List of unrecognized countries: Wikis

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     No recognition by any state      Recognized by UN non-members only      UN non-members recognized by at least one UN member      UN member states, not recognized by at least one other state

This list of states with limited recognition gives an overview of contemporary geopolitical entities, that wish to be recognized as sovereign states but do not have complete worldwide diplomatic recognition.

These mostly fall into two categories. Firstly, there are entities with complete or partial control over their claimed territory which are de facto self-governing and have stated a desire for full independence: most times, the existence of these entities is seen by general international community as a consequence of violations of article 11 of the Montevideo Convention[1] and, more generally, of article 2.4 of the Charter of the United Nations which nowadays corresponds to customary international law.[2]

Secondly, there are entities which do not have complete control over their claimed territory, so contradicting article 1 of the cited Convention, but have been recognized as having a de jure claim to that territory by at least one other generally recognized nation. Some countries on this list, such as Cyprus and the Republic of Korea, are recognized by the large majority of other nations and are members of the United Nations, but appear here because a small number of nations have withheld recognition.

See list of historical unrecognized countries for similar entities, that have existed in the past. See list of governments in exile for unrecognized governments without control over the territory claimed. This list may include microstates, but does not include any entities considered to be micronations (such as the Principality of Sealand). For a complete list, see list of micronations.

There are 192 United Nations (UN) member states. The Holy See is generally recognized as sovereign in international law, but is not a member of the United Nations (it has, however, observer state status within the organization).[3]

Contents

Present geopolitical entities by level of recognition

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Not recognized by any state

Name Disputed since Recognition Other claimants Further information References
 Somaliland 1991 No state regards Somaliland as de jure independent.  Somalia (claims Somaliland as part of its sovereign territory) Foreign relations of Somaliland [4]

Recognized by UN non-members only

Name Disputed since Recognition Other claimants Further information References
 Nagorno-Karabakh 1991 Nagorno-Karabakh is recognised by one UN non-member: Transnistria.  Azerbaijan (claims Nagorno-Karabakh as part of its sovereign territory) Foreign relations of Nagorno-Karabakh [5][6][7][8]
 Transnistria (Pridnestrovie) 1990 Transnistria's independence is recognized by two UN non-members: Abkhazia and South Ossetia.  Moldova (claims Transnistria as part of its sovereign territory) Disputed status of Transnistria [9]

UN non-members recognized by at least one UN member

Name Disputed since Recognition Other claimants Further information References
 Abkhazia 1992 Abkhazia's independence is recognized by four UN member-states, Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Nauru, and two UN non-member states, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[10]  Georgia (claims Abkhazia as part of its sovereign territory) Foreign relations of Abkhazia, International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia [11][12][13][14]
 Republic of China (Taiwan) 1949 Both the Republic of China (ROC; commonly known as "Taiwan") and the People's Republic of China (PRC) claim sovereignty over the whole of China, stating China is de jure a single sovereign entity encompassing both the area currently controlled by the PRC and the area currently controlled by the ROC. The ROC is currently recognized as a state by 22 UN members and the Holy See. All other UN member states do not officially recognize the ROC as a state; some of them regard its controlled territory as de jure part of the PRC while some others have used careful diplomatic language to avoid taking a position as to whether the current territory of the ROC is part of the PRC.  People's Republic of China (claims Taiwan as part of its sovereign territory) Political status of Taiwan, Foreign relations of the Republic of China [15]
 Kosovo 2008 Kosovo's independence is recognized by 65 UN members and one UN non-member state, the Republic of China (Taiwan). The United Nations, as stipulated in Security Council Resolution 1244, has administered the territory since 1999 through the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, with cooperation from the European Union since 2008.  Serbia (claims Kosovo as part of its sovereign territory) Foreign relations of Kosovo, International recognition of Kosovo [16][17]
 Northern Cyprus 1983 Northern Cyprus's independence is recognized by one UN member, Turkey. The Organisation of the Islamic Conference has granted Northern Cyprus observer status under the name "Turkish Cypriot State". United Nations Security Council Resolution 541 defines the declaration of independence of Northern Cyprus as legally invalid [18].  Cyprus (claims Northern Cyprus as part of its sovereign territory) Foreign relations of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [19]
Palestinian territories State of Palestine 1988 The State of Palestine is currently recognised by 109 UN member states, the Holy See, the Arab League, and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, after the Palestinian Declaration of Independence made by the Palestine Liberation Organization. Israel does not recognize the State of Palestine and controls territory claimed by it. As a result of the Oslo Accords and the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement, however, the Israeli government has transferred certain powers and responsibilities of self-government to the Palestinian National Authority, which are in effect in the Gaza Strip and parts of the West Bank. Palestine participates in the United Nations as a non-member entity with observer status.  Israel (considers the West Bank disputed territory) Foreign relations of the Palestinian National Authority [20][21][22][23][24][25][26]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 1976 Both the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) and Morocco claim sovereignty over the territory of Western Sahara. Sahrawi independence has been recognised by around 80 UN members and the African Union. Several states, however, have since retracted or suspended recognition, pending the outcome of a referendum on self-determination, with 49 retaining diplomatic ties.[27][28] Western Sahara is regarded as de jure part of Morocco by 25 UN members and the Arab League. It has been listed on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories since the 1960s.  Morocco (claims Western Sahara as part of its sovereign territory) Foreign relations of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic [29]
 South Ossetia 1991 South Ossetia's independence is recognized by four UN member-states, Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Nauru, and two non-UN member states, Abkhazia and Transnistria.[10][30]  Georgia (claims South Ossetia as part of its sovereign territory) Foreign relations of South Ossetia, International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia [12][13][31]

