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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Plant oils
Olive oil from Oneglia.jpg
Olive oil
Types
Vegetable fats (list)
Macerated (list)
Uses
Drying oil - Oil paint
Cooking oil
Fuel - Biodiesel
Components
Saturated fat
Monounsaturated fat
Polyunsaturated fat
Trans fat

There are three methods for extracting vegetable oils from plants. The relevant part of the plant may be placed under pressure to "extract" the oil, giving an expressed oil. Oils may also be extracted from plants by dissolving parts of plants in water or another solvent. The solution may be separated from the plant material and concentrated, giving an extracted or leached oil. The mixture may also be separated by distilling the oil away from the plant material. Oils extracted by this latter method are called essential oils. Essential oils often have different properties and uses than pressed or leached vegetable oils. Macerated oils are made by infusing parts of plants in a base oil a process known as maceration.

Although most plants contain some oil, only the oil from certain major oil crops [1] complemented by a few dozen minor oil crops[2] is widely used and traded. These oils are one of several types of plant oils.

Vegetable oils can be classified in several ways, for example:

  • By source: most, but not all vegetable oils are extracted from the fruits or seeds of plants, and the oils may be classified by grouping oils from similar plants, such as "nut oils".
  • By use: oils from plants are used in cooking, for fuel, for cosmetics, for medical purposes, and for other industrial purposes.

The vegetable oils are grouped below in common classes of use.

Contents

Edible oils

Major oils

Sunflowers are the source of Sunflower oil.

These oils account for a significant fraction of worldwide edible oil production. All are also used as fuel oils.

Nut oils

Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel, used to make Hazelnut oil.

Nut oils are generally used in cooking, for their flavor. They are also quite costly, because of the difficulty of extracting the oil.

Oils from melon and gourd seeds

Watermelon seed oil, extracted from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris, is used in cooking in West Africa.

Members of the cucurbitaceae include gourds, melons, pumpkins, and squashes. Seeds from these plants are noted for their oil content, but little information is available on methods of extracting the oil. In most cases, the plants are grown as food, with dietary use of the oils as a byproduct of using the seeds as food.[25]

Food supplements

A number of oils are used as food supplements, for their nutrient content or medical effect.

Other edible oils

Carob seed pods, used to make carob pod oil.
Coriander seeds are the source of an edible pressed oil, Coriander seed oil.
Poppy seeds, used to make poppyseed oil

Oils used for biofuel

A number of the oils listed above are used for biofuel (biodiesel and Straight Vegetable Oil) in addition to having other uses. A number of oils are used only as biofuel.[83][84]

Although diesel engines were invented, in part, with vegetable oil in mind,[85] diesel fuel is almost exclusively petroleum-based. Vegetable oils are evaluated for use as a biofuel based on:

  1. Suitability as a fuel, based on flash point, energy content, viscosity, combustion products and other factors
  2. Cost, based in part on yield, effort required to grow and harvest, and post-harvest processing cost
A flask of biodiesel

Multipurpose oils also used as biofuel

The oils listed immediately below are all (primarily) used for other purposes - all but tung oil are edible - but have been considered for use as biofuel.

Inedible oils used only or primarily as biofuel

These oils are extracted from plants that are cultivated solely for producing oil-based biofuel.[100] These, plus the major oils described above, have received much more attention as fuel oils than other plant oils.

Drying oils

Drying oils are vegetable oils that dry to a hard finish at normal room temperature. Such oils are used as the basis of oil paints, and in other paint and wood finishing applications. In addition to the oils listed here, walnut, sunflower and safflower oil are also considered to be drying oils.[110]

Citrus oils

A number of citrus plants yield pressed oils. Some, like lemon and orange oil, are used as essential oils, which is uncommon for pressed oils. The seeds of many if not most members of the citrus family yield usable oils.[118][119][120]

Other oils

A number of pressed vegetable oils are either not edible, or not used as an edible oil.

