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This is a list of victims of Nazism who were noted for their achievements.

This list includes people from public life who, owing to their origins, their political or religious convictions, or their sexual orientation, lost their lives as a result of Nazism. This list includes those whose deaths were part of the Holocaust as well as individuals who died in other ways at the hands of the Nazis during World War II. People who died in concentration camps are listed alongside those who were murdered by the National Socialists or those who chose suicide for political motives or to avoid being murdered.

This list is sorted by occupation and within by nationality.

Contents

Theatre and film

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of Death
Hana Brady 1931–1944, aged 13, Auschwitz Czech girl portrayed in Hana's Suitcase: A True Story gas chamber
René Blum 1878–1942, Auschwitz French founder of the Ballet de l'Opéra à Monte Carlo
Ernst Arndt 1861-1942/3, Treblinka German writer and poet
Maria Bard 1900–1944, Berlin German actress suicide
Lisl Frank 1911–1944, Christianstadt Czech performer, dancer, cabaret singer forced death march
Kurt Gerron 1897–1944, Auschwitz German performer, actor, film director gas chamber
Dora Gerson 1899–1943, Auschwitz German actress, cabaret singer
Joachim Gottschalk 1904–1941, Berlin German actor suicide
Leslie Howard (actor) 1893–1943, airplane shot down by Luftwaffe British actor plane crash
Joseph Schmidt 1904–1942, Gyrenbad Ukrainian singer, actor heart attack
Miklós Vig 1898–1944, shot into Danube River, Budapest Hungarian singer, actor, comedian, theater secretary gunshot wound

Literature and publishing

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of Death
Else Feldmann 1884–1942, Sobibór Austrian writer and journalist
Anne Frank 1929–1945,age 15 Bergen-Belsen German/Netherlands/Dutch diary keeper typhus
Egon Friedell 1878–1938, suicide to avoid deportation Austrian writer and philosopher
Peter Hammerschlag 1902–1942, Auschwitz Austrian writer and graphic artist
Lidia Zamenhof 1904–1942, Treblinka Polish work for Esperanto movement, as well as translations of Bahá'í writings
Jura Soyfer 1912–1939, Buchenwald Austrian journalist, writer typhus
Yitzhak Katzenelson 1886–1944, Auschwitz Belarusian teacher, writer
Petr Ginz 1928–1944, aged 16, Auschwitz Czech editor of Vedem gas chamber
Julius Fučík 1903–1943, Plötzensee Prison Czech resistance leader
Milena Jesenská 1896–1944, Ravensbrück Czech journalist kidney failure
Paul Kornfeld 1889–1942 Czech writer
Karel Poláček 1892–1944, Auschwitz Czech writer gas chamber
Vladislav Vančura 1891–1942, Prague Czech writer, doctor execution
Etty Hillesum 1914–1943, Auschwitz Dutch writer, diary author
Helga Deen 1925–1943, Sobibór Dutch author of a published diary
Benjamin Fondane 1898–1944, Auschwitz French poet, literary critic gas chamber
Walter Benjamin 1892–1940, suicide to avoid deportation German literary critic and philosopher
Felix Fechenbach 1894–1933, executed during the deportation to Dachau German journalist and activist
Walter Hasenclever 1890–1940, suicide to avoid deportation German expressionist writer
Jakob van Hoddis 1887–1942, Sobibór German writer
Jochen Klepper 1903–1942, suicide in Berlin German writer
Erich Knauf 1895–1944, in Brandenburg German journalist, poet
Adam Kuckhoff 1887–1943, in Berlin-Plötzensee German writer, dramatist, resistance fighter
Erich Mühsam 1878–1934, Oranienburg German writer, anarchist
Willi Münzenberg 1889–1940, suicide/murder in France German publisher, politician
Friedrich Münzer 1868–1942, Theresienstadt German philologist
Carl von Ossietzky 1889–1938, Berlin German publicist
Erich Salomon 1886–1944, Auschwitz German photojournalist
Libertas Schulze-Boysen 1913–1942, Berlin-Plötzensee German film critic, resistance fighter
Miklós Radnóti 1909–1944, shot into a mass grave near the village of Abda in Northwestern Hungary Hungarian poet
Antal Szerb 1901–1945, in a concentration camp in Balf Hungarian writer, literary scholar
Mordechai Gebirtig 1877–1942, Krakau Ghetto Polish Yiddish poet, musician and composer
Bruno Schulz 1892–1942, Drohobycz Ghetto Polish writer
Wilhelm Eduard Schmid d. 1934, accidental victim of the Night of the Long Knives in a case of mistaken identity German music critic
Selma Meerbaum-Eisinger 1924–1942, aged 18, Mikhailovska labor camp in rural Ukraine Romanian writer typhus
David Vogel 1891–1944, Auschwitz Russian Hebrew writer
Anton de Kom 1898–1945, Neuengamme Surinamese author, human rights activist
Irène Némirovsky 1903–1942, Auschwitz Ukrainian writer gas chamber