UN member states, not recognized by at least one other state

Name Disputed since Recognition Other claimants Further information References
 Armenia 1991 Armenia is not recognized by one UN member, Pakistan, as this country has a position of supporting Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Foreign relations of Armenia [32][33]
 People's Republic of China (PRC) 1949 The People's Republic of China (PRC) is not recognized by one UN non-member, the Republic of China (ROC, commonly known as 'Taiwan'). The PRC does not accept diplomatic relations with states that recognize the ROC (currently 22 UN member states and the Holy See). None of these states officially recognize the PRC as a state, though certain governments have made statements expressing an interest in official relations with both the PRC and the ROC.[34] According to United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, the PRC is the only legitimate representative of China to the United Nations.  Republic of China (considers itself sole legal government of China; claim not actively pursued at present) PRC's diplomatic relations, Foreign relations of the PRC [35]
 Cyprus 1974 Cyprus is not recognized by one UN member, Turkey[36] and one UN non-member, Northern Cyprus, as they do not accept that the Turkish military presence on Cyprus is an 'occupying force'. Both Turkey and Northern Cyprus refer to the Republic of Cyprus as "Güney Kıbrıs Rum Kesimi", Greek Part of Southern Cyprus. Foreign relations of Cyprus [37][38][39]
 Israel 1948 Israel is not recognized by 19 UN members and one UN non-member, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, because of the Arab-Israeli conflict[40]. It is recognized by the Palestine Liberation Organization, which claims the right to set up a state in territory currently controlled by Israel. Foreign relations of Israel [41][42]
 North Korea 1948 North Korea is not recognized by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[43]  South Korea (both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea). Foreign relations of North Korea. [43][44][45]
 South Korea 1948 South Korea is not recognized by one UN member, North Korea.  North Korea (both South Korea and North Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea). Foreign relations of South Korea [46][47]

Unofficial relations

Some states maintain informal (officially non-diplomatic) relations with states that do not officially recognize them. Republic of China (Taiwan) is one such, as it maintains unofficial relations with many other states through its Economic and Cultural Offices, which allow regular consular services. This allows the ROC to have economic relations even with states that do not formally recognise it. A total of 56 states, including Germany,[48] Italy,[49] the United States,[50] and the United Kingdom,[51] maintain some form of unofficial mission in the ROC.