Castor beans are the source of castor oil

See also

General references

Notes

  1. ^ Economic Research Service (1995-2006). Oil Crops Outlook. United States Department of Agriculture. http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do?documentID=1288.  This publication is available via email subscription.
  2. ^ B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). Minor oil crops. FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5043E/X5043E00.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  3. ^ "Coconut-Info.com". http://www.coconut-info.com/. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  4. ^ "Bulk Oil: Corn oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=24. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  5. ^ "Bulk oil: Cottonseed oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=27. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  6. ^ "Olive oil history". http://www.globalgourmet.com/food/egg/egg0397/oohistory.html. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  7. ^ "Cook's Encyclopedia: Palm oil/palm kernel oil". http://allrecipes.com/advice/ref/ency/terms/7729.asp. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  8. ^ "Bulk oil: Palm oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=9. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  9. ^ "Cook's encyclopedia: Peanut oil". http://allrecipes.com/advice/ref/ency/terms/7832.asp. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  10. ^ "Canola Oil". http://www.canolainfo.org/. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  11. ^ "Bulk oil: safflower". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=25. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  12. ^ "Bulk oil: sesame oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=34. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  13. ^ "Southeast Farm Press: World soybean consumption quickens". http://southeastfarmpress.com/mag/farming_world_soybean_consumption/index.html. Retrieved 2006-07-31. 
  14. ^ "Bulk oil: Sunflower oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=11. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  15. ^ "Bulk oil: Almond oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=74. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  16. ^ Science Service, Inc. (March 23, 1991). "Cashew oil may conquer cavities". Science News. http://www.highbeam.com/library/docfree.asp?DOCID=1G1:10597226&ctrlInfo=Round19%3AMode19a%3ADocG%3AResult&ao=. 
  17. ^ "Cook's encyclopedia: Hazelnut oil". http://allrecipes.com/advice/ref/ency/terms/6883.asp. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  18. ^ "Bulk Carrier and Vegetable Oils: Hazelnut oil". http://www.mountainroseherbs.com/bulkoil/d-l.php. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  19. ^ "Mac Nut Oil". http://www.macnutoil.com/. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
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  21. ^ J. Benton Storey. "Pecans as a health food". http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/extension/fruit/pecanhealth/pecanhealth.html. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  22. ^ "Virgin pistachio oil". 1,001 Huiles Web site. http://www.1001huiles.fr/en/catalog/pistachio_oil.php. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  23. ^ "What's cooking America? - Walnut oil". http://whatscookingamerica.net/Q-A/WalnutOil.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  24. ^ "About.com: Is Walnut Oil a Good, Non-Toxic Medium for Oils?". http://painting.about.com/od/oilpaintingfaq/f/FAQwalnutoil.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  25. ^ B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Cucurbitaceae". Minor oil crops. FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5043E/x5043E07.htm#Cucurbitaceae. Retrieved 2007-01-01. 
  26. ^ B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Bottle gourd". Minor oil crops. FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5043E/x5043E07.htm#Bottle%20gourd. Retrieved 2007-01-01. 
  27. ^ a b "Squashes, Gourds and Pumpkins". ECHO. http://www.echotech.org/mambo/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29&Itemid=59. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 
  28. ^ "Pumpkin seed oil - information". http://www.pumpkinseedoil.com/. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  29. ^ "Watermelon Seed Oil". From Nature With Love. http://www.fromnaturewithlove.com/soap/product.asp?product_id=oilwatermelon. Retrieved 2006-12-26. 