Visual arts and design

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of Death
Friedl Dicker-Brandeis 1896–1944, Birkenau close to Auschwitz Austrian artist
Josef Čapek 1887–1945, Bergen-Belsen Czech painter, draughtsman, illustrator, writer
Samuel J. de Mesquita 1868–1944, Auschwitz Dutch painter and designer gas chamber
Abraham Icek Tuschinski 1886–1942, Auschwitz Dutch designer of the Tuschinski Theater
Max Jacob 1876–1944, Drancy deportation camp French artist pneumonia
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1880–1938, suicide, Davos German painter
Julius Klinger 1876–1942, deported, Minsk Austrian artist/designer
Elfriede Lohse-Wächtler 1899–1940, Aktion T4 victim, Pirna German painter
Felix Nussbaum 1859–1944, Auschwitz Austrian painter
Charlotte Salomon 1917–1943, Auschwitz German painter gas chamber
Jan Rubczak 1884–1942, Auschwitz Polish painter, graphic artist
Nicolaus Rossini 1898-1943 Kraków-Płaszów Polish artist, wartime hero

Music

See also: List of composers influenced by the Holocaust

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of Death
Pavel Haas 1899–1944, Auschwitz Czech composer gas chamber
Gideon Klein 1919–1945, Auschwitz Czech composer
Hans Krása 1899–1944, Auschwitz Czech (Bohemian) composer
Leon Jessel 1871–1942, Berlin German composer torture by Gestapo
Erwin Schulhoff 1894–1942, Wülzburg concentration camp Czech composer, jazz pianist tuberculosis
Viktor Ullmann 1898–1944, Auschwitz Czech composer, pianist gas chamber
Karlrobert Kreiten 1916–1943, Berlin-Plötzensee German pianist
Alma Rosé 1906–1944, Auschwitz Austrian violinist, conductor
Józef Koffler 1896–1944, Krosno Polish composer, teacher, columnist
Leo Smit 1900–1943, Sobibór Dutch composer
Marcel Tyberg 1893–1944, Auschwitz Austrian composer, pianist, conductor

Humanities

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of Death
Mildred Harnack 1902–1943, Berlin-Plötzensee American literary historian, translator, resistance fighter
Elise Richter 1865–1943, Theresienstadt Austrian Romance philology professor
Simon Dubnow 1860–1941, at Riga ghetto during the Rumbula massacre Belarusian historian, writer, activist
Norbert Jokl 1877–1942, Rossau Czech albanologist
Marc Bloch 1886–1944 Saint-Didier-de-Formans French historian, resistance leader
Maurice Halbwachs 1877–1945, Buchenwald French philosopher
Georges Politzer 1902–1942, executed French philosopher
Walter Benjamin 1892–1940, suicide to avoid extradition, Portbou German philosopher
Friedrich Münzer 1868–1942, Theresienstadt German classical scholar

Mathematics

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Georg Alexander Pick 1859–1943, Theresienstadt Austrian Pick's theorem
Felix Hausdorff 1868–1942, suicide, Bonn German one of the founders of modern topology
Friedrich Hartogs 1874–1943, suicide, Großhesselohe German foundational work in set theory
Robert Remak d.1942, Auschwitz German
Adolf Lindenbaum 1904–1941, Ghetto Vilnius Polish work in set theory
Antoni Łomnicki 1881–1941, Massacre of Lwów Polish Polish mathematician
Stanisław Ruziewicz 1889–1941, Massacre of Lwów Polish Ruziewicz problem
Stanisław Saks 1897–1942, murdered in prison by the Gestapo, Warsaw Polish work in measure theory
Włodzimierz Stożek 1883–1941, Massacre of Lwów Polish Polish mathematician
Alfred Tauber 1866–1942, Theresienstadt Slovak Tauberian theorems

Natural sciences

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of Death
Ernst Cohen 1869–1944, Auschwitz Dutch chemist, work on the allotropy of metals gas chamber
Walter Arndt 1891–1944, executed, Brandenburg German zoologist

Medicine, psychology, pedagogy

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of Death
Adolf Reichwein 1898–1944, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German doctor, educator, politician
Elisabeth von Thadden 1890–1944, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German educator
Karl Rosenmayer d. 1942 German physician, surgeon
Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński 1874–1941, Massacre of Lwów Polish paediatrician, poet, translator
Antoni Cieszyński 1882–1941, Massacre of Lwów Polish physician, dentist, surgeon
Władysław Dobrzaniecki 1897–1941, Massacre of Lwów Polish physician, surgeon
Amy Yael Schiowitz 1921–1941, Massacre of Lwów Polish psychologist, psychiatry
Janusz Korczak 1878–1942, Treblinka Polish doctor, child physician, wartime hero