See also

References

  1. ^ The article reflected the contemporary Stimson Doctrine, which led the government of the United States not to recognize the birth of the State of Manchukuo, in contrast with the attitude of several other nations, including Soviet Union.
  2. ^ International Court of Justice, Judgment of 27 June 1986, Nicaragua vs United States.
  3. ^ Non-member State
  4. ^ BBC Country Profiles: Regions and territories: Somaliland, accessed 14 September 2009
  5. ^ BBC Country Profiles: Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh, accessed 14 September 2009
  6. ^ (Russian)Transnistria wants to join Russia (translated title), September 2008.
  7. ^ (Russian)Moldova, September 2008.
  8. ^ http://pridnestrovie.net/foreignpolicy_full.html
  9. ^ "Abkhazia: Ten Years On". BBC 2. 2001. http://video.acasa.ro/view_video/1cbc0583298a23831612/transnistria-europe-s-black-hole-2-4.html. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  10. ^ a b South Ossetia opens embassy in Abkhazia The Tiraspol Times
  11. ^ Clogg, Rachel (2001). "Abkhazia: Ten Years On". Conciliation Resources. http://www.c-r.org/resources/occasional-papers/abkhazia-ten-years-on.php. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  12. ^ a b Russia recognises Georgian rebels - BBC, 2008-08-26 [1]
  13. ^ a b "Venezuela's Chavez draws closer to Moscow". Reuters. 2009-09-10. http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSTRE5895PF20090910. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  14. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2009/12/mil-091215-rianovosti11.htm
  15. ^ Lewis, Joe (2002-08-04). "Taiwan Independence". Digital Freedom Network. http://members.aol.com/JoJoLewis/Taiwan/Taiwan_index.html. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  16. ^ "Kosovo MPs proclaim independence". BBC News. 2008-02-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7249034.stm. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  17. ^ Kosovo
  18. ^ http://www.un.int/cyprus/scr541.htm
  19. ^ Hadar, Leon (2005-11-16). "In Praise of 'Virtual States'". AntiWar. http://antiwar.com/hadar/?articleid=8042. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  20. ^ Official website of the Palestinian National Authority. The PNA has publicly acknowledged recognition from 94 states, including the former Yugoslavia.
  21. ^ Venezuela Pledges Support for Palestinian Statehood during Abbas Visit, November 2009.
  22. ^ Costa Rica Recognizes Palestinian State, February 2008.
  23. ^ South African Representative Office to the Palestinian National Authority
  24. ^ Embassy of the State of Palestine to the Republic of Uzbekistan, Central Asia and Azerbaijan
  25. ^ Embassies of Palestine
  26. ^ Embassy of the State of Palestine in Bratislava
  27. ^ (Arabic) "List of states recognising the SADR". Government of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. November 2006. http://www.rasd-state.ws/reconocimientos_rasd.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-04.  Flags listed alongside date of recognition. Most of these states have since suspended their relations.
  28. ^ "About Western Sahara". Australia Western Sahara Association. November 2006. http://awsa.org.au/?page_id=4. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  29. ^ Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (1976-02-27). "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic". Western Sahara Online. http://www.wsahara.net/sadr.html. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  30. ^ http://lenta.ru/news/2009/12/16/nauru/
  31. ^ Stojanovic, Srdjan (2003-09-23). "OCHA Situation Report". Center for International Disaster Information. http://iys.cidi.org/humanitarian/hsr/03b/ixl95.html. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  32. ^ Pakistan Worldview - Report 21 - Visit to Azerbaijan Senate of Pakistan - Senate foreign relations committee, 2008
  33. ^ Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognize Armenia as a country" 13 September 2006 [14:03] - Today.Az
  34. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/07/world/asia/07iht-costa.1.6036203.html
  35. ^ "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". International Human Rights Treaties and Documents Database. http://www.hkhrm.org.hk/english/law/const01.html. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  36. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-126188859.html
  37. ^ CIA World Factbook (2008-02-28). "Cyprus". Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cy.html. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  38. ^ "Cyprus exists without Turkey's recognition: president". XINHUA. 2005-10-01. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-10/01/content_3570894.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  39. ^ http://www.europarl.europa.eu/activities/committees/studies/download.do?file=20800#search=%20Turkey
  40. ^ "Khartoum Resolution". Council on Foreign Relations. http://www.cfr.org/publication/14841/khartoum_resolution.html?breadcrumb=%2Fpublication%2Fpublication_list%3Ftype%3Dessential_document%26page%3D69. 
  41. ^ Government of Israel (1948-05-14). "Declaration of Israel's Independence 1948". Yale University. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/israel.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  42. ^ http://www.mythsandfacts.org/ReplyOnlineEdition/chapter-1.html
  43. ^ a b "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". http://www.ioc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~worldjpn/documents/texts/docs/19650622.T1E.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  44. ^ "Declaration of Independence". TIME. 1966-08-19. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,836219,00.html. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  45. ^ Scofield, David (2005-01-04). "Seoul's double-talk on reunification". Asia Times. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Korea/GA04Dg01.html. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  46. ^ US Library of Congress (2000-10-07). "World War II and Korea". Country Studies. http://countrystudies.us/south-korea/8.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-28. 
  47. ^ Sterngold, James (1994-09-03). "China, Backing North Korea, Quits Armistice Commission". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F01EFD71538F930A3575AC0A962958260. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  48. ^ [2]
  49. ^ [3]
  50. ^ [4]
  51. ^ [5]


Simple English

This is a list of unrecognized countries. These are countries that have no general international recognition, but they are de facto sovereign states.