  30. ^ "Bulk oil: Acai oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=123. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  31. ^ "PDR Health: Blackcurrant Seed Oil". http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/bla_0036.shtml. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  32. ^ "Truestar Health: Borage Oil". http://www.truestarhealth.com/Notes/2811005.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  33. ^ "Truestar Health: Evening primrose oil". http://www.truestarhealth.com/Notes/2841007.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  34. ^ "Nu World: Amaranth oil". http://www.nuworldfoods.com/industrial/content/industrial_products/amaranth_oil.asp. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  35. ^ "Botanical.com: Apricit". http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/apric050.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  36. ^ "Mammy Apple Seed Oil". Cardamo Oil. http://www.cardamomoil.com/mammy.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-27. 
  37. ^ Yu Xiuzhu, Frederick R. van de Voort, Li Zhixi and Yue Tianli (October 25, 2007). "Proximate Composition of the Apple Seed and Characterization of Its Oil". International Journal of Food Engineering 3 (5). doi:10.2202/1556-3758.1283. http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol3/iss5/art12. Retrieved 2008-03-27. 
  38. ^ "Argan oil". http://www.dietobio.com/aliments/en/argan.html. Retrieved 2006-02-10. 
  39. ^ "Plant Oils Used for Bio-diesel". BDPedia.com, the Biodiesel WWW Encyclopedia. http://www.bdpedia.com/biodiesel/plant_oils/plant_oils.html. Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  40. ^ Hrayr Berberoglu. "Avocado". Food Reference. http://www.foodreference.com/html/artavocadooil.html. Retrieved 2009-09-18.  Hrayr Berberoglu is a Professor Emeritus of Hospitality and Tourism Management specializing in Food and Beverage.
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  42. ^ See chart in smoke point
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  44. ^ a b "Beauty Secrets of the Ancient Egyptians". Tour Egypt online magazine. http://touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/mag4.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  45. ^ B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Borneo tallow nut". Minor oil crops. FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5043E/x5043E05.htm#Borneo%20tallow%20nut. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  46. ^ "Carob@Everything2.com". http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=202621. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  47. ^ N. Maximov (1963). "Physico-Chemical Investigation of Cocklebur Oil". Comptes Rendus (Akademiia nauk SSSR): 381-. http://books.google.com/books?id=dSRPAAAAIAAJ. 
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  49. ^ "Attalea cohune". Floridata. http://www.floridata.com/ref/A/atta_coh.cfm. Retrieved 2007-01-01. 
  50. ^ "Coriander Seed Oil". http://www.silvestris.hu/site/Coriander%20Seed%20Oil.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  51. ^ National Research Council (2006). "Dika". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume II: Vegetables. National Academic Press. ISBN 0-309-10333-9. http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11763. 
  52. ^ Udeala OK, Onyechi JO, Agu SI (January 1980). "Preliminary evaluation of dika fat, a new tablet lubricant". J Pharm Pharmacol 32 (1): 6–9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=6102130&dopt=AbstractPlus. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  53. ^ a b "False Flax Oil". Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie. http://www.ademe.fr/partenaires/agrice/Fiches_GB/card.asp?nc=9701C0057. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  54. ^ "Flaxseed oil". University of Maryland Medical Center. April 1, 2002. http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ConsSupplements/FlaxseedOilcs.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  55. ^ "All Spirit Fitness: Grape Seed Oil". http://www.allspiritfitness.com/library/gs/gs_grapeseedoil.shtml. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  56. ^ "Hemp oil: A true superfood?". http://observer.guardian.co.uk/foodmonthly/story/0,,1342293,00.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  57. ^ "Kapok seed oil". German Transport Information Service. http://www.tis-gdv.de/tis_e/ware/oele/kapok/kapok.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  58. ^ Glynis Jones, Soultana M. Valamoti (2005). "Lallemantia, an imported or introduced oil plant in Bronze Age northern Greece". Vegetation history and archaeobotany 14 (4): 571–577. doi:10.1007/s00334-005-0004-z. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=17349956. Retrieved 2006-11-08. 