Law, business

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of Death
Maurice Halbwachs 1877–1945, Buchenwald French sociologist, economist, philosopher, developer of collective memory
Elisabeth de Rothschild 1902–1945, Ravensbrück French wife of Baron Philippe de Rothschild
Klaus Bonhoeffer 1901–1945, executed, Berlin German jurist, resistance fighter
Hans von Dohnányi 1902–1945, executed, Sachsenhausen German jurist, resistance fighter
Reinhold Frank 1896–1945, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German lawyer, member of July 20 Plot
Martin Gauger 1905–1941, NS-Tötungsanstalt Sonnenstein German jurist, pacifist, member of the Kreisau Circle
Franz Kaufmann 1886–1944, Sachsenhausen German jurist
Helmuth James Graf von Moltke 1907–1945, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German jurist, founder of the Kreisau Circle
Karl Sack 1896–1945, executed, Flossenbürg German jurist, member of the July 20 plot
Rüdiger Schleicher 1895–1945, executed, Berlin German resistance fighter
Kazimierz Proszyński 1875–1945, Mauthausen Polish inventor
Betsie ten Boom 1885–1944 Dutch book keeper Pernicious anemia
Casper ten Boom 1859–1944 Dutch watchmaker tuburculosis, mistreatment

Theology, spirituality, religion

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of Death
Kai Munk 1898–1944, murdered by an SS-Sonderkommando, Hørbylunde/Denmark Danish theologian, playwright
Dietrich Bonhoeffer 1906–1945, Flossenbürg German Lutheran pastor, theologian,
Regina Jonas 1902–1944, Auschwitz German woman Rabbi
Jochen Klepper 1903–1942, suicide shortly before deportation, Berlin German theologian, journalist
Friedrich Lorenz 1897–1944, executed, Halle an der Saale German priest, member of Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate
Paul Schneider 1897–1939, Buchenwald German clergyman
Edith Stein 1891–1942, Auschwitz German nun, Catholic saint (born Jewish) gas chamber
Sándor Büchler 1869–1944, Auschwitz Hungarian rabbi, historian
Avraham Yitzchak Bloch 1891–1941, murdered in a massacre of the male population of Telz Lithuanian Chief Rabbi, rosh yeshiva of the Telz Yeshiva
Elchonon Wasserman 1875–1941, Kovno Lithuanian rabbi, rosh yeshiva
Azriel Rabinowitz 1905–1941, murdered in a massacre of the male population of Telz Lithuanian rabbi, rosh yeshiva at the Telz Yeshiva
Shimon Shkop 1860–1940, Grodno Lithuanian rosh yeshiva, Talmudic scholar
Maximilian Kolbe 1894–1941, Auschwitz Polish friar, Catholic saint
Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski 1913–1945, Dachau Polish priest
Karl Ernst Krafft 1900–1945, during transport to Buchenwald Swiss astrologer, occultist
Kalonymus Kalman Shapira 1889–1943, Aktion Erntefest Polish Rabbi
Menachem Ziemba 1883–1943, The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Polish Rabbi

Sport

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of Death
Estella Agsteribbe 1909–1943, Auschwitz Dutch gymnast (team); Olympic gold medalist
Alfred Flatow 1869–1942, Theresienstadt German gymnast; 3-time Olympic gold medalist & 1-time silver medalist
Gustav Flatow 1875–1945, Theresienstadt German gymnast; 2-time Olympic gold medalist
Bronisław Czech 1908–1944, Auschwitz Polish skier: Olympian
János Garay (fencer) 1889–1945, Mauthausen Hungarian fencer; Olympic gold, silver, and bronze medalist
Oszkár Gerde 1883–1944, Mauthausen Hungarian fencer; 2-time Olympic gold medalist
Eddy Hamel 1902–1943, Auschwitz American football player, AFC Ajax
Otto Herschmann 1877–1942, Izbica transit camp Austrian fencer & swimmer; 2-time Olympic silver medalist
Roman Kantor 1912–1943, Majdanek concentration camp Polish fencer; Olympian
Gerrit Kleerekoper 1897–1943, Sobibór Dutch coach Dutch gymnastics team 1928 Amsterdam Olympic Games
Janusz Kusociński 1907–1940, executed in Palmiry Polish athlete;1932 Los Angeles men's athletics gold medalist
Salo Landau 1903–1944, Gräditz concentration camp Dutch chess player
Vera Menchik 1906–1944, killed in a V-1 rocket bombing raid in South London British-Czech chess player; world champion
Helena Nordheim 1903–1943, Sobibór Dutch gymnast (team); Olympic gold medalist
Victor Perez 1911–1945, Auschwitz Tunisian boxer; world flyweight champion
Attila Petschauer 1904–1943, Davidovka concentration camp Hungarian fencer; 2-time Olympic gold medalist & 1-time silver medalist
Ans Polak 1906–1943, Sobibór Dutch gymnast (team); Olympic gold medalist
Dawid Przepiórka 1880–1940, executed, Warsaw Polish chess player; chess Olympian
Werner Seelenbinder 1904–1944, executed, Brandenburg an der Havel German wrestler; Olympian
Jud Simons 1904–1943, Sobibór Dutch gymnast (team); Olympic gold medalist
Karel Treybal 1885–1941, executed, Prague Czech chess player; chess Olympian
Johann Trollmann 1907–1943, Neuengamme German boxer; German national champion
Heinrich Wolf 1875–1943, Vienna Austrian chess player

