of the elected representatives to rule as they please.
  • Interactive Democracy, a proposed form of democracy utilising information technology to allow citizens to propose new policies, "second" proposals and vote on the resulting laws (that are refined by Parliament) in a referendum.
  • Intra-Party Democracy, a democratic process within a one party state government. This debated among scholars if the Chinese Communist Party resemble this process during leadership transitions.
  • Jacksonian democracy, a form of democracy popularized by President Andrew Jackson promoted the strength of the executive branch and the Presidency at the expense of Congressional power.
  • Jeffersonian democracy, a form of government named after American statesman Thomas Jefferson.
  • Liberal democracy, a form of representative democracy with protection for individual liberty and property by rule of law.
  • Market democracy, another name for democratic capitalism, an economic ideology based on a tripartite arrangement of a market-based economy based predominantly on economic incentives through free markets, a democratic polity and a liberal moral-cultural system which encourages pluralism.
  • Multiparty democracy, a two-party system requires voters to align themselves in large blocs, sometimes so large that they cannot agree on any overarching principles.
  • New Democracy, a Maoist concept based on Mao Zedong's "Bloc of Four Classes" theory in post-revolutionary China.
  • Non-partisan democracy, a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic elections (by secret ballot) take place without reference to political parties.
  • Parliamentary democracy, a democratic system of government where the executive branch of a parliamentary government is typically a cabinet, and headed by a prime minister who is considered the head of government.
  • Participatory democracy, which involves consent or consensus decision making and offers greater political representation, e.g., wider control of proxies others trust them with, to those who get directly involved and actually participate.
  • Radical democracy, a type of democracy that focuses on the importance of nurturing and tolerating difference and dissent in decision-making processes.
  • Religious democracy, the values of religion play a role in the public arena in a society populated by religious people.
  • Republican democracy, a republic which has democracy through elected representatives
  • Representative democracy describes indirect democracy where sovereignty is held by the people's representatives.
  • Social democracy, a political philosophy that calls upon government to be for the people. In contrast to Socialists, modern Social Democrats do not believe in nationalizing industry
  • Sociocracy, a democratic system of governance based on consent decision making, circle organization, and double-linked representation.
  • Sortition, a democratic method of choosing political and administrative officials, advocated by Aristotle, and used in classical Athens and Venice, which is based on the drawing of lots as opposed to election by vote.
  • Soviet democracy or Council democracy, a form of democracy where the workers of a locality elect recallable representatives into organs of power called soviets (councils.) The local soviets elect the members of regional soviets who go on to elect higher soviets.
  • Totalitarian democracy, a system of government in which lawfully elected representatives maintain the integrity of a nation state whose citizens, while granted the right to vote, have little or no participation in the decision-making process of the government.
  • Westminster democracy, a parliamentary system of government modeled after that of the United Kingdom system.


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