  59. ^ "Marula Oil". PhytoTrade Africa. http://phytotradeafrica.com/products/marulaoil.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-12.  PhytoTrade Africa is a vendor of marula oil and other natural products from Africa.
  60. ^ Dan Burden. "Meadowfoam". AgMRC Web site. http://www.agmrc.org/agmrc/commodity/grainsoilseeds/meadowfoam/. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  61. ^ "German Transport Information System: Mustard oil". http://www.tis-gdv.de/tis_e/ware/oele/senf/senf.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  62. ^ "Nutmeg butter". Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/422824/nutmeg-butter. Retrieved 2008-04-24. 
  63. ^ R. Holser, G. Bost (May , 2004). "Hibiscus seed oil compositions". AOCS 95. http://www.aocs.org/archives/am2004/session.asp?session=PRO+4%2FSOA+4%3A+Processing+of+Specialty+Oils. 
  64. ^ Franklin W. Martin (1982). "Okra, Potential Multiple-Purpose Crop for the Temperate Zones and Tropics". Economic Botany 36: 340–345. 
  65. ^ David M. Brenner (1993). "Perilla: Botany, Uses and Genetic Resources". http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1993/V2-322.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  66. ^ B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Caryocar spp.". Minor oil crops. FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5043E/x5043E05.htm#Caryocar%20spp. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  67. ^ "Recipe Tips: Pine Seed Oil - Glossary of Kitchen and Food Terms". http://www.recipetips.com/glossary-term/t--36309/pine-seed.asp. Retrieved 2006-07-21. 
  68. ^ "Raw oils: Poppy Seed oil". http://www.rawoils.com/poppyseed.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  69. ^ "Statfold oils: Poppyseed oil". http://www.statfold-oils.co.uk/poppy_seed_oil.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  70. ^ "About.com: Oil Painting: Drying Oils or Mediums". http://painting.about.com/cs/oils/a/dryingoils.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  71. ^ "Virgin prune kernel oil". Iterg, the French Institute for Fats and Oils. http://www.iterg.com/article.php3?id_article=370. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  72. ^ Michael J. Koziol (1993). "Quinoa: A Potential New Oil Crop". New crops 2. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1993/v2-328.html. 
  73. ^ "The Probert Encyclopedia: Ramtil Oil". http://www.fas.org/news/reference/probert/A9.HTM. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  74. ^ "California Rice Oil: Rice Bran Oil". http://www.californiariceoil.com/healthbenefits.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
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  81. ^ G.N. Liadakis, C. Tzia, V. Oreopoulou and C.D. Thomopoulos (1995). "Protein isolation from tomato seed meal, extraction optimisation". Journal of Food Science 60 (3): 477–482. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb09807.x. 
  82. ^ "Kitchen Dictionary: Wheat Germ". http://www.recipezaar.com/library/getentry.zsp?id=633. 
  83. ^ Ethanol and, to a lesser degree, methanol are the other major types of biofuel.
  84. ^ a b c "Castoroil.in: Bio fuels". http://www.castoroil.in/reference/plant_oils/uses/fuel/bio_fuels.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  85. ^ a b "Biodiesel America: Dr. Diesel's Invention". http://www.biodieselamerica.org/node/1054. Retrieved 2006-07-31. 
  86. ^ "CastorOil.in: Castor Oil as Biodiesel & Biofuel". http://www.castoroil.in/uses/fuel/castor_oil_fuel.html. Retrieved 2007-07-25. 
  87. ^ "Coconut Oil as a Biofuel in Pacific Islands - Challenges & Opportunities" (PDF). South Pacific Applied Geoscience Web site. http://www.sopac.org/tiki/tiki-download_file.php?fileId=145. 
  88. ^ Ronald C. Griffin and Madhu Jamallamudi. "The Economic Circumstances of Cottonseed Oil as Biodiesel" (PDF). http://www.cox-internet.com/madhu/DownloadableDocs/Madhu_Writing_Sample_1.pdf. 
  89. ^ "Hemp car: Pollution: Petrol vs Hemp". http://www.hempcar.org/petvshemp.shtml. Retrieved 2006-07-26. 
  90. ^ Office of University Research and Education (November 2001). "Biodiesel from Yellow Mustard Oil". U.S. Department of Transportation. http://www.webs1.uidaho.edu/niatt/publications/Reports/KLK310_files/KLK310.htm. 
  91. ^ Wes Jackson (Fall 1999). "Clearcutting the Last Wilderness". The Land Report (The Land Institute) (65). http://www.biotech-info.net/clearcut.html. 