Contents

Partially recognized states with de facto control over their territory

  • Abkhazia in Georgia is a self-declared and more or less functioning independent state. Recognized by the Russian Federation, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. It is situated between the Caucasus and the Black Sea, recognized by Georgian government as a part of northwestern Georgia. During the Soviet period Abkhazia was merged back with Georgia in 1931 as an autonomous republic within Soviet Georgia. The Abkhazian Soviets proclaimed independence from Georgia in 1992, and a short war ensued from 1992 through 1994. A June 1994 ceasefire has largely held, leaving Abkhazia outside the control of Georgia's central government.

United Nations member states that are only partially recognized by the totality of the other UN members are not listed here. (For example, 39 countries do not recognize Israel.)

  • The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) was set up in northern Cyprus in 1975, following the intervention of the Turkish Army in 1974, in response to a coup d'état by the Greek junta aiming at "enosis". The TRNC declared independence in 1983 and it is recognised only by Turkey. A United Nations proposal to unify the two Cypriot states was accepted by the TRNC, but rejected in a referendum by the Greek Cypriot community, citing security concerns. Further attempts at reunification have thus far been unsuccessful.
  • South Ossetia in Georgia is a self-declared and more or less functioning independent state with no international recognition from any other nation. After occupation of independent Georgia by Bolshevist Russia in 1921 it became the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within Soviet Georgia. It proclaimed independence from Georgia in 1991, and a ceasefire was declared in 1992.

Unrecognized states with de facto control over their territory

  • Somaliland (since 1991) 1. Located in northwest Somalia. In May of 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes five of the eighteen administrative regions of Somalia, corresponding to British Somaliland which is located between Ethiopia, Djibouti, Puntland and the Gulf of Aden.
  • Transnistria (Pridnestrovie) is the part of Moldova east of the river Dniester and (since 1990) a self-declared and more or less functioning independent state with no international recognition from any sovereign state. It has a majority Slavic population, as opposed to majority Moldovan which Moldova has.
  • Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan is (since 1991) a self-declared and more or less functioning independent state but is not recognised as independent. It is internationally recognized as being part of Azerbaijan, but has an ethnic-Armenian majority.

Partially recognized states largely under military occupation

Internationally administered territory

Historic unrecognized or partially recognized states with de facto control over their territory

Europe

Asia

Africa

  • Anjouan (1997-2002). Now part of Comoros.
  • File:Flag of Biafra controlled territory in eastern Nigeria between the time of its secession in May 1967 until its final military collapse in January 1970. It was recognized by 12 nations.
  • Katanga controlled the state of the same name within the former Belgian Congo after decolonisation, between 1960 and 1964.
  • File:Flag of Mohé Mohéli (1997-1998). Now part of Comoros.
  • Rhodesia. British Colony that unilaterally declared independence in 1965. This action was not legally recognized by any other nation, nor the declaration of Rhodesia as a republic in 1970. This entity remained until 1979, when it became Zimbabwe-Rhodesia.
  • Zimbabwe-Rhodesia. Formed in 1979 after negotiations between white minority government and moderate black leaders. Existed 1 June to 12 December 1979, when it became the colony of South Rhodesia again. In 1980 it became the Republic of Zimbabwe.

South African Homelands

Created by the Republic of South Africa from its own territory

Americas

Oceania

Historic unrecognized or partially recognized governments with de facto control over their territory

These regimes had control over the territory of a country for which most other states recognized a different government as being the legitimate government:

  • File:Flag of Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (1996-2001). Only three states recognized this entity while the Taliban controlled it. See: History of Afghanistan.
  • People's Republic of Kampuchea (1979-1989). Set up by the Vietnamese after their invasion and rout of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. Only a few Soviet-Bloc nations recognized this entity, while the UN, China, and most other nations recognized the Khmer Rouge's Democratic Kampuchea government. Succeeded by the State of Cambodia, then the Kingdom of Cambodia.

Other pages

References

krc:Танылмагъан кърал


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