Politics, resistance

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of Death
Edgar André 1894–1936, executed, Hamburg German Communist
Friedrich Aue 1896–1944, executed, Brandenburg German Communist
Olga Benário Prestes 1908–1942, Ravensbrück German-Brazilian Communist
Judith Auer 1905–1944, executed, Berlin German resistance fighter
Bernhard Bästlein 1894–1944, executed, Brandenburg German Communist
Albrecht Graf von Bernstorff d. 1945, murdered in custody, Berlin German diplomat
Cato Bontjes van Beek 1920–1944, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German resistance fighter
Rudolf Breitscheid 1874–1944, Buchenwald German Social democrat
Hans Coppi 1916–1942, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German resistance fighter
Hilde Coppi 1909–1943, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German resistance fighter
Otto Eggerstedt d. 1933, Esterwegen German Social democrat
Fritz Elsas d. 1945, Sachsenhausen German politician
Georg Elser 1903–1945, executed, Dachau German manual labourer, Rotfront-Kämpfer
Yitzhak Gitterman 1889–1943, fighting in Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Polish Politician, Director of American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee
Carl Friedrich Goerdeler 1884–1945, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German Mayor of Leipzig, Putschist
Herschel Grynszpan 1921–1943/1945, location and date of death not known, possibly Gestapo-Prison Berlin-Moabit German assassin
Max Habermann d. 1944, prison in Gifhorn German trade unionist
Albrecht Haushofer 1903–1945, executed, Berlin-Moabit German diplomat, writer
Rudolf Henning d. 1944, executed, Sachsenhausen German
Rudolf Hilferding 1877–1941, in Gestapo custody, Paris German Social democrat
Otto Hirsch d. 1941, Mauthausen concentration camp German Representation of German Jews
Camill Hoffmann d. 1944, Auschwitz German diplomat, writer
Martin Hoop 1892–1933, Zwickau German Communist, District Leader KPD, Saxony
Franz Jacob d. 1944, executed, Brandenburg German Communist
Walter Krämer d. 1941, "shot while trying to escape", KZ Goslar German Communist
Marian Kudera d. 1944, executed, Dachau German resistance fighter
Albert Kuntz d. 1945, posterior to torture Nordhausen German Communist
Ludwig Landmann 1868-5 March 1945, starved to death in hiding place German DDP Politician, Mayor of Frankfurt am Main
Julius Leber 1891–1944, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German Socialist
Wilhelm Leuschner 1890–1944, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German Politician
Marinus van der Lubbe 1909–1934, Leipzig Dutch arsonist
August Lütgens d. 1933, executed, Amtsgericht Altona German Communist
Rosa Manus d. 1943, Ravensbrück German Women's rights advocate
Walter Möller d. 1933, executed, Amtsgericht Altona German Communist
Ottilie Pohl d. 1942, Theresienstadt German resistance fighter
Fritz Pröll 1915–1944, suicide due to threatened torture, Nordhausen German resistance fighter
Anton Saefkow 1903–1944, executed, Zuchthaus Brandenburg German Communist, resistance fighter
Ernst Schneller d. 1944, executed, Sachsenhausen German KPD Politician
Werner Scholem d. 1940, Buchenwald German Communist
Hans Scholl 1918–1943, executed, MunichStadelheim Prison German resistance fighter, medical student
Sophie Scholl 1921–1943, executed, MunichStadelheim Prison German resistance fighter, student
Bruno Tesch 1913–1933, executed, Amtsgericht Altona German Communist
Ernst Thälmann 1886–1944, executed, Buchenwald German KPD Politician
Mathias Thesen d. 1944, executed, Sachsenhausen German
Adam von Trott zu Solz d. 1944, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German diplomat
Karl Wolff died 1933 executed, Amtsgericht Altona German Communist
Richard Schmitz 1885-1938 survived Dachau Austrian mayor of Vienna
Georges Mandel 1885–1944, murdered in the Forest of Fontainebleau French politician, resistance leader
Victor Basch 1877–1945, assassinated by the Vichy French Milice French esthetician, politician
Jenő Deutsch  (Eugen Deutsch) 1879–1944 Hungarian social democratic politician [1]
Kazimierz Bartel 1882–1941, executed Polish Prime Minister of Poland 1926-1930
Stefan Rowecki 1895–1944, executed in Warsaw Polish general, journalist, leader of the Armia Krajowa
Stefan Starzyński 1893–1943, fate unknown, possibly died in Dachau Polish politician, economist, writer, statesman

Military

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements Cause of Death
Erich Fellgiebel 1886–1944, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German officer and resistance fighter in the Third Reich
Ludwig Beck 1880–1944, executed, Berlin German General, Putschist
Werner von Haeften 1908–1944, executed, Berlin German jurist, adjutant of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
Erich Hoepner 1886–1944, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German demoted Colonel General, member of Military opposition about Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg
Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim 1905–1944, executed, Berlin German General, Putschist
Friedrich Olbricht 1888–1944, executed, Berlin German General, Putschist
Hans Oster 1887–1945, executed, Flossenbürg German Chief of staff
Maurice Rose 1899–1945, killed after being taken POW American Commander US 3rd Armored Division
Harro Schulze-Boysen 1909–1942, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German officer, publicist
Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg 1907–1944, executed, Berlin German Chief of staff of General Army Office, Putschist
Carl Heinrich von Stülpnagel 1886–1944, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German military commander in occupied France
Henning von Tresckow 1901–1944, suicide, near Ostrov, Russia German Major General, Putschist
Erwin von Witzleben 1881–1944, executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German retired Field Marshal
Wilhelm Canaris 1887–1945, executed, Flossenbürg German military information service
Erwin Rommel 1891–1944, forced suicide German Army(Wehrmacht), Feld Marchall
Dmitry Karbyshev 1880–1945, executed, Mauthausen Russian Army(RKKA), engineer commander
Dimitri Zouralis d. 1941, executed Greek Army(Greek), Commander

See also

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Simple English


Millions of people were arrested, tortured or murdered by the Nazis. This is a list of victims of Nazism who were famous for some reason.

This list includes people from public life who, owing to their origins, their political or religious convictions, or their sexual orientation, lost their lives as a result of Nazism. This list includes those whose deaths were part of The Holocaust as well as people who died in other ways at the hands of the Nazis during World War II. People who died in concentration camps are listed alongside those who were murdered by the National Socialists or those who chose suicide for political motives or to avoid being murdered.

This list is sorted by occupation and within by nationality.


Contents

Literature and publishing

Name BornDiedHow they diedWhere they diedNationality Achievements
Else Feldmann 18841942 Austrian writer and journalist
Egon Friedell 18781938 Austrian writer and philosopher
Peter Hammerschlag 19021942 Austrian writer and graphic artist
Stefan Zweig 1942suicideBrazil Austrian writer
Jura Soyfer 19121939Buchenwald Austrian journalist, writer
Yitzhak Katzenelson 18861944 Belarusian teacher, writer
Petr Ginz 19281944 Czech editor of Vedem
Julius Fučík 19031943 Czech resistance leader
Milena Jesenská 1944 Ravensbrück Czech journalist
Paul Kornfeld 18891942 Czech writer
Karel Poláček 18921944 Czech writer
Vladislav Vančura 18911942 Prague Czech writer, doctor
Etty Hillesum 19141943 Auschwitz Dutch writer, diary author
Helga Deen 19251943 Dutch author of a published diary
Benjamin Fondane 18981944 French poet, literary critic
Walter Benjamin 18921940 German literary critic and philosopher
Felix Fechenbach 18941933 German journalist and activist
Walter Hasenclever 18901940 German expressionist writer
Jakob van Hoddis 1942 Sobibór German Jew writer
Jochen Klepper 1942 suicide Berlin German writer
Erich Knauf 1944 Brandenburg German journalist, poet
Adam Kuckhoff 1943 Berlin-Plötzensee German writer, dramatist, resistance fighter
Erich Mühsam 1934 Oranienburg German Jew writer, anarchist
Willi Münzenberg 1940 suicide/murder France German publisher, politician
Friedrich Münzer 18681942 German philologist
Carl von Ossietzky 1938 Berlin German publicist
Erich Salomon 1944 Auschwitz German photojournalist
Libertas Schulze-Boysen 1942 Berlin-Plötzensee German film critic, resistance fighter
Miklós Radnóti 19091944 Hungarian poet
Antal Szerb 19011945 Hungarian writer, literary scholar
Mordechai Gebirtig 18771942 Polish Jew Yiddish poet, musician and composer
Bruno Schulz 18921942 Polish writer
Wilhelm Eduard Schmid 1934 German music critic
Selma Meerbaum-Eisinger 1942 Romanian Jew writer
David Vogel 1944/5Auschwitz Russian Jew Hebrew writer
Anton de Kom 1945 Neuengamme Surinamese author, human rights activist
Irène Némirovsky 1942 Auschwitz Ukrainian Jew writer
Anne Frank 12 June 1929 1945 BelsenGerman Jew Writer

Theatre and film

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Hana Brady 1931-1944 Czech girl portrayed in Hana's Suitcase: A True Story
René Blum 1878-1942 French founder of the Ballet de l'Opéra à Monte Carlo
Ernst Arndt died 1942/3 Treblinka German writer and poet
Maria Bard died 1944 suicide, Berlin? German actress (suicide)
Kurt Gerron died 1944 Auschwitz German Jew performer, actor, film director
Dora Gerson died 1943 Auschwitz German Jew actress, cabaret singer
Joachim Gottschalk died 1941 suicide, Berlin German actor
Joseph Schmidt died 1942 Gyrenbad Ukrainian Jew singer, actor

Visual arts and design

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Friedl Dicker-Brandeis 1896-1944 Austrian artist
Felix Nussbaum 1904-1944 Austrian painter
Josef Čapek died 1945 Bergen-Belsen Czech painter, draughtsman, illustrator, writer
Samuel J. de Mesquita 1868-1944 Dutch painter and designer
Abraham Icek Tuschinski 1886-1942 Dutch designer of the Tuschinski Theater
Max Jacob 1876-1944 French artist
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner died 1938 suicide, Davos German painter
Elfriede Lohse-Wächtler died 1940 Aktion T4 victim, Pirna German painter
Charlotte Salomon 1917-1943 Auschwitz German painter
Jan Rubczak 1884-1942 Polish painter, graphic artist
Nicolaus Rossini 1898-1943 Kraków-Płaszów Polish artist, wartime hero

Music

See also: List of composers influenced by the Holocaust

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Pavel Haas 1899- 1944 Auschwitz Czech composer
Gideon Klein 1919-1945 Auschwitz Czech composer
Hans Krása 1899-1944 Auschwitz Czech (Bohemian) composer
Erwin Schulhoff 1894-1942 Czech composer, jazz pianist
Viktor Ullmann 1898-1944 Czech composer, pianist
Karlrobert Kreiten died 1943 Berlin-Plötzensee German pianist
Alma Rosé died 1944 Auschwitz Austrian violinist, conductor
Leo Smit 1900-1943 Dutch composer
Marcel Tyberg 1893-1944 Auschwitz Austrian composer, pianist, conductor

Humanities

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Mildred Harnack died 1943 Berlin-Plötzensee American literary historian, translator, resistance fighter
Elise Richter died 1943 Theresienstadt Austrian Jew Romance philology professor
Simon Dubnow 1860-1941 Belarusian Jew historian, writer, activist
Norbert Jokl 1877-1942 Czech albanologist
Marc Bloch 1886-1944 Saint-Didier-de-Formans French historian, resistance leader
Maurice Halbwachs 1877-1945 French philosopher
Georges Politzer 1902-1942 French philosopher
Walter Benjamin died 1940 suicide to avoid extradition, Portbou German philosopher
Friedrich Münzer died 1942 Theresienstadt German Jew classical scholar

Mathematics

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Georg Alexander Pick 1859-1943 Austrian Pick's theorem
Felix Hausdorff died 1942 suicide, Bonn German one of the founders of modern topology
Friedrich Hartogs died 1943 suicide, Großhesselohe German Jew foundational work in set theory
Robert Remak died 1942 Auschwitz German
Adolf Lindenbaum died 1941 Ghetto Vilnius Polish work in set theory
Antoni Łomnicki 1881-1941 Polish
Stanisław Ruziewicz 1889-1941 Polish Ruziewicz problem
Stanisław Saks died 1942 murdered in prison by the Gestapo, Warsaw Polish work in measure theory
Włodzimierz Stożek 1883-1941 Polish
Alfred Tauber died 1942 Theresienstadt Slovakian Tauberian theorems

Natural sciences

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Ernst Cohen 1869-1944 Dutch chemist, work on the allotropy of metals
Walter Arndt died 1944 executed, Brandenburg German zoologist

Medicine, psychology, paedagogy

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Adolf Reichwein died 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German doctor, educator, politician
Elisabeth von Thadden died 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German educator
Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński 1874-1941 Polish paediatrician, poet, translator
Antoni Cieszyński 1882-1941 Polish physician, dentist, surgeon
Władysław Dobrzaniecki 1897-1941 Polish physician, surgeon
Janusz Korczak 1878-1942 Treblinka Polish Jew doctor, child physician, wartime hero

Law, business

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Maurice Halbwachs died 1945 Buchenwald French sociologist, economist, philosopher, developer of collective memory
Elisabeth de Rothschild 1902-1945 French wife of Baron Philippe de Rothschild
Klaus Bonhoeffer died 1945 executed, Berlin German jurist, resistance fighter
Hans von Dohnanyi died 1945 executed, Sachsenhausen German jurist, resistance fighter
Reinhold Frank died 1945 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German lawyer, member of July 20 Plot
Martin Gauger died 1941 NS-Tötungsanstalt Sonnenstein German jurist, pacifist, member of the Kreisau Circle
Franz Kaufmann 1886-1944 German jurist
Helmuth James Graf von Moltke d. 1945 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German jurist, founder of the Kreisau Circle
Karl Sack d. 1945 executed, Flossenbürg German jurist, member of the July 20 plot
Rüdiger Schleicher d. 1945 executed, Berlin German resistance fighter
Kazimierz Proszyński 1875-1945 Polish inventor

Theology, spirituality, religion

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Kai Munk d. 1944, murdered by an SS-Sonderkommando, Hørbylunde/Denmark Danish theologian, playwright
Dietrich Bonhoeffer 1906-1945 German Lutheran pastor, theologian
Regina Jonas d. 1944 Auschwitz German Jew woman Rabbi
Jochen Klepper d. 1942 suicide shortly before deportation, Berlin German theologian, journalist
Friedrich Lorenz d. 1944 executed, Halle an der Saale German priest, member of Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate
Rupert Mayer 1876-1945 German Jesuit priest
Paul Schneider d. 1939 Buchenwald German clergyman
Edith Stein 1891-1942 German nun, Catholic saint (born Jewish)
Sándor Büchler 1869-1944 Hungarian rabbi, historian
Avraham Yitzchak Bloch 1891-1941 Lithuanian Chief Rabbi, rosh yeshiva of the Telz Yeshiva
Elchonon Wasserman 1875-1941 Lithuanian rabbi, rosh yeshiva
Azriel Rabinowitz 1905-1941 Lithuanian rabbi, rosh yeshiva at the Telz Yeshiva
Shimon Shkop 1860-1940 Lithuanian rosh yeshiva, Talmudic scholar
Maximilian Kolbe 1894-1941 (Auschwitz) Polish friar, Catholic saint
Stefan Wincenty Frelichowski 1913-1945 (Dachau) Polish priest
Karl Ernst Krafft died 1945 during transport to Buchenwald Swiss astrologer, occultist

Sport

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Alfred Flatow 1869-1942 German gymnast; 3-time Olympic gold medalist & 1-time silver medalist
Gustav Flatow 1875-1945 German gymnast; 2-time Olympic gold medalist
Bronisław Czech 1908-1944 Polish skier: Olympian
János Garay (fencer) 1889-1945 Hungarian fencer; Olympic gold, silver, and bronze medalist
Oszkár Gerde 1883-1944 Hungarian fencer; 2-time Olympic gold medalist
Otto Herschmann 1877-1942 Austrian fencer & swimmer; 2-time Olympic silver medalist
Roman Kantor 1912-1943 Polish fencer; Olympian
Janusz Kusociński 1907-1940 executed in Palmiry Polish athlete;1932 Los Angeles men's athletics gold medalist
Salo Landau 1903-1944 Dutch chess player
Vera Menchik 1906-1944 British-Czech chess player; world champion
Victor Perez 1911-1945 Tunisian boxer; world flyweight champion
Attila Petschauer 1904-1943 Hungarian fencer; 2-time Olympic gold medalist & 1-time silver medalist
Werner Seelenbinder 1904-1944 executed, Brandenburg an der Havel German wrestler; Olympian
Johann Wilhelm Trollmann 1907-1943 Neuengamme German boxer; German national champion

Politics, resistance

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Edgar André died 1936 executed, Hamburg Communist
Friedrich Aue died 1944 executed, Brandenburg Communist
Judith Auer died 1944 executed, Berlin resistance fighter
Bernhard Bästlein died 1944 executed, Brandenburg Communist
Albrecht Graf von Bernstorff died 1945 murdered in custody, Berlin diplomat
Cato Bontjes van Beek died 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee resistance fighter
Rudolf Breitscheid died 1944 Buchenwald Social democrat
Hans Coppi died 1942 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee resistance fighter
Hilde Coppi died 1943 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee resistance fighter
Otto Eggerstedt died 1933 Esterwegen Social democrat
Fritz Elsas died 1945 Sachsenhausen politician
Georg Elser died 1945 executed, Dachau manual labourer, Rotfront-Kämpfer
Yitzhak Gitterman died 1943 fighting in Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Polish Politician, Director of American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee
Carl Friedrich Goerdeler died 1945 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee Mayor of Leipzig, Putschist
Herschel Grynszpan died Ort and Datum unbekannt, wahrscheinlich im Gestapo-Gefängnis Berlin-Moabit German Jew resistance fighter
Max Habermann died 1944 im Gefängnis von Gifhorn trade unionist
Albrecht Haushofer died 1945 executed, Berlin-Moabit German diplomat, writer
Rudolf Henning died 1944 executed, Sachsenhausen
Rudolf Hilferding died 1941 in Gestapo-Haft, Paris Social democrat
Otto Hirsch died 1941 Mauthausen concentration camp Representation of German Jews
Camill Hoffmann died 1944 Auschwitz diplomat, writer
Martin Hoop died 1933 Zwickau Communist, District Leader KPD, Saxony
Franz Jacob died 1944 executed, Brandenburg Communist
Walter Krämer died 1941 "shot while trying to escape", KZ Goslar Communist
Marian Kudera died 1944 executed, Dachau resistance fighter
Albert Kuntz died 1945 Nordhausen an den Folgen der Folter Communist
Ludwig Landmann died 5 March 1945, Versteck verhungert DDP Politician, Mayor of Frankfurt am Main
Julius Leber died 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee Socialist
Wilhelm Leuschner died 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee Politician
Marinus van der Lubbe died 1934, Leipzig Dutch Council Communist
August Lütgens died 1933 executed, Amtsgericht Altona Communist
Rosa Manus died 1943 Ravensbrück Women's rights advocate
Walter Möller died 1933 executed, Amtsgericht Altona Communist
Ottilie Pohl died 1942 Theresienstadt resistance fighter
Fritz Pröll died 1944 suicide due to threatened torture, Nordhausen resistance fighter
Anton Saefkow died 1944 executed, Zuchthaus Brandenburg Communist, resistance fighter
Ernst Schneller died 1944 executed, Sachsenhausen KPD Politician
Werner Scholem died 1940 Buchenwald Communist
Hans Scholl died 1943 executed, Munich-Stadelheim Prison German resistance fighter, medical student
Sophie Scholl died 1943 executed, München-Stadelheim German resistance fighter, student
Bruno Tesch died 1933 executed, Amtsgericht Altona Communist
Ernst Thälmann died 1944 executed, Buchenwald KPD Politician
Mathias Thesen died 1944 executed, Sachsenhausen
Adam von Trott zu Solz died 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee diplomat
Karl Wolff died 1933 executed, Amtsgericht Altona Communist
Richard Schmitz died 1938 Austrian mayor of Vienna
Georges Mandel 1885-1944 French politician, resistance leader
Victor Basch 1877-1945 French esthetician, politician
Jenő Deutsch  (Eugen Deutsch) 1879-1944 Hungarian social democratic politician [1]
Kazimierz Bartel 1882-1941 Polish Prime Minister of Poland 1926-1930
Stefan Rowecki 1895-1944 Polish general, journalist, leader of the Armia Krajowa
Stefan Starzyński 1893-1943 Polish politician, economist, writer, statesman

Military

Name Lifespan Nationality Achievements
Erich Fellgiebel d. 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee German officer and resistance fighter in the Third Reich
Ludwig Beck d. 1944 shot, Berlin German General, Putschist
Werner von Haeften d. 1944 shot, Berlin jurist, adjutant of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
Erich Hoepner d. executed, Berlin-Plötzensee demoted Colonel General, member of Military opposition about Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg
Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim d. 1944 shot, Berlin General, Putschist
Friedrich Olbricht d. 1944 shot, Berlin General, Putschist
Hans Oster d. 1945 executed, Flossenbürg Chief of staff
Harro Schulze-Boysen d. 1942 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee officer, publicist
Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg d. 1944 shot, Berlin Chief of staff of General Army Office, Putschist
Carl Heinrich von Stülpnagel d. 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee military commander in occupied France
Henning von Tresckow d. 1944 suicide, near Ostrov, Russia Major General, Putschist
Erwin von Witzleben d. 1944 executed, Berlin-Plötzensee retired Field Marshal
Wilhelm Canaris d. 1945 executed, Flossenbürg German military information service
Erwin Rommel d. 1944 executed German Army(Wehrmacht), Feld Marchall
Dimitri Zouralis d. 1941 executed Greek Army(Greek), Commander

Other pages

  • List of Holocaust survivors
  • List of banned authors during the Third Reich
  • List of German Jews
  • List of Hungarian Jews
  • List of North European Jews
  • List of French Jews
  • List of Czech Jews
  • List of Austrian Jews


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