  92. ^ "Australian Agronomy Society: Bio-diesel, farming for the future". http://www.regional.org.au/au/asa/2003/i/4/hobbs.htm. Retrieved 2006-02-26. 
  93. ^ B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Noog abyssinia". Minor oil crops. FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5043E/x5043E0a.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  94. ^ Orchidea Rachmaniah, Yi-Hsu Ju, Shaik Ramjan Vali, Ismojowati Tjondronegoro, and Musfil A.S. (2004). "A Study on Acid-Catalyzed Transesterification of Crude Rice Bran Oil for Biodiesel Production" (PDF). World Energy Congress (19). http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/congress/papers/rachmaniah0904ys.pdf. 
  95. ^ Jesus Fernandez. "Safflower oil in your tank". Queen City News. http://www.queencitynews.com/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=4780. 
  96. ^ Marty Dickenson (July 10, 2008). "The old man who farms with the sea". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/science/environment/la-fi-seafarm10-2008jul10,0,1092501,full.story. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  97. ^ "European Energy Crops InterNetwork: Sunflower crop feasibility for biodiesel production in Spain". http://www.eeci.net/archive/biobase/B10244.html. Retrieved 2006-07-26. 
  98. ^ "Journey to Forever: Bio-diesel Yield". http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_yield.html. Retrieved 2006-07-26. 
  99. ^ "The Chemistry of Biodiesel". http://www.me.iastate.edu/biodiesel/Pages/biodiesel2.html. Retrieved 2006-07-26. 
  100. ^ There are some plants that yield a commercial vegetable oil, that are also used to make other sorts of biofuel. Eucalyptus, for example, has been explored as a means of biomass for producing ethanol. These plants are not listed here.
  101. ^ "Greenfuel Technologies". http://www.greenfuelonline.com/validated_performance.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-31.  Company developing Algae oil.
  102. ^ "USA Today: Algae—like a breath mint for smokestacks". http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/2006-01-10-algae-powerplants_x.htm. 
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  105. ^ "The Jatropha System". http://www.jatropha.org/. Retrieved 2006-07-31. 
  106. ^ "Properties and use of jatropha curcas oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engine" (PDF). https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/bogle/shared/EWB/RE%20jatropha%20diesel%20blends%20compression%20engine%202003.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  107. ^ James A. Duke, (1982). Handbook of Energy Crops: Simmondsia chinensis. From the Purdue Center for New Crops Web site.
  108. ^ James A. Duke, (1982). Handbook of Energy Crops: Euphorbia tirucalli. From the Purdue Center for New Crops Web site.
  109. ^ James A. Duke, (1982). Handbook of Energy Crops: Pittosporum resiniferum. From the Purdue Center for New Crops Web site.
  110. ^ a b "The Encyclopedia of Painting Materials: Drying oils". http://www.cad-red.com/mt2/oil.html. Retrieved 2006-08-02. 
  111. ^ "Mast & Sail in Europe". http://www.friend.ly.net/~dadadata/smyth/mast_n_sail_11.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25.  (Mentions the use of dammar oil in marine paints)
  112. ^ "Database of Oil Yielding Plants" (PDF). http://mnes.nic.in/pdf%20files/FUEL_OIL_YIELDING_PLANTS_LIST3.pdf.  (Mentions uses of dammar oil)
  113. ^ "Flaxseed oil". http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ConsSupplements/FlaxseedOilcs.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  114. ^ "Vegetable and Animal Oils and Fats". Definition and Classification of Commodities. FAO. 1992. http://www.fao.org/es/faodef/fdef14e.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  115. ^ B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Chinese vegetable tallow". Minor oil crops. FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5043E/x5043E06.htm#Chinese%20vegetable%20tallow. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  116. ^ "Finishing Solid Pine". http://www.sankey.ws/pine.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  117. ^ T.M. Teynor et all (1992). "Vernonia". Alternative Field Crops Manual. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/afcm/vernonia.html. Retrieved 2006-09-06. 
  118. ^ K Ajewole, A Adeyeye (1993). "Characterisation of Nigerian citrus seed oils". Food Chemistry 47 (1): 77-78. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=4779387. